Abstract

Electromagnetic cloak was recently demonstrated in the microwave domain using a metamaterial structure made of metallic split ring resonators (SRR) arranged in a cylindrical geometry. The SRRs were designed to provide a magnetic response that varied in an appropriate manner with the radial coordinate. In the present work, we propose an electromagnetic cloak, which exploits the electric response of gold SRRs instead of their magnetic response. Numerical simulations performed at infrared frequencies (~100 THz) reveal low loss and weak impedance mismatch, thereby proving the interest in using SRRs as “universal” atoms in the design of metamaterials. We also show that SRRs can be ultimately replaced by simple cut wires for the construction of approximate electromagnetic cloaks whose dielectric permittivity is the only parameter varying with space coordinates.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media," Opt. Express 14, 9794-9803 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with non-magnetic metamaterials," Nature Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena, "IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. O'Brien and J. B. Pendry, "Photonic band-gap effects and magnetic activity in dielectric composites," J. Phys. 14, 4035-4044 (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. R. Smith and N. Kroll, "Negative Refractive Index in Left-Handed Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2933-2936 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 65602-65605 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Metamaterials at Telecommunication and Visible Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203905 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. P. Johnson, A. Z. Khokhar, H. M. H. Chong, and S. McMeekin, "Characterization at infrared wavelengths of metamaterials formed by thin film metallic split ring resonator arrays on silicon," Electron. Lett. 42, 1117-1118 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Cummer, B-I. Popa, D. Schurig, and D.R. Smith, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 03621 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies, " Nat. Mat. 7, 31-37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Gaillot, C. Croënne, and D. Lippens, "An all-dielectric route for terahertz cloaking," Opt. Express 16, 3986-3992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic and electric excitations in split ring resonators," Opt. Express 15, 17881-17890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with non-magnetic metamaterials," Nature Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (7)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, "Optical conforming mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Johnson, A. Z. Khokhar, H. M. H. Chong, and S. McMeekin, "Characterization at infrared wavelengths of metamaterials formed by thin film metallic split ring resonator arrays on silicon," Electron. Lett. 42, 1117-1118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cummer, B-I. Popa, D. Schurig, and D.R. Smith, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 03621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, "On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence," Opt. Express 14, 8827-8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media," Opt. Express 14, 9794-9803 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Metamaterials at Telecommunication and Visible Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 65602-65605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. O'Brien and J. B. Pendry, "Photonic band-gap effects and magnetic activity in dielectric composites," J. Phys. 14, 4035-4044 (2002).

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith and N. Kroll, "Negative Refractive Index in Left-Handed Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2933-2936 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena, "IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burger, S.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Metamaterials at Telecommunication and Visible Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with non-magnetic metamaterials," Nature Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with non-magnetic metamaterials," Nature Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H. M. H.

N. P. Johnson, A. Z. Khokhar, H. M. H. Chong, and S. McMeekin, "Characterization at infrared wavelengths of metamaterials formed by thin film metallic split ring resonator arrays on silicon," Electron. Lett. 42, 1117-1118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Croënne, C.

Cummer, A.

A. Cummer, B-I. Popa, D. Schurig, and D.R. Smith, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 03621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Metamaterials at Telecommunication and Visible Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etrich, C.

Fu, L.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies, " Nat. Mat. 7, 31-37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaillot, D. P.

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies, " Nat. Mat. 7, 31-37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, "On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence," Opt. Express 14, 8827-8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies, " Nat. Mat. 7, 31-37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena, "IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. P.

N. P. Johnson, A. Z. Khokhar, H. M. H. Chong, and S. McMeekin, "Characterization at infrared wavelengths of metamaterials formed by thin film metallic split ring resonator arrays on silicon," Electron. Lett. 42, 1117-1118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies, " Nat. Mat. 7, 31-37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Katsarakis, N.

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khokhar, A. Z.

N. P. Johnson, A. Z. Khokhar, H. M. H. Chong, and S. McMeekin, "Characterization at infrared wavelengths of metamaterials formed by thin film metallic split ring resonator arrays on silicon," Electron. Lett. 42, 1117-1118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with non-magnetic metamaterials," Nature Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic and electric excitations in split ring resonators," Opt. Express 15, 17881-17890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 65602-65605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, Th.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Metamaterials at Telecommunication and Visible Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, N.

D. R. Smith and N. Kroll, "Negative Refractive Index in Left-Handed Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2933-2936 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhl, J.

Lederer, F.

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt, "Optical conforming mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Metamaterials at Telecommunication and Visible Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippens, D.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies, " Nat. Mat. 7, 31-37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Markos, P.

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 65602-65605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McMeekin, S.

N. P. Johnson, A. Z. Khokhar, H. M. H. Chong, and S. McMeekin, "Characterization at infrared wavelengths of metamaterials formed by thin film metallic split ring resonator arrays on silicon," Electron. Lett. 42, 1117-1118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Brien, S.

S. O'Brien and J. B. Pendry, "Photonic band-gap effects and magnetic activity in dielectric composites," J. Phys. 14, 4035-4044 (2002).

Pacheco, J.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media," Opt. Express 14, 9794-9803 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O'Brien and J. B. Pendry, "Photonic band-gap effects and magnetic activity in dielectric composites," J. Phys. 14, 4035-4044 (2002).

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena, "IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Popa, B-I.

A. Cummer, B-I. Popa, D. Schurig, and D.R. Smith, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 03621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena, "IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

Schmidt, F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Metamaterials at Telecommunication and Visible Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

A. Cummer, B-I. Popa, D. Schurig, and D.R. Smith, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 03621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media," Opt. Express 14, 9794-9803 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweizer, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies, " Nat. Mat. 7, 31-37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with non-magnetic metamaterials," Nature Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media," Opt. Express 14, 9794-9803 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 65602-65605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith and N. Kroll, "Negative Refractive Index in Left-Handed Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2933-2936 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D.R.

A. Cummer, B-I. Popa, D. Schurig, and D.R. Smith, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 03621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic and electric excitations in split ring resonators," Opt. Express 15, 17881-17890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Metamaterials at Telecommunication and Visible Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 65602-65605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena, "IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Metamaterials at Telecommunication and Visible Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, B.-I.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic and electric excitations in split ring resonators," Opt. Express 15, 17881-17890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Metamaterials at Telecommunication and Visible Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zschiedrich, L.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Metamaterials at Telecommunication and Visible Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

N. P. Johnson, A. Z. Khokhar, H. M. H. Chong, and S. McMeekin, "Characterization at infrared wavelengths of metamaterials formed by thin film metallic split ring resonator arrays on silicon," Electron. Lett. 42, 1117-1118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena, "IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (1)

S. O'Brien and J. B. Pendry, "Photonic band-gap effects and magnetic activity in dielectric composites," J. Phys. 14, 4035-4044 (2002).

Nat. Mat. (1)

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies, " Nat. Mat. 7, 31-37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics (1)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with non-magnetic metamaterials," Nature Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Cummer, B-I. Popa, D. Schurig, and D.R. Smith, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 03621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 65602-65605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Metamaterials at Telecommunication and Visible Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith and N. Kroll, "Negative Refractive Index in Left-Handed Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2933-2936 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (4)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, "Optical conforming mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

B. Kante, A. de Lustrac, J-M. Lourtioz, and F. Gadot, "Engineering resonances in infrared metamaterials," Opt. Express 16 6774-6784 (2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Unit cell and field polarization used in calculations. (b) Transmission and reflection of gold SRRs calculated at normal incidence (Eθ =Hr =Hθ =0) in the frequency range from 20 to 120 THz. The SRRs are supposed to be embedded in a dielectric with εm =4 permittivity. The lengths of the SRR gap, base and legs are 120, 360 and 260 nm, respectively. The width and thickness of the gold wires are w=50 nm and h=40 nm. The dimensions of the unit cell used in calculations are: lθ =350 nm, lr =570 nm, lz =580 nm. (c) Effective permittivity (εr ) and permeability (µ) of the SRRs for the field polarization considered in Fig. 1(b).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Values of the SRR parameters used in the different annular regions of the invisibility cloak. The regions are numbered from 1 to 20 going from the outer to the inner boundary of the cloak. (b) Schematic view of a cloak sector with an enlarged view in the insert. The elementary cells within a given annular region are identical. In contrast, the cell width l θ linearly increases with the radial position of the cell: l θ = rl θ 1 b , where l θ 1 = 500 nm is the width of the elementary cells in the annular region at the outer cloak boundary (r=b). (c) Evolutions of the three tensor components (εr , εθ , µz ) with the radial position of the elementary cell (dotted curves).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Finite element simulations showing the magnetic field (Hz ) distribution around a metallic cylinder illuminated by a plane wave at 100 THz. The wave propagates in the air from the left to the right, and the magnetic field is polarized parallel to the cylinder axis. (a) In the absence of invisibility cloak, wave scattering and shadowing effects are clearly evidenced. (b) In the presence of the invisibility cloak as described in Fig. 2, the wave travels as if there was no bulky obstacle. The wave fronts and field amplitudes behind the cloak are essentially the same as in the absence of the metallic cylinder, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of the cloak.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Unit cell including a metallic cut wire instead of a split ring resonator. The field polarization is the same as in Fig. 1(a). (b) Effective permittivity (ε) and permeability (µ) of the cutwire based metamaterial for the field polarization considered in Fig. 4(a). The length, width and thickness of the gold wire are: l=400 nm, w=50 nm and h=40 nm. The dimensions of the unit cell are: lθ =200 nm, lr =570 nm and lz =580 nm.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε ( ω ) = 1 ω 2 p ω ( ω + i ω c )
ε r = μ r = r a r , ε θ = μ θ = r r a , ε z = μ z = ( b b a ) 2 r a r
μ z = 1 , ε θ = ( b b a ) 2 , ε r = ( b b a ) 2 ( r a r ) 2

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