Abstract

We propose a linearized optical single sideband Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulator (MZ-EOM) for radio over fiber systems. This proposed modulator utilizes a dual-electrode MZ-EOM biased at quandrature, the two electrodes are fed with asymmetrical RF power through an 180° hybrid coupler and the two optical ports of MZ-EOM are bi-directionally injected by the same optical source, but with different optical power. Using such a modulator, third order nonlinear distortion is significantly suppressed and relative spurious free dynamic range is improved by 10 and 20 dB compared to dual-parallel linearized MZ-EOM and conventional MZ-EOM, respectively.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Roselli, V. Borgioni, F. Zepparelli, F. Ambrosi, M. Comez, P. Faccin, and A. Casini, "Analog laser pre-distortion for multiservice radio over fiber system," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1211-1223 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Sadhwani and B. Jalali, "Adaptive CMOS predistortion linearizer for fiber-optic links," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3180-3193 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electro-absorption modulated microwave photonic link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Masella and X. Zhang, "A novel single wavelength balanced system for radio over fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol Lett. 18, 301-303 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Brooks, G. Maurer, and R. Becker, "Implementation and evaluation of a dual parallel linearization system for AM-SCM video transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 34-41 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Loayssa, M. Alonso, D. Benito, and M. Garde, "Linearization of electrooptic modulators at millimeter-wave frequencies," IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) Annual Meeting 1, 275-276 (1999).
  7. T. Cho and K. Kim, "Effect of third-order intermodulation on radio-over-fiber systems by a dual-electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator with ODSB and OSSB signals," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2052-2058 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Lim, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, "Analysis of optical carrier-to-sideband ratio for improving transmission performance in fiber-radio," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 2181-2187 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. T. Zhou, A. B. Sharma, Z. H. Shao, and M. Fujise, "Optical single-sideband modulation at 60 GHz using electro-absorption modulators," IEEE topic meeting on Microwave Photonics 121-124 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electroabsorption modulated microwave photonics link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, and D. Benito, "Design and performance of the bidirectional optical single-sideband modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1071-1082 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

B. Masella and X. Zhang, "A novel single wavelength balanced system for radio over fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol Lett. 18, 301-303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Cho and K. Kim, "Effect of third-order intermodulation on radio-over-fiber systems by a dual-electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator with ODSB and OSSB signals," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2052-2058 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Lim, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, "Analysis of optical carrier-to-sideband ratio for improving transmission performance in fiber-radio," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 2181-2187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

2001 (2)

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electro-absorption modulated microwave photonic link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electroabsorption modulated microwave photonics link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Brooks, G. Maurer, and R. Becker, "Implementation and evaluation of a dual parallel linearization system for AM-SCM video transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 34-41 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ambrosi, F.

Attygalle, M.

C. Lim, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, "Analysis of optical carrier-to-sideband ratio for improving transmission performance in fiber-radio," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 2181-2187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Becker, R.

J. Brooks, G. Maurer, and R. Becker, "Implementation and evaluation of a dual parallel linearization system for AM-SCM video transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 34-41 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Benito, D.

Borgioni, V.

Brooks, J.

J. Brooks, G. Maurer, and R. Becker, "Implementation and evaluation of a dual parallel linearization system for AM-SCM video transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 34-41 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cappelluti, F.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electro-absorption modulated microwave photonic link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electroabsorption modulated microwave photonics link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Casini, A.

Cho, A.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electro-absorption modulated microwave photonic link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electroabsorption modulated microwave photonics link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cho, T.

Comez, M.

Faccin, P.

Fujise, M.

M. T. Zhou, A. B. Sharma, Z. H. Shao, and M. Fujise, "Optical single-sideband modulation at 60 GHz using electro-absorption modulators," IEEE topic meeting on Microwave Photonics 121-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ghione, G.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electroabsorption modulated microwave photonics link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electro-absorption modulated microwave photonic link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Jung, T.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electro-absorption modulated microwave photonic link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electroabsorption modulated microwave photonics link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

Lim, C.

C. Lim, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, "Analysis of optical carrier-to-sideband ratio for improving transmission performance in fiber-radio," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 2181-2187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, and D. Benito, "Design and performance of the bidirectional optical single-sideband modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1071-1082 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loayssa, A.

Masella, B.

B. Masella and X. Zhang, "A novel single wavelength balanced system for radio over fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol Lett. 18, 301-303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mathai, S.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electro-absorption modulated microwave photonic link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electroabsorption modulated microwave photonics link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, G.

J. Brooks, G. Maurer, and R. Becker, "Implementation and evaluation of a dual parallel linearization system for AM-SCM video transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 34-41 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nirmalathas, A.

C. Lim, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, "Analysis of optical carrier-to-sideband ratio for improving transmission performance in fiber-radio," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 2181-2187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, and D. Benito, "Design and performance of the bidirectional optical single-sideband modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1071-1082 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Novak, D.

C. Lim, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, "Analysis of optical carrier-to-sideband ratio for improving transmission performance in fiber-radio," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 2181-2187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electro-absorption modulated microwave photonic link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electroabsorption modulated microwave photonics link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roselli, L.

Sadhwani, R.

Shao, Z. H.

M. T. Zhou, A. B. Sharma, Z. H. Shao, and M. Fujise, "Optical single-sideband modulation at 60 GHz using electro-absorption modulators," IEEE topic meeting on Microwave Photonics 121-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, A. B.

M. T. Zhou, A. B. Sharma, Z. H. Shao, and M. Fujise, "Optical single-sideband modulation at 60 GHz using electro-absorption modulators," IEEE topic meeting on Microwave Photonics 121-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electroabsorption modulated microwave photonics link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electro-absorption modulated microwave photonic link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Waterhouse, R.

C. Lim, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, "Analysis of optical carrier-to-sideband ratio for improving transmission performance in fiber-radio," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 2181-2187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electro-absorption modulated microwave photonic link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Waterhouse, R. B.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electroabsorption modulated microwave photonics link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electro-absorption modulated microwave photonic link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electroabsorption modulated microwave photonics link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zepparelli, F.

Zhang, X.

B. Masella and X. Zhang, "A novel single wavelength balanced system for radio over fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol Lett. 18, 301-303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, M. T.

M. T. Zhou, A. B. Sharma, Z. H. Shao, and M. Fujise, "Optical single-sideband modulation at 60 GHz using electro-absorption modulators," IEEE topic meeting on Microwave Photonics 121-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol Lett. (1)

B. Masella and X. Zhang, "A novel single wavelength balanced system for radio over fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol Lett. 18, 301-303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (3)

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electro-absorption modulated microwave photonic link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Lim, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, "Analysis of optical carrier-to-sideband ratio for improving transmission performance in fiber-radio," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 2181-2187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, and M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electroabsorption modulated microwave photonics link," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Other (2)

A. Loayssa, M. Alonso, D. Benito, and M. Garde, "Linearization of electrooptic modulators at millimeter-wave frequencies," IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) Annual Meeting 1, 275-276 (1999).

M. T. Zhou, A. B. Sharma, Z. H. Shao, and M. Fujise, "Optical single-sideband modulation at 60 GHz using electro-absorption modulators," IEEE topic meeting on Microwave Photonics 121-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Proposed linearized OSSB modulator using a dual-electrode MZ-EOM, which is optically bi-directionally fed.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Optical spectrum for the proposed OSSB dual electrode MZ-EOM with a RF voltage ratio γ=1.9, i.e. not optimally set; and (b) γ=2.8, i.e. optimally set for the suppression of nonlinear distortion.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Simulated RF carrier power (dashed) and suppression of CTB (solid) versus. RF voltage splitting ratio γ; and (b) mlin /m calculated by Eq. (4) versus RF voltage splitting ratio γ. Note (i) indicates maximum RF carrier power at γ=1.9, and (ii) optimum suppression of CTB at γ=2.8.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). SFDR versus Δφ with a voltage splitting ratio γ=2.8 and (b) SFDR versus γ with Δφ=0.05 for the proposed OSSB dual electrode MZ-EOM, where PLeft =1 mW.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

RF carrier and 3IMD power versus input RF power for a back to back (left) RoF system and a RoF system with 25 km of SMF (right) using the proposed MZ-EOM (upper), dual-parallel MZ-EOM (middle) and conventional MZ-EOM (bottom), respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Bit error rate for a RoF system with 25-km SMF transmission using a conventional MZ-EOM, dual-parallel MZ-EOM and proposed MZ-EOM, respectively.

Equations (7)

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E Out ( t ) = 1 2 [ E left [ e j m ( sin ( Ω 1 t ) + sin ( Ω 2 t ) ) je j m ( cos ( Ω 1 t ) + cos ( Ω 2 t ) ) ] + E Right [ e j γ m ( sin ( Ω 1 t ) + sin ( Ω 2 t ) ) je j γ m ( cos ( Ω 1 t ) + cos ( Ω 2 t ) ) ] ] e jωt .
E Out ( t ) 1 2 [ E left [ J 1 ( m ) ( e j Ω 1 t + e j Ω 2 t ) J 1 ( m ) ( e j Ω 1 t + e j Ω 2 t ) J 1 ( m ) ( e j Ω 1 t + e j Ω 2 t ) J 1 ( m ) ( e j Ω 1 t + e j Ω 2 t ) ] + E Right [ J 1 ( γ m ) ( e j Ω 1 t + e j Ω 2 t ) + J 1 ( γ m ) ( e j Ω 1 t + e j Ω 2 t ) J 1 ( m ) ( e j Ω 1 t + e j Ω 2 t ) + J 1 ( m ) ( e j Ω 1 t + e j Ω 2 t ) ] ] e jωt
2 2 [ E left ( J 1 ( m ) ) + E Right ( J 1 ( γ m ) ) ] ( e j ( ω + Ω 1 ) t + e j ( ω + Ω 2 ) t ) ,
P Out ( t ) 1 2 [ P Left + P Right + π ( V u ( t ) V l ( t ) ) V π ( P Left γ P Right ) 1 6 ( π ( V u ( t ) V l ( t ) ) V π ) 3 ( P Left γ 3 P Right ) ] ,
m lin m = γ ( γ 1 ) 1 γ + γ 2 ,
P Out ( t ) 1 2 [ P Left + P Right + m lin ( P Left ( γ + Δ φ m lin ) P Right ) 1 6 ( m lin ) 3 ( P Left ( γ + Δ φ m lin ) 3 P Right ) ] ,
SFDR [ dB ] = 10 log [ P Left ( 6 + 3 3 γ 2 ) 2 Δ φ 2 36 γ 6 ] ,

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