Abstract

We report the first experimental observation of bright EPR beams produced by a type-II optical parametric oscillator operating above threshold at frequency degeneracy. The degenerate operation is obtained by introducing a birefringent plate inside the cavity resulting in phase locking. After filtering the pump noise, which plays a critical role, continuousvariable EPR correlations between the orthogonally polarized signal and idler beams are demonstrated.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Zoller et al., "Quantum information processing and communication, Strategic report on current status, visions and goals for research in Europe," Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203-228 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. J. Cerf, G. Leuchs, E. S. Polzik, eds, Quantum Information with Continuous Variables, (World Scientific Publishing, New Jersey, 2007).
  3. A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik,"Unconditional quantum teleportation," Science 282, 706-709 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and T. C. Ralph,"Experimental characterization of continuous-variable entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 69, 012304 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Takei, H. Yonezawa, T. Aoki, A. Furusawa,"High-fidelity releportation beyond the no-cloning limit and entanglement swapping for continuous variables," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 220502 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng,"Realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for continuous variables," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663-3666 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Jing, C. Xie, and K. Peng,"Experimental generation of bright two-mode quadrature squeezed light from a narrow-band nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier," Phys. Rev. A 62, 023813 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Schori, J. L. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzik,"Narrow-band frequency tunable light source of continuous quadrature entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033802 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, G. Keller, N. Treps, C. Fabre, "Compact source of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement and squeezing at very low noise frequencies," Phys. Rev. A 70, 042315 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, "Observation of Quantum Noise Reduction on Twin Laser Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555-2557 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. F. Gao, F. Cui, C. Xue, C. Xie, and K. Peng, "Generation and application of twin beams from an optical parametric oscillator including an ?-cut KTP crystal," Opt. Lett. 23, 870-872 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Laurat, L. Longchambon, C. Fabre, and T. Coudreau, "Experimental investigation of amplitude and phase quantum correlations in a type II optical parametric oscillator above threshold: from nondegenerate to degenerate operation," Opt. Lett. 30, 1177-1179 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. S. Villar, L. S. Cruz, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, "Generation of Bright Two-Color Continuous Variable Entanglement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243603 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. S. Villar, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, "Testing the entanglement of intense beams produced by a nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 242, 551-563 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Jing, S. Feng, R. Bloomer, and O. Pfister, "Experimental continuous-variable entanglement from a phasedifference-locked optical parametric oscillator," Phys. Rev. A,  74, 041804 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. X. Su, A. Tan, X. Jia, Q. Pan, C. Xie, K. Peng, "Experimental demonstration of quantum entanglement between frequency-nondegenerate optical twin beams," Opt. Lett.,  31, 1133-1135 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. J. Mason and N. C. Wong, "Observation of two distinct phase states in a self-phase-locked type II phase-matched optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 23, 1733-1735 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Longchambon, J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, and C. Fabre, "Non-linear and quantum optics of a type II OPO containing a birefringent element 1. Classical operation," Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 279-285 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Longchambon, J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, C. Fabre, "Non-linear and quantum optics of a type II OPO containing a birefringent element 2. Bright entangled beams generation," Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 287-293 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, G. Keller, N. Treps, and C. Fabre, "Effects of mode coupling on the generation of quadrature Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement in a type-II optical parametric oscillator below threshold," Phys. Rev. A 71, 022313 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Treps and C. Fabre, "Criteria of quantum correlation in the measurement of continuous variables in optics," Laser Physics 15, 187 (2005).
  23. S. Mancini, V. Giovannetti, D. Vitali, and P. Tombesi, "Entangling Macroscopic Oscillators Exploiting Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120401 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. L.-M. Duan, G. Giedke, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, "Inseparability Criterion for Continuous Variable Systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2722-2725 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. Simon, "Peres-Horodecki separability criterion for continuous variable systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2726-2729 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, N. Rosen, "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?," Phys. Rev. 47, 777-780 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Reid, "Demonstration of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox using nondegenerate parametric amplification," Phys. Rev. A 40, 913-923 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. Villar, K. Cassemiro, K. Dechoum, A. Khoury, M. Martinelli, P. Nussenzveig, "Entanglement in the abovethreshold optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 249-256 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

X. Su, A. Tan, X. Jia, Q. Pan, C. Xie, K. Peng, "Experimental demonstration of quantum entanglement between frequency-nondegenerate optical twin beams," Opt. Lett.,  31, 1133-1135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jing, S. Feng, R. Bloomer, and O. Pfister, "Experimental continuous-variable entanglement from a phasedifference-locked optical parametric oscillator," Phys. Rev. A,  74, 041804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

A. S. Villar, L. S. Cruz, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, "Generation of Bright Two-Color Continuous Variable Entanglement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Laurat, L. Longchambon, C. Fabre, and T. Coudreau, "Experimental investigation of amplitude and phase quantum correlations in a type II optical parametric oscillator above threshold: from nondegenerate to degenerate operation," Opt. Lett. 30, 1177-1179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zoller et al., "Quantum information processing and communication, Strategic report on current status, visions and goals for research in Europe," Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Takei, H. Yonezawa, T. Aoki, A. Furusawa,"High-fidelity releportation beyond the no-cloning limit and entanglement swapping for continuous variables," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 220502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, G. Keller, N. Treps, and C. Fabre, "Effects of mode coupling on the generation of quadrature Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement in a type-II optical parametric oscillator below threshold," Phys. Rev. A 71, 022313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Treps and C. Fabre, "Criteria of quantum correlation in the measurement of continuous variables in optics," Laser Physics 15, 187 (2005).

2004 (5)

L. Longchambon, J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, and C. Fabre, "Non-linear and quantum optics of a type II OPO containing a birefringent element 1. Classical operation," Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 279-285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Longchambon, J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, C. Fabre, "Non-linear and quantum optics of a type II OPO containing a birefringent element 2. Bright entangled beams generation," Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 287-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and T. C. Ralph,"Experimental characterization of continuous-variable entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 69, 012304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, G. Keller, N. Treps, C. Fabre, "Compact source of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement and squeezing at very low noise frequencies," Phys. Rev. A 70, 042315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Villar, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, "Testing the entanglement of intense beams produced by a nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 242, 551-563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

C. Schori, J. L. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzik,"Narrow-band frequency tunable light source of continuous quadrature entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Mancini, V. Giovannetti, D. Vitali, and P. Tombesi, "Entangling Macroscopic Oscillators Exploiting Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

L.-M. Duan, G. Giedke, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, "Inseparability Criterion for Continuous Variable Systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2722-2725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Simon, "Peres-Horodecki separability criterion for continuous variable systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2726-2729 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Jing, C. Xie, and K. Peng,"Experimental generation of bright two-mode quadrature squeezed light from a narrow-band nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier," Phys. Rev. A 62, 023813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. Fabre, E. J. Mason, and N. C. Wong, "Theoretical analysis of self-phase locking in a type II phase-matched optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 170, 299-307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

1992 (1)

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng,"Realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for continuous variables," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663-3666 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

M. Reid, "Demonstration of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox using nondegenerate parametric amplification," Phys. Rev. A 40, 913-923 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, "Observation of Quantum Noise Reduction on Twin Laser Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555-2557 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1935 (1)

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, N. Rosen, "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?," Phys. Rev. 47, 777-780 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

N. Takei, H. Yonezawa, T. Aoki, A. Furusawa,"High-fidelity releportation beyond the no-cloning limit and entanglement swapping for continuous variables," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 220502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloomer, R.

J. Jing, S. Feng, R. Bloomer, and O. Pfister, "Experimental continuous-variable entanglement from a phasedifference-locked optical parametric oscillator," Phys. Rev. A,  74, 041804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, W. P.

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and T. C. Ralph,"Experimental characterization of continuous-variable entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 69, 012304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Braunstein, S. L.

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik,"Unconditional quantum teleportation," Science 282, 706-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camy, G.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, "Observation of Quantum Noise Reduction on Twin Laser Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555-2557 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cassemiro, K.

Cassemiro, K. N.

A. S. Villar, L. S. Cruz, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, "Generation of Bright Two-Color Continuous Variable Entanglement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cirac, J. I.

L.-M. Duan, G. Giedke, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, "Inseparability Criterion for Continuous Variable Systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2722-2725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coudreau, T.

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, G. Keller, N. Treps, and C. Fabre, "Effects of mode coupling on the generation of quadrature Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement in a type-II optical parametric oscillator below threshold," Phys. Rev. A 71, 022313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Laurat, L. Longchambon, C. Fabre, and T. Coudreau, "Experimental investigation of amplitude and phase quantum correlations in a type II optical parametric oscillator above threshold: from nondegenerate to degenerate operation," Opt. Lett. 30, 1177-1179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Longchambon, J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, C. Fabre, "Non-linear and quantum optics of a type II OPO containing a birefringent element 2. Bright entangled beams generation," Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 287-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Longchambon, J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, and C. Fabre, "Non-linear and quantum optics of a type II OPO containing a birefringent element 1. Classical operation," Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 279-285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, G. Keller, N. Treps, C. Fabre, "Compact source of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement and squeezing at very low noise frequencies," Phys. Rev. A 70, 042315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, L. S.

A. S. Villar, L. S. Cruz, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, "Generation of Bright Two-Color Continuous Variable Entanglement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, F.

Dechoum, K.

Duan, L.-M.

L.-M. Duan, G. Giedke, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, "Inseparability Criterion for Continuous Variable Systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2722-2725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Einstein, A.

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, N. Rosen, "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?," Phys. Rev. 47, 777-780 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, C.

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, G. Keller, N. Treps, and C. Fabre, "Effects of mode coupling on the generation of quadrature Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement in a type-II optical parametric oscillator below threshold," Phys. Rev. A 71, 022313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Treps and C. Fabre, "Criteria of quantum correlation in the measurement of continuous variables in optics," Laser Physics 15, 187 (2005).

J. Laurat, L. Longchambon, C. Fabre, and T. Coudreau, "Experimental investigation of amplitude and phase quantum correlations in a type II optical parametric oscillator above threshold: from nondegenerate to degenerate operation," Opt. Lett. 30, 1177-1179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Longchambon, J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, and C. Fabre, "Non-linear and quantum optics of a type II OPO containing a birefringent element 1. Classical operation," Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 279-285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Longchambon, J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, C. Fabre, "Non-linear and quantum optics of a type II OPO containing a birefringent element 2. Bright entangled beams generation," Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 287-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, G. Keller, N. Treps, C. Fabre, "Compact source of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement and squeezing at very low noise frequencies," Phys. Rev. A 70, 042315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Fabre, E. J. Mason, and N. C. Wong, "Theoretical analysis of self-phase locking in a type II phase-matched optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 170, 299-307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, "Observation of Quantum Noise Reduction on Twin Laser Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555-2557 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

J. Jing, S. Feng, R. Bloomer, and O. Pfister, "Experimental continuous-variable entanglement from a phasedifference-locked optical parametric oscillator," Phys. Rev. A,  74, 041804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, C. A.

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik,"Unconditional quantum teleportation," Science 282, 706-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furusawa, A.

N. Takei, H. Yonezawa, T. Aoki, A. Furusawa,"High-fidelity releportation beyond the no-cloning limit and entanglement swapping for continuous variables," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 220502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik,"Unconditional quantum teleportation," Science 282, 706-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, J. F.

Giacobino, E.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, "Observation of Quantum Noise Reduction on Twin Laser Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555-2557 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giedke, G.

L.-M. Duan, G. Giedke, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, "Inseparability Criterion for Continuous Variable Systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2722-2725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giovannetti, V.

S. Mancini, V. Giovannetti, D. Vitali, and P. Tombesi, "Entangling Macroscopic Oscillators Exploiting Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heidmann, A.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, "Observation of Quantum Noise Reduction on Twin Laser Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555-2557 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horowicz, R. J.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, "Observation of Quantum Noise Reduction on Twin Laser Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555-2557 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jia, X.

Jing, J.

J. Jing, S. Feng, R. Bloomer, and O. Pfister, "Experimental continuous-variable entanglement from a phasedifference-locked optical parametric oscillator," Phys. Rev. A,  74, 041804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Jing, C. Xie, and K. Peng,"Experimental generation of bright two-mode quadrature squeezed light from a narrow-band nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier," Phys. Rev. A 62, 023813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keller, G.

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, G. Keller, N. Treps, and C. Fabre, "Effects of mode coupling on the generation of quadrature Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement in a type-II optical parametric oscillator below threshold," Phys. Rev. A 71, 022313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, G. Keller, N. Treps, C. Fabre, "Compact source of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement and squeezing at very low noise frequencies," Phys. Rev. A 70, 042315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khoury, A.

Kimble, H. J.

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik,"Unconditional quantum teleportation," Science 282, 706-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng,"Realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for continuous variables," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663-3666 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, P. K.

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and T. C. Ralph,"Experimental characterization of continuous-variable entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 69, 012304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laurat, J.

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, G. Keller, N. Treps, and C. Fabre, "Effects of mode coupling on the generation of quadrature Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement in a type-II optical parametric oscillator below threshold," Phys. Rev. A 71, 022313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Laurat, L. Longchambon, C. Fabre, and T. Coudreau, "Experimental investigation of amplitude and phase quantum correlations in a type II optical parametric oscillator above threshold: from nondegenerate to degenerate operation," Opt. Lett. 30, 1177-1179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Longchambon, J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, and C. Fabre, "Non-linear and quantum optics of a type II OPO containing a birefringent element 1. Classical operation," Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 279-285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Longchambon, J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, C. Fabre, "Non-linear and quantum optics of a type II OPO containing a birefringent element 2. Bright entangled beams generation," Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 287-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, G. Keller, N. Treps, C. Fabre, "Compact source of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement and squeezing at very low noise frequencies," Phys. Rev. A 70, 042315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Jing, C. Xie, and K. Peng,"Experimental generation of bright two-mode quadrature squeezed light from a narrow-band nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier," Phys. Rev. A 62, 023813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Longchambon, L.

J. Laurat, L. Longchambon, C. Fabre, and T. Coudreau, "Experimental investigation of amplitude and phase quantum correlations in a type II optical parametric oscillator above threshold: from nondegenerate to degenerate operation," Opt. Lett. 30, 1177-1179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Longchambon, J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, and C. Fabre, "Non-linear and quantum optics of a type II OPO containing a birefringent element 1. Classical operation," Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 279-285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Longchambon, J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, C. Fabre, "Non-linear and quantum optics of a type II OPO containing a birefringent element 2. Bright entangled beams generation," Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 287-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mancini, S.

S. Mancini, V. Giovannetti, D. Vitali, and P. Tombesi, "Entangling Macroscopic Oscillators Exploiting Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinelli, M.

A. Villar, K. Cassemiro, K. Dechoum, A. Khoury, M. Martinelli, P. Nussenzveig, "Entanglement in the abovethreshold optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 249-256 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Villar, L. S. Cruz, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, "Generation of Bright Two-Color Continuous Variable Entanglement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Villar, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, "Testing the entanglement of intense beams produced by a nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 242, 551-563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mason, E. J.

C. Fabre, E. J. Mason, and N. C. Wong, "Theoretical analysis of self-phase locking in a type II phase-matched optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 170, 299-307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Mason and N. C. Wong, "Observation of two distinct phase states in a self-phase-locked type II phase-matched optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 23, 1733-1735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nussenzveig, P.

A. Villar, K. Cassemiro, K. Dechoum, A. Khoury, M. Martinelli, P. Nussenzveig, "Entanglement in the abovethreshold optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 249-256 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Villar, L. S. Cruz, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, "Generation of Bright Two-Color Continuous Variable Entanglement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Villar, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, "Testing the entanglement of intense beams produced by a nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 242, 551-563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ou, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng,"Realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for continuous variables," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663-3666 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Q.

Peng, K.

Peng, K. C.

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng,"Realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for continuous variables," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663-3666 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pereira, S. F.

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng,"Realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for continuous variables," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663-3666 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfister, O.

J. Jing, S. Feng, R. Bloomer, and O. Pfister, "Experimental continuous-variable entanglement from a phasedifference-locked optical parametric oscillator," Phys. Rev. A,  74, 041804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Podolsky, B.

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, N. Rosen, "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?," Phys. Rev. 47, 777-780 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Polzik, E. S.

C. Schori, J. L. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzik,"Narrow-band frequency tunable light source of continuous quadrature entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik,"Unconditional quantum teleportation," Science 282, 706-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ralph, T. C.

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and T. C. Ralph,"Experimental characterization of continuous-variable entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 69, 012304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reid, M.

M. Reid, "Demonstration of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox using nondegenerate parametric amplification," Phys. Rev. A 40, 913-923 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynaud, S.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, "Observation of Quantum Noise Reduction on Twin Laser Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555-2557 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, N.

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, N. Rosen, "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?," Phys. Rev. 47, 777-780 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, R.

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and T. C. Ralph,"Experimental characterization of continuous-variable entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 69, 012304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schori, C.

C. Schori, J. L. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzik,"Narrow-band frequency tunable light source of continuous quadrature entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simon, R.

R. Simon, "Peres-Horodecki separability criterion for continuous variable systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2726-2729 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorensen, J. L.

C. Schori, J. L. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzik,"Narrow-band frequency tunable light source of continuous quadrature entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik,"Unconditional quantum teleportation," Science 282, 706-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, X.

Takei, N.

N. Takei, H. Yonezawa, T. Aoki, A. Furusawa,"High-fidelity releportation beyond the no-cloning limit and entanglement swapping for continuous variables," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 220502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, A.

Tombesi, P.

S. Mancini, V. Giovannetti, D. Vitali, and P. Tombesi, "Entangling Macroscopic Oscillators Exploiting Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treps, N.

N. Treps and C. Fabre, "Criteria of quantum correlation in the measurement of continuous variables in optics," Laser Physics 15, 187 (2005).

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, G. Keller, N. Treps, and C. Fabre, "Effects of mode coupling on the generation of quadrature Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement in a type-II optical parametric oscillator below threshold," Phys. Rev. A 71, 022313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, G. Keller, N. Treps, C. Fabre, "Compact source of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement and squeezing at very low noise frequencies," Phys. Rev. A 70, 042315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Villar, A.

Villar, A. S.

A. S. Villar, L. S. Cruz, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, "Generation of Bright Two-Color Continuous Variable Entanglement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Villar, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, "Testing the entanglement of intense beams produced by a nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 242, 551-563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vitali, D.

S. Mancini, V. Giovannetti, D. Vitali, and P. Tombesi, "Entangling Macroscopic Oscillators Exploiting Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Jing, C. Xie, and K. Peng,"Experimental generation of bright two-mode quadrature squeezed light from a narrow-band nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier," Phys. Rev. A 62, 023813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wong, N. C.

C. Fabre, E. J. Mason, and N. C. Wong, "Theoretical analysis of self-phase locking in a type II phase-matched optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 170, 299-307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Mason and N. C. Wong, "Observation of two distinct phase states in a self-phase-locked type II phase-matched optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 23, 1733-1735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

Xue, C.

Yonezawa, H.

N. Takei, H. Yonezawa, T. Aoki, A. Furusawa,"High-fidelity releportation beyond the no-cloning limit and entanglement swapping for continuous variables," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 220502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Jing, C. Xie, and K. Peng,"Experimental generation of bright two-mode quadrature squeezed light from a narrow-band nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier," Phys. Rev. A 62, 023813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zoller, P.

P. Zoller et al., "Quantum information processing and communication, Strategic report on current status, visions and goals for research in Europe," Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L.-M. Duan, G. Giedke, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, "Inseparability Criterion for Continuous Variable Systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2722-2725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Phys. J. D (3)

P. Zoller et al., "Quantum information processing and communication, Strategic report on current status, visions and goals for research in Europe," Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Longchambon, J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, and C. Fabre, "Non-linear and quantum optics of a type II OPO containing a birefringent element 1. Classical operation," Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 279-285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Longchambon, J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, C. Fabre, "Non-linear and quantum optics of a type II OPO containing a birefringent element 2. Bright entangled beams generation," Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 287-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Physics (1)

N. Treps and C. Fabre, "Criteria of quantum correlation in the measurement of continuous variables in optics," Laser Physics 15, 187 (2005).

Opt. Commun. (2)

C. Fabre, E. J. Mason, and N. C. Wong, "Theoretical analysis of self-phase locking in a type II phase-matched optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 170, 299-307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Villar, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, "Testing the entanglement of intense beams produced by a nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 242, 551-563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, N. Rosen, "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?," Phys. Rev. 47, 777-780 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (7)

M. Reid, "Demonstration of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox using nondegenerate parametric amplification," Phys. Rev. A 40, 913-923 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jing, S. Feng, R. Bloomer, and O. Pfister, "Experimental continuous-variable entanglement from a phasedifference-locked optical parametric oscillator," Phys. Rev. A,  74, 041804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, G. Keller, N. Treps, and C. Fabre, "Effects of mode coupling on the generation of quadrature Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement in a type-II optical parametric oscillator below threshold," Phys. Rev. A 71, 022313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and T. C. Ralph,"Experimental characterization of continuous-variable entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 69, 012304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Jing, C. Xie, and K. Peng,"Experimental generation of bright two-mode quadrature squeezed light from a narrow-band nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier," Phys. Rev. A 62, 023813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Schori, J. L. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzik,"Narrow-band frequency tunable light source of continuous quadrature entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, G. Keller, N. Treps, C. Fabre, "Compact source of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement and squeezing at very low noise frequencies," Phys. Rev. A 70, 042315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, "Observation of Quantum Noise Reduction on Twin Laser Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555-2557 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Takei, H. Yonezawa, T. Aoki, A. Furusawa,"High-fidelity releportation beyond the no-cloning limit and entanglement swapping for continuous variables," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 220502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng,"Realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for continuous variables," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663-3666 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mancini, V. Giovannetti, D. Vitali, and P. Tombesi, "Entangling Macroscopic Oscillators Exploiting Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-M. Duan, G. Giedke, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, "Inseparability Criterion for Continuous Variable Systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2722-2725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Simon, "Peres-Horodecki separability criterion for continuous variable systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2726-2729 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Villar, L. S. Cruz, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Martinelli, and P. Nussenzveig, "Generation of Bright Two-Color Continuous Variable Entanglement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sorensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, E. S. Polzik,"Unconditional quantum teleportation," Science 282, 706-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

N. J. Cerf, G. Leuchs, E. S. Polzik, eds, Quantum Information with Continuous Variables, (World Scientific Publishing, New Jersey, 2007).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The 532 nm output of a cw frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser is filtered and used as the pump of a type-II OPO. The OPO operates above threshold at frequency degeneracy thanks to a quarter-wave plate inserted inside the cavity. The generated two-mode state is characterized by homodyne detection.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Normalized noise variances at 20 MHz of the ±45° modes and (b) entanglement criteria : Duan (green), Mancini (violet) and EPR (black). The resolution bandwidth is set to 100 kHz and the video bandwidth to 300 Hz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized noise variances at 3.5 MHz of the ±45° modes (a) while scanning the local oscillator phase and (b) while locking it on the squeezed quadratures. The resolution bandwidth is set to 100 kHz and the video bandwidth to 300 Hz.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Inseparability and EPR criteria, and experimental values measured at 20 MHz.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A + = A 1 + A 2 2 and A = A 1 A 2 2 .
G X = 1 T T + μ 1 1 + Ω 2 and G Y = 1 T T + μ 1 2 ( V 0 1 ) ( σ 1 ) Ω 2 + σ 2
G X . G Y < 1 and G X + G Y 2 < 1 .
V ( X 1 X 2 ) V ( Y 1 Y 2 ) < 1 .
( 2 G Y G Y 2 Δ Y 2 ) ( 2 G X G X 2 Δ X 2 ) < 1

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