Abstract

We present an optical design for an airborne imaging spectrometer that addresses the unique constraints imposed by imaging the coastal ocean region. A fast (F/1.8) wide field system (36°) with minimum polarization dependence and high response uniformity is required, that covers the spectral range 350–1050 nm with 3 nm sampling. We show how these requirements can be achieved with a two-mirror telescope and a compact Dyson spectrometer utilizing a polarization-insensitive diffraction grating.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  4. M. Topping, J. Pfeiffer, A. Sparks, K. T. C. Jim, and D. Yoon, "Advanced airborne hyperspectral imaging system (AAHIS)," Proc. SPIE 4816, 1-11 (2002).
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  11. G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. O. Jones, R. E. Martin, J. Boardman, and C. B. Field, "Carnegie Airborne Observatory: in flight fusion of hyperspectral imaging and waveform light detection and ranging (wLIDAR) for three-dimensional studies of ecosystems," J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 3-21 (2007).
  12. P. Mouroulis, R. G. Sellar, D. W. Wilson, J. J. Shea, R. O. Green, "Optical design of a compact imaging spectrometer for planetary mineralogy," Opt. Eng. 46063001 (2007).
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2007 (3)

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. O. Jones, R. E. Martin, J. Boardman, and C. B. Field, "Carnegie Airborne Observatory: in flight fusion of hyperspectral imaging and waveform light detection and ranging (wLIDAR) for three-dimensional studies of ecosystems," J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 3-21 (2007).

P. Mouroulis, R. G. Sellar, D. W. Wilson, J. J. Shea, R. O. Green, "Optical design of a compact imaging spectrometer for planetary mineralogy," Opt. Eng. 46063001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, "Rear landscape on steroids," Proc. SPIE 6667, 666706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Fisher and W. C. Welch, "Survey and analysis of fore-optics for hyperspectral imaging systems," Proc. SPIE 6206, 62062R (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, "Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California," Oceanography 18, 246-255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Mouroulis, and J. Backlund, "Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography," SPIE Proc. 5173, 115-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, F. T. Hartley, R. E. Muller, D. W. Wilson, A. Shori, M. Feldman, L. Jiang, and T. R. Christenson: "Grating fabrication through X-ray lithography," SPIE Proc. 5173, 108-114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, "Ocean colour remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444-455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

C. Simi, E. Winter, M. Williams, and D. Driscoll, "Compact airborne spectral sensor (COMPASS)," Proc. SPIE 4381, 129-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture,T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale,J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, "Imaging Spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227-248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. Lobb, N. Fox, M. Rast, P. Slater, and A. Wilson, "Strategies for calibration of high-resolution imaging spectrometer data," Proc. SPIE 2957, 287-298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Lobb, "Imaging spectrometers using concentric optics," SPIE Proc. 3118, 339-347 (1997)
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1968 (1)

1967 (1)

1959 (1)

Aronsson, M.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture,T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale,J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, "Imaging Spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227-248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Asner, G. P.

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. O. Jones, R. E. Martin, J. Boardman, and C. B. Field, "Carnegie Airborne Observatory: in flight fusion of hyperspectral imaging and waveform light detection and ranging (wLIDAR) for three-dimensional studies of ecosystems," J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 3-21 (2007).

Backlund, J.

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Mouroulis, and J. Backlund, "Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography," SPIE Proc. 5173, 115-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bissett, W. P.

Boardman, J.

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. O. Jones, R. E. Martin, J. Boardman, and C. B. Field, "Carnegie Airborne Observatory: in flight fusion of hyperspectral imaging and waveform light detection and ranging (wLIDAR) for three-dimensional studies of ecosystems," J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 3-21 (2007).

Bowles, J.

Chavez, F. P.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, "Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California," Oceanography 18, 246-255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

Chippendale, B. J.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture,T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale,J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, "Imaging Spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227-248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chovit, C. J.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture,T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale,J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, "Imaging Spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227-248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chrien, T. G.

P. Mouroulis, R. O. Green, and T. G. Chrien, "Design of pushbroom imaging spectrometers for optimum recovery of spectroscopic and spatial information," Appl. Opt. 39, 2210-2220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture,T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale,J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, "Imaging Spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227-248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Christenson, T. R.

P. Mouroulis, F. T. Hartley, R. E. Muller, D. W. Wilson, A. Shori, M. Feldman, L. Jiang, and T. R. Christenson: "Grating fabrication through X-ray lithography," SPIE Proc. 5173, 108-114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, "Ocean colour remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444-455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, W. P. Bissett, and R. A. Reisse, "Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration," Opt. Express 10, 210-221 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-4-210.
[PubMed]

Dierssen, H. M.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, "Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California," Oceanography 18, 246-255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, "Ocean colour remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444-455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Downes, T. V.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, "Ocean colour remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444-455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, W. P. Bissett, and R. A. Reisse, "Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration," Opt. Express 10, 210-221 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-4-210.
[PubMed]

Driscoll, D.

C. Simi, E. Winter, M. Williams, and D. Driscoll, "Compact airborne spectral sensor (COMPASS)," Proc. SPIE 4381, 129-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dyson, J.

Eastwood, M. L.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture,T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale,J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, "Imaging Spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227-248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Faust, J. A.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture,T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale,J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, "Imaging Spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227-248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, M.

P. Mouroulis, F. T. Hartley, R. E. Muller, D. W. Wilson, A. Shori, M. Feldman, L. Jiang, and T. R. Christenson: "Grating fabrication through X-ray lithography," SPIE Proc. 5173, 108-114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Field, C. B.

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. O. Jones, R. E. Martin, J. Boardman, and C. B. Field, "Carnegie Airborne Observatory: in flight fusion of hyperspectral imaging and waveform light detection and ranging (wLIDAR) for three-dimensional studies of ecosystems," J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 3-21 (2007).

Fischer, A. M.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, "Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California," Oceanography 18, 246-255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, J.

Fox, N.

D. Lobb, N. Fox, M. Rast, P. Slater, and A. Wilson, "Strategies for calibration of high-resolution imaging spectrometer data," Proc. SPIE 2957, 287-298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. O.

P. Mouroulis, R. G. Sellar, D. W. Wilson, J. J. Shea, R. O. Green, "Optical design of a compact imaging spectrometer for planetary mineralogy," Opt. Eng. 46063001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, R. O. Green, and T. G. Chrien, "Design of pushbroom imaging spectrometers for optimum recovery of spectroscopic and spatial information," Appl. Opt. 39, 2210-2220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture,T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale,J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, "Imaging Spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227-248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hartley, F. T.

P. Mouroulis, F. T. Hartley, R. E. Muller, D. W. Wilson, A. Shori, M. Feldman, L. Jiang, and T. R. Christenson: "Grating fabrication through X-ray lithography," SPIE Proc. 5173, 108-114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

P. Mouroulis, F. T. Hartley, R. E. Muller, D. W. Wilson, A. Shori, M. Feldman, L. Jiang, and T. R. Christenson: "Grating fabrication through X-ray lithography," SPIE Proc. 5173, 108-114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jim, K. T. C.

M. Topping, J. Pfeiffer, A. Sparks, K. T. C. Jim, and D. Yoon, "Advanced airborne hyperspectral imaging system (AAHIS)," Proc. SPIE 4816, 1-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. S.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, "Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California," Oceanography 18, 246-255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, M. O.

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. O. Jones, R. E. Martin, J. Boardman, and C. B. Field, "Carnegie Airborne Observatory: in flight fusion of hyperspectral imaging and waveform light detection and ranging (wLIDAR) for three-dimensional studies of ecosystems," J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 3-21 (2007).

Kennedy-Bowdoin, T.

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. O. Jones, R. E. Martin, J. Boardman, and C. B. Field, "Carnegie Airborne Observatory: in flight fusion of hyperspectral imaging and waveform light detection and ranging (wLIDAR) for three-dimensional studies of ecosystems," J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 3-21 (2007).

Knapp, D. E.

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. O. Jones, R. E. Martin, J. Boardman, and C. B. Field, "Carnegie Airborne Observatory: in flight fusion of hyperspectral imaging and waveform light detection and ranging (wLIDAR) for three-dimensional studies of ecosystems," J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 3-21 (2007).

Korwan, D.

Kudela, R. M.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, "Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California," Oceanography 18, 246-255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leathers, R. A.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, "Ocean colour remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444-455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, W. P. Bissett, and R. A. Reisse, "Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration," Opt. Express 10, 210-221 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-4-210.
[PubMed]

Lobb, D.

D. Lobb, N. Fox, M. Rast, P. Slater, and A. Wilson, "Strategies for calibration of high-resolution imaging spectrometer data," Proc. SPIE 2957, 287-298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lobb, D. R.

D. R. Lobb, "Imaging spectrometers using concentric optics," SPIE Proc. 3118, 339-347 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Maker, P. D.

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Mouroulis, and J. Backlund, "Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography," SPIE Proc. 5173, 115-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. E.

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. O. Jones, R. E. Martin, J. Boardman, and C. B. Field, "Carnegie Airborne Observatory: in flight fusion of hyperspectral imaging and waveform light detection and ranging (wLIDAR) for three-dimensional studies of ecosystems," J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 3-21 (2007).

McEnaney, P. R.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, "Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California," Oceanography 18, 246-255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mertz, L.

Mielenz, K. D.

Mouroulis, P.

P. Mouroulis, "Rear landscape on steroids," Proc. SPIE 6667, 666706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, R. G. Sellar, D. W. Wilson, J. J. Shea, R. O. Green, "Optical design of a compact imaging spectrometer for planetary mineralogy," Opt. Eng. 46063001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, F. T. Hartley, R. E. Muller, D. W. Wilson, A. Shori, M. Feldman, L. Jiang, and T. R. Christenson: "Grating fabrication through X-ray lithography," SPIE Proc. 5173, 108-114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Mouroulis, and J. Backlund, "Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography," SPIE Proc. 5173, 115-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, R. O. Green, and T. G. Chrien, "Design of pushbroom imaging spectrometers for optimum recovery of spectroscopic and spatial information," Appl. Opt. 39, 2210-2220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R. E.

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Mouroulis, and J. Backlund, "Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography," SPIE Proc. 5173, 115-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, F. T. Hartley, R. E. Muller, D. W. Wilson, A. Shori, M. Feldman, L. Jiang, and T. R. Christenson: "Grating fabrication through X-ray lithography," SPIE Proc. 5173, 108-114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Olah, M. R.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture,T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale,J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, "Imaging Spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227-248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pavri, B. E.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture,T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale,J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, "Imaging Spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227-248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, J.

M. Topping, J. Pfeiffer, A. Sparks, K. T. C. Jim, and D. Yoon, "Advanced airborne hyperspectral imaging system (AAHIS)," Proc. SPIE 4816, 1-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rast, M.

D. Lobb, N. Fox, M. Rast, P. Slater, and A. Wilson, "Strategies for calibration of high-resolution imaging spectrometer data," Proc. SPIE 2957, 287-298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reisse, R. A.

Rhea, W. J.

Rienecker, E. V.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, "Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California," Oceanography 18, 246-255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rosin, S.

Ryan, J. P.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, "Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California," Oceanography 18, 246-255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sarture, C. M.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture,T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale,J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, "Imaging Spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227-248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scholin, C. A.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, "Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California," Oceanography 18, 246-255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sellar, R. G.

P. Mouroulis, R. G. Sellar, D. W. Wilson, J. J. Shea, R. O. Green, "Optical design of a compact imaging spectrometer for planetary mineralogy," Opt. Eng. 46063001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shea, J. J.

P. Mouroulis, R. G. Sellar, D. W. Wilson, J. J. Shea, R. O. Green, "Optical design of a compact imaging spectrometer for planetary mineralogy," Opt. Eng. 46063001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shori, A.

P. Mouroulis, F. T. Hartley, R. E. Muller, D. W. Wilson, A. Shori, M. Feldman, L. Jiang, and T. R. Christenson: "Grating fabrication through X-ray lithography," SPIE Proc. 5173, 108-114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simi, C.

C. Simi, E. Winter, M. Williams, and D. Driscoll, "Compact airborne spectral sensor (COMPASS)," Proc. SPIE 4381, 129-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slater, P.

D. Lobb, N. Fox, M. Rast, P. Slater, and A. Wilson, "Strategies for calibration of high-resolution imaging spectrometer data," Proc. SPIE 2957, 287-298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, W. A.

Solis, M.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture,T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale,J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, "Imaging Spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227-248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sparks, A.

M. Topping, J. Pfeiffer, A. Sparks, K. T. C. Jim, and D. Yoon, "Advanced airborne hyperspectral imaging system (AAHIS)," Proc. SPIE 4816, 1-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, J. M.

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, "Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California," Oceanography 18, 246-255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Topping, M.

M. Topping, J. Pfeiffer, A. Sparks, K. T. C. Jim, and D. Yoon, "Advanced airborne hyperspectral imaging system (AAHIS)," Proc. SPIE 4816, 1-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Welch, W. C.

J. Fisher and W. C. Welch, "Survey and analysis of fore-optics for hyperspectral imaging systems," Proc. SPIE 6206, 62062R (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williams, M.

C. Simi, E. Winter, M. Williams, and D. Driscoll, "Compact airborne spectral sensor (COMPASS)," Proc. SPIE 4381, 129-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Williams, O.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture,T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale,J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, "Imaging Spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227-248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, A.

D. Lobb, N. Fox, M. Rast, P. Slater, and A. Wilson, "Strategies for calibration of high-resolution imaging spectrometer data," Proc. SPIE 2957, 287-298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. W.

P. Mouroulis, R. G. Sellar, D. W. Wilson, J. J. Shea, R. O. Green, "Optical design of a compact imaging spectrometer for planetary mineralogy," Opt. Eng. 46063001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, F. T. Hartley, R. E. Muller, D. W. Wilson, A. Shori, M. Feldman, L. Jiang, and T. R. Christenson: "Grating fabrication through X-ray lithography," SPIE Proc. 5173, 108-114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Mouroulis, and J. Backlund, "Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography," SPIE Proc. 5173, 115-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winter, E.

C. Simi, E. Winter, M. Williams, and D. Driscoll, "Compact airborne spectral sensor (COMPASS)," Proc. SPIE 4381, 129-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, D.

M. Topping, J. Pfeiffer, A. Sparks, K. T. C. Jim, and D. Yoon, "Advanced airborne hyperspectral imaging system (AAHIS)," Proc. SPIE 4816, 1-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zimmerman, R. C.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, "Ocean colour remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444-455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Appl. Remote Sens. (1)

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. O. Jones, R. E. Martin, J. Boardman, and C. B. Field, "Carnegie Airborne Observatory: in flight fusion of hyperspectral imaging and waveform light detection and ranging (wLIDAR) for three-dimensional studies of ecosystems," J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 3-21 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, "Ocean colour remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444-455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oceanography (1)

J. P. Ryan, H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, C. A. Scholin, K. S. Johnson, J. M. Sullivan, A. M. Fischer, E. V. Rienecker, P. R. McEnaney, and F. P. Chavez, "Coastal ocean physics and red tides: an example from Monterey Bay, California," Oceanography 18, 246-255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Mouroulis, R. G. Sellar, D. W. Wilson, J. J. Shea, R. O. Green, "Optical design of a compact imaging spectrometer for planetary mineralogy," Opt. Eng. 46063001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (5)

J. Fisher and W. C. Welch, "Survey and analysis of fore-optics for hyperspectral imaging systems," Proc. SPIE 6206, 62062R (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, "Rear landscape on steroids," Proc. SPIE 6667, 666706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Topping, J. Pfeiffer, A. Sparks, K. T. C. Jim, and D. Yoon, "Advanced airborne hyperspectral imaging system (AAHIS)," Proc. SPIE 4816, 1-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Simi, E. Winter, M. Williams, and D. Driscoll, "Compact airborne spectral sensor (COMPASS)," Proc. SPIE 4381, 129-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Lobb, N. Fox, M. Rast, P. Slater, and A. Wilson, "Strategies for calibration of high-resolution imaging spectrometer data," Proc. SPIE 2957, 287-298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture,T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale,J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, "Imaging Spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)," Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227-248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

SPIE Proc. (3)

D. R. Lobb, "Imaging spectrometers using concentric optics," SPIE Proc. 3118, 339-347 (1997)
[CrossRef]

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Mouroulis, and J. Backlund, "Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography," SPIE Proc. 5173, 115-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Mouroulis, F. T. Hartley, R. E. Muller, D. W. Wilson, A. Shori, M. Feldman, L. Jiang, and T. R. Christenson: "Grating fabrication through X-ray lithography," SPIE Proc. 5173, 108-114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

http://rsd-www.nrl.navy.mil/7212/pdf/phillsppt.pdf (accessed on 2/22/08).

R. O. Green, C. Pieters, P. Mouroulis, G. Sellar, M. Eastwood, S. Geier, and J. J. Shea, "Calibration, shipment and initial spacecraft integration of the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometer for the Chandrayaan-1 mission," Conference on Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX (2008), http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2008/pdf/1803.pdf.

D. Q. Chowdhury, "Diffraction grating with reduced polarization sensitivity," U.S. Pat. 5,966,493 (1999).

A. D. Sappey and B. W. Bach, "Apparatus and method for the reduction of polarization sensitivity in diffraction gratings used in fiber optic communications devices," U.S. Pat. 6,400,509 B1 (2002).

L. L. Richardson and V. G. Ambrosia, "Remote sensing of algal pigments to determine coastal phytoplankton dynamics in Florida Bay," 4th International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments, Orlando, FL; U.S. 17-19 Mar. 1997. pp. I-75 to I-81 (1997).

M. Toyoda, M. Yamamoto, and M. Yanagihara, "Analytical designing of two-aspherical-mirror anastigmat permitting practical misalignments for soft X-ray imaging," Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy, IPAP Conf. Series 7, 186-188 (2005).

http://www.itres.com/CASI_1500

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Apart from the protective window (omitted in this view for clarity), the optical system comprises two telescope mirrors, one fused silica lens/prism combination block, a concave diffraction grating, and an order-sorting filter in front of the detector (not shown). The long dimension of the system as shown is 25cm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Ray trace of the telescope in two sections.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Ensquared energy as a function of distance from centroid. The top three curves (that tend towards unity at 13.5 µm) are for the 350 nm wavelength and the bottom three are for the 1050 nm wavelength.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Telescope transmittance in two orthogonal polarizations, for the worst-case field angle, and their normalized difference (yellow triangles).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Ray trace of the spectrometer. The slit is perpendicular to the plane of the drawing. The detector array is practically in contact with the order sorting filter (OSF). Note that the convergence angle of the rays inside the block appears to be less than F/1.8 because it is reduced by the refractive index of the material.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectrometer ensquared energy as a function of distance from centroid. The legend gives the field (slit) position in mm, and the wavelength corresponding to each curve. The system is symmetric about the zero field point.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Grating efficiency for two orthogonal polarizations. The normalized difference of the TE and TM polarizations (yellow triangles) is also shown. The light blue curve shows the difference that would have resulted from a fully blazed (sawtooth) profile, thus demonstrating the reduction in polarization sensitivity achieved with the triangular groove profile

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Example of ghosts arising from detector reflection. Three wavelengths are represented: 340 nm (blue), 600 nm (green) and 1050 nm (red). The positions marked “spectrum” show the desired first-order light, incident on and reflected from the detector (leftmost surface). The positions marked “2nd order ghost” represent light reflected from the detector that returns after being diffracted in second order by the grating. It can be seen that the 340 nm ghost falls outside the useful detector area, and the 600 nm just inside. The 600 nm and 1050 nm ghosts will not be rejected by a long-pass OSF, and hence must be controlled by antireflection (A/R) coatings.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1: Design specifications

Tables Icon

Table 2. Coating specifications

Tables Icon

Table 3. Comparison of specifications

Metrics