Abstract

We report the fabrication and the optical characterization of a hybrid tunable integrated optical filter. It consists of a diffused ion-exchanged channel waveguide on a borosilicate glass substrate with a cover of the same glass to form a gap filled with a holographic grating. The grating morphology, called POLICRYPS (POlymer LIquid CRYstal Polymer Slices), is made of alternating stripes of polymer and liquid crystal acting as overlayer for the underneath waveguide. The filter structure includes aluminum coplanar electrodes to electrically control the grating properties, allowing the tunability of the filter. The electric driving power required to tune the filter obtained was in the range of submilliwatts due to the efficient liquid crystal electro-optic effect.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. V. Natarajan, D. P. Brown, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization," Polymer 47, 4411-4420 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, "POLICRYPS switchable holographic grating: a promising grating electro-opitcal pixel for high resolution display application," J. Disp. Technol. 2, 38-51 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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  8. L. Sirleto, G. Coppola, G. Breglio, G. Abbate, G. C. Righini, and M. J. Oton, "Electro-optical switch and continuously tunable filter based on a Bragg grating in a planar waveguide with a liquid crystal overlayer," Opt. Eng. 41, 2890-2898 (2002).
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  17. J. Li, S. T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 73501-73505 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (4)

V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, N. Scaramuzza, G. Strangi, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. M. Price, "Distributed feedback micro-laser array: helixed liquid crystals embedded in holographically sculptured polymeric microcavities," Opt. Express 14, 2695-2705 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=88986
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. De Sio, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, "In situ optical control and stabilization of the curing process of holographic gratings with a nematic film-polymer-slice sequence structure," Appl. Opt. 45, 3721-3727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Natarajan, D. P. Brown, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization," Polymer 47, 4411-4420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, "POLICRYPS switchable holographic grating: a promising grating electro-opitcal pixel for high resolution display application," J. Disp. Technol. 2, 38-51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

A. d???Alessandro and R. Asquini, "Liquid crystal devices for photonic applications: state of the art and future developments," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 398, 207-221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

L. Sirleto, G. Coppola, G. Breglio, G. Abbate, G. C. Righini, and M. J. Oton, "Electro-optical switch and continuously tunable filter based on a Bragg grating in a planar waveguide with a liquid crystal overlayer," Opt. Eng. 41, 2890-2898 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Zou, F. Zhao, and R. T. Chen, "Two-step K+-Na+ and Ag+-Na+ ion-exchanged glass waveguides for C-band applications," Appl. Opt. 41, 7620-7626 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, Z. Bao, J. E. Baran, J. J. Jackel, A. d???Alessandro, D. J. Fritz, S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S. M. Hwang, A. Willner, and K. D. Li, "Evolution of the acousto-optic wavelength routing switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1005-1019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. O. Culverhouse, "The acousto-optic effect in single-mode fiber tapers and couplers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2519-2529 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. A. Smith, A. d???Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Hermann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

W. Warzanskyj, F. Heisemann, and R. C. Alferness, "Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13-15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Abbate, G.

L. Sirleto, G. Coppola, G. Breglio, G. Abbate, G. C. Righini, and M. J. Oton, "Electro-optical switch and continuously tunable filter based on a Bragg grating in a planar waveguide with a liquid crystal overlayer," Opt. Eng. 41, 2890-2898 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R. C.

W. Warzanskyj, F. Heisemann, and R. C. Alferness, "Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13-15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Asquini, R.

Assanto, G.

Bao, Z.

D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, Z. Bao, J. E. Baran, J. J. Jackel, A. d???Alessandro, D. J. Fritz, S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S. M. Hwang, A. Willner, and K. D. Li, "Evolution of the acousto-optic wavelength routing switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1005-1019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baran, J. E.

D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, Z. Bao, J. E. Baran, J. J. Jackel, A. d???Alessandro, D. J. Fritz, S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S. M. Hwang, A. Willner, and K. D. Li, "Evolution of the acousto-optic wavelength routing switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1005-1019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Smith, A. d???Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Hermann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barna, V.

Bartolino, R.

Beccherelli, R.

Bellini, B.

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. O. Culverhouse, "The acousto-optic effect in single-mode fiber tapers and couplers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2519-2529 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Breglio, G.

L. Sirleto, G. Coppola, G. Breglio, G. Abbate, G. C. Righini, and M. J. Oton, "Electro-optical switch and continuously tunable filter based on a Bragg grating in a planar waveguide with a liquid crystal overlayer," Opt. Eng. 41, 2890-2898 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. P.

L. V. Natarajan, D. P. Brown, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization," Polymer 47, 4411-4420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brugioni, S.

J. Li, S. T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 73501-73505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

L. V. Natarajan, D. P. Brown, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization," Polymer 47, 4411-4420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caputo, R.

Chakravarthy, R. S.

D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, Z. Bao, J. E. Baran, J. J. Jackel, A. d???Alessandro, D. J. Fritz, S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S. M. Hwang, A. Willner, and K. D. Li, "Evolution of the acousto-optic wavelength routing switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1005-1019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

Coppola, G.

L. Sirleto, G. Coppola, G. Breglio, G. Abbate, G. C. Righini, and M. J. Oton, "Electro-optical switch and continuously tunable filter based on a Bragg grating in a planar waveguide with a liquid crystal overlayer," Opt. Eng. 41, 2890-2898 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Culverhouse, D. O.

T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. O. Culverhouse, "The acousto-optic effect in single-mode fiber tapers and couplers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2519-2529 (1996).
[CrossRef]

d???Alessandro, A.

R. Asquini, A. Fratalocchi, A. d???Alessandro, and G. Assanto, "Electro-optic routing in a nematic liquid-crystal waveguide," Appl. Opt. 44, 4136-4143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. d???Alessandro, R. Asquini, C. Gizzi, R. Caputo, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, "Electro-optic properties of switchable gratings made of polymer and nematic liquid crystal slices," Opt. Lett. 29, 1405-1407 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. d???Alessandro and R. Asquini, "Liquid crystal devices for photonic applications: state of the art and future developments," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 398, 207-221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, Z. Bao, J. E. Baran, J. J. Jackel, A. d???Alessandro, D. J. Fritz, S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S. M. Hwang, A. Willner, and K. D. Li, "Evolution of the acousto-optic wavelength routing switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1005-1019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Smith, A. d???Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Hermann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

De Luca, A.

De Sio, L.

Faetti, S.

J. Li, S. T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 73501-73505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fratalocchi, A.

Fritz, D. J.

D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, Z. Bao, J. E. Baran, J. J. Jackel, A. d???Alessandro, D. J. Fritz, S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S. M. Hwang, A. Willner, and K. D. Li, "Evolution of the acousto-optic wavelength routing switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1005-1019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujieda, I.

Gizzi, C.

Heisemann, F.

W. Warzanskyj, F. Heisemann, and R. C. Alferness, "Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13-15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, H.

D. A. Smith, A. d???Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Hermann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. H.

D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, Z. Bao, J. E. Baran, J. J. Jackel, A. d???Alessandro, D. J. Fritz, S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S. M. Hwang, A. Willner, and K. D. Li, "Evolution of the acousto-optic wavelength routing switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1005-1019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S. M.

D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, Z. Bao, J. E. Baran, J. J. Jackel, A. d???Alessandro, D. J. Fritz, S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S. M. Hwang, A. Willner, and K. D. Li, "Evolution of the acousto-optic wavelength routing switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1005-1019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. J.

D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, Z. Bao, J. E. Baran, J. J. Jackel, A. d???Alessandro, D. J. Fritz, S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S. M. Hwang, A. Willner, and K. D. Li, "Evolution of the acousto-optic wavelength routing switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1005-1019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kriezis, E. E.

Li, J.

J. Li, S. T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 73501-73505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, K. D.

D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, Z. Bao, J. E. Baran, J. J. Jackel, A. d???Alessandro, D. J. Fritz, S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S. M. Hwang, A. Willner, and K. D. Li, "Evolution of the acousto-optic wavelength routing switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1005-1019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd, P. F.

L. V. Natarajan, D. P. Brown, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization," Polymer 47, 4411-4420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meucci, R.

J. Li, S. T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 73501-73505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mikami, O.

Natarajan, L. V.

L. V. Natarajan, D. P. Brown, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization," Polymer 47, 4411-4420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oton, M. J.

L. Sirleto, G. Coppola, G. Breglio, G. Abbate, G. C. Righini, and M. J. Oton, "Electro-optical switch and continuously tunable filter based on a Bragg grating in a planar waveguide with a liquid crystal overlayer," Opt. Eng. 41, 2890-2898 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, A.

Price, G. M.

Righini, G. C.

L. Sirleto, G. Coppola, G. Breglio, G. Abbate, G. C. Righini, and M. J. Oton, "Electro-optical switch and continuously tunable filter based on a Bragg grating in a planar waveguide with a liquid crystal overlayer," Opt. Eng. 41, 2890-2898 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. O. Culverhouse, "The acousto-optic effect in single-mode fiber tapers and couplers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2519-2529 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scaramuzza, N.

Sirleto, L.

L. Sirleto, G. Coppola, G. Breglio, G. Abbate, G. C. Righini, and M. J. Oton, "Electro-optical switch and continuously tunable filter based on a Bragg grating in a planar waveguide with a liquid crystal overlayer," Opt. Eng. 41, 2890-2898 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. A.

D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, Z. Bao, J. E. Baran, J. J. Jackel, A. d???Alessandro, D. J. Fritz, S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S. M. Hwang, A. Willner, and K. D. Li, "Evolution of the acousto-optic wavelength routing switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1005-1019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Smith, A. d???Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Hermann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Strangi, G.

Sukhov, A. V.

Sutherland, R. L.

L. V. Natarajan, D. P. Brown, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization," Polymer 47, 4411-4420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

L. V. Natarajan, D. P. Brown, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization," Polymer 47, 4411-4420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

Veltri, A.

Versace, C.

Warzanskyj, W.

W. Warzanskyj, F. Heisemann, and R. C. Alferness, "Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13-15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A.

D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, Z. Bao, J. E. Baran, J. J. Jackel, A. d???Alessandro, D. J. Fritz, S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S. M. Hwang, A. Willner, and K. D. Li, "Evolution of the acousto-optic wavelength routing switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1005-1019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wofford, J. M.

L. V. Natarajan, D. P. Brown, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization," Polymer 47, 4411-4420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

J. Li, S. T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 73501-73505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F.

Zografopoulos, D. C.

Zou, J.

Zou, X. Y.

D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, Z. Bao, J. E. Baran, J. J. Jackel, A. d???Alessandro, D. J. Fritz, S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S. M. Hwang, A. Willner, and K. D. Li, "Evolution of the acousto-optic wavelength routing switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1005-1019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. A. Smith, A. d???Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Hermann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Warzanskyj, F. Heisemann, and R. C. Alferness, "Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13-15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Li, S. T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 73501-73505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, "POLICRYPS switchable holographic grating: a promising grating electro-opitcal pixel for high resolution display application," J. Disp. Technol. 2, 38-51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, Z. Bao, J. E. Baran, J. J. Jackel, A. d???Alessandro, D. J. Fritz, S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S. M. Hwang, A. Willner, and K. D. Li, "Evolution of the acousto-optic wavelength routing switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1005-1019 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. O. Culverhouse, "The acousto-optic effect in single-mode fiber tapers and couplers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2519-2529 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

A. d???Alessandro and R. Asquini, "Liquid crystal devices for photonic applications: state of the art and future developments," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 398, 207-221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

L. Sirleto, G. Coppola, G. Breglio, G. Abbate, G. C. Righini, and M. J. Oton, "Electro-optical switch and continuously tunable filter based on a Bragg grating in a planar waveguide with a liquid crystal overlayer," Opt. Eng. 41, 2890-2898 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Polymer (1)

L. V. Natarajan, D. P. Brown, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings formed by visible light initiated thiol-ene photopolymerization," Polymer 47, 4411-4420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

L. H. Domash, Y. M. Chen, P. Haugsjaa, and M. Oren, "Electronically switchable waveguide Bragg gratings for WDM routing," in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings on Vertical-Cavity Lasers/Technologies for a Global Information Infrastructure/WDM Components Technology/Advanced Semiconductor Lasers and Applications/Gallium Nitride Materials, Processing, and Devices (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), paper ThA5, pp. 34-35.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, 1989), Chap. 4.

J. Frantz, J. Carriere, Y. Enami, R. Kostuk, S. Honkanen, D. Mathine, and N. Peyghambarian, "Selectively buried ion-exchanged waveguides as an interface to electro-optic polymers,' OSA Optical Fiber Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper WD1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the optical filter using composite grating made of polymer and liquid crystal (POLICRYPS) over an ion-exchanged waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Microscope image of the POLICRYPS grating written over a 6 µm wide waveguide. The white arrows below indicate the orientations of the fast or ordinary (o) axis and of the extraordinary (e) or slow axis of the NLC.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Set-ups to measure the transmitted (a) and the reflected spectra (b) of the filter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmitted (a) and reflected spectra (b) of the filter normalized with respect to the EDFA spectrum.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Overlapped reflected spectra obtained by varying the applied voltage, normalized with respect to the EDFA spectrum.

Equations (1)

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n LC ( θ ) = n e n o n 0 2 sin 2 θ + n e 2 cos 2 θ

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