Abstract

We report preliminary results on the optical driving and spectroscopic detection of Raman-active features in thin films of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 in its normal phase by means of coherent Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman scattering, in a reflection geometry. Reference measurements on germanium are also reported. We observe phonon resonances which interfere coherently with a broad electronic resonance centered at zero frequency, giving rise to characteristic asymmetric spectral features. Our measurements provide a first step towards applying nonlinear optical wave-mixing spectroscopy to correlated electron systems.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. D. Levenson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic Press, New York, 1982).
  2. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984).
  3. S. Mukamel, Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy (Oxford University Press, New York, 1995).
  4. A. M. Zheltikov, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering: from proof-of-the-principle experiments to femtosecond CARS and higher order wave-mixing generalizations," J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 653-667 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. S. Chemla and J. Shah, "Many-body and correlation effects in semiconductors," Nature 411, 549-557 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Cardona, "Raman scattering in high T superconductors: phonons, electrons, and electronphonon interaction," Physica C 317-318, 30-54 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Thomsen and G. Kaczmarczyk, "Vibrational Raman spectroscopy of high-temperature superconductors," in Handbook of vibrational spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths, eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 2002), pp. 2651-2669.
  8. T. P. Devereaux and R. Hackl, "Inelastic light scattering from correlated electrons," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 175-233 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. L. Tacon, A. Sacuto, A. Georges, G. Kotliar, Y. Gallais, D. Colson, and A. Forget, "Two energy scales and two distinct quasiparticle dynamics in the superconducting state of the underdoped cuprates," Nature Phys. 2, 537-543 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. M. Newns and C. C. Tsuei, "Fluctuating CuOCu bond model of high-temperature superconductivity," Nature Phys. 3, 184-191 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Bozovic, "Plasmons in cuprate superconductors," Phys. Rev. B 42, 1969-1984 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. It must be noted that our experimental geometry leads to a small walk-off of the output CRS wave during wavelength tuning, small enough not to lead to significant variations in our detection sensitivity (to minimize this effect, we arranged the detection line so as to have all beam displacements occurring along the long axis of the monochromator entrance slit).
  13. S. E. Inderhees, M. B. Salamon, T. A. Friedmann, and D. M. Ginsberg, "Measurement of the specific-heat anomaly at the superconducting transition of YBa2Cu3O7-???," Phys. Rev. B 36, 2401-2403 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. R. Meyer, F. J. Bartoli, E. R. Youngdale, and C. A. Hoffman, "Effects of energy gap and band structure on free-carrier nonlinear susceptibilites in semiconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4317-4321 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Fainberg, "Laser-induced grating spectroscopy of electron-phonon interaction in metallic and hightemperature superconductors," Opt. Commun. 89, 403-409 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. N. Bagratashvili, V. A. Lobastov, A. N. Zherikhin, V. M. Petnikova, and V. V. Shuvalov, "Nonlinear spectroscopy of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Ni thin films by a biharmonic pumping technique," Phys. Lett. A 164, 99-102 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. N. Zherikhin, V. A. Lobastov, V. M. Petnikova, and V. V. Shuvalov, "Biharmonic pumping technique for Y-Ba-Cu-O energy spectrum research in the vicinity of the phase transition," Phys. Lett. A 179, 145-148 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. Gedik, J. Orenstein, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, and W. N. Hardy, "Diffusion of nonequilibrium quasi-particles in a cuprate superconductor," Science 300, 1410- 1412 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

T. P. Devereaux and R. Hackl, "Inelastic light scattering from correlated electrons," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 175-233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Newns and C. C. Tsuei, "Fluctuating CuOCu bond model of high-temperature superconductivity," Nature Phys. 3, 184-191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. L. Tacon, A. Sacuto, A. Georges, G. Kotliar, Y. Gallais, D. Colson, and A. Forget, "Two energy scales and two distinct quasiparticle dynamics in the superconducting state of the underdoped cuprates," Nature Phys. 2, 537-543 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

N. Gedik, J. Orenstein, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, and W. N. Hardy, "Diffusion of nonequilibrium quasi-particles in a cuprate superconductor," Science 300, 1410- 1412 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. S. Chemla and J. Shah, "Many-body and correlation effects in semiconductors," Nature 411, 549-557 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. M. Zheltikov, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering: from proof-of-the-principle experiments to femtosecond CARS and higher order wave-mixing generalizations," J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 653-667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Cardona, "Raman scattering in high T superconductors: phonons, electrons, and electronphonon interaction," Physica C 317-318, 30-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. N. Zherikhin, V. A. Lobastov, V. M. Petnikova, and V. V. Shuvalov, "Biharmonic pumping technique for Y-Ba-Cu-O energy spectrum research in the vicinity of the phase transition," Phys. Lett. A 179, 145-148 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

B. Fainberg, "Laser-induced grating spectroscopy of electron-phonon interaction in metallic and hightemperature superconductors," Opt. Commun. 89, 403-409 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Bagratashvili, V. A. Lobastov, A. N. Zherikhin, V. M. Petnikova, and V. V. Shuvalov, "Nonlinear spectroscopy of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Ni thin films by a biharmonic pumping technique," Phys. Lett. A 164, 99-102 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. R. Meyer, F. J. Bartoli, E. R. Youngdale, and C. A. Hoffman, "Effects of energy gap and band structure on free-carrier nonlinear susceptibilites in semiconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4317-4321 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

I. Bozovic, "Plasmons in cuprate superconductors," Phys. Rev. B 42, 1969-1984 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. E. Inderhees, M. B. Salamon, T. A. Friedmann, and D. M. Ginsberg, "Measurement of the specific-heat anomaly at the superconducting transition of YBa2Cu3O7-???," Phys. Rev. B 36, 2401-2403 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bagratashvili, V. N.

V. N. Bagratashvili, V. A. Lobastov, A. N. Zherikhin, V. M. Petnikova, and V. V. Shuvalov, "Nonlinear spectroscopy of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Ni thin films by a biharmonic pumping technique," Phys. Lett. A 164, 99-102 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, F. J.

J. R. Meyer, F. J. Bartoli, E. R. Youngdale, and C. A. Hoffman, "Effects of energy gap and band structure on free-carrier nonlinear susceptibilites in semiconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4317-4321 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bonn, D. A.

N. Gedik, J. Orenstein, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, and W. N. Hardy, "Diffusion of nonequilibrium quasi-particles in a cuprate superconductor," Science 300, 1410- 1412 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozovic, I.

I. Bozovic, "Plasmons in cuprate superconductors," Phys. Rev. B 42, 1969-1984 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

M. Cardona, "Raman scattering in high T superconductors: phonons, electrons, and electronphonon interaction," Physica C 317-318, 30-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

D. S. Chemla and J. Shah, "Many-body and correlation effects in semiconductors," Nature 411, 549-557 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colson, D.

M. L. Tacon, A. Sacuto, A. Georges, G. Kotliar, Y. Gallais, D. Colson, and A. Forget, "Two energy scales and two distinct quasiparticle dynamics in the superconducting state of the underdoped cuprates," Nature Phys. 2, 537-543 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Devereaux, T. P.

T. P. Devereaux and R. Hackl, "Inelastic light scattering from correlated electrons," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 175-233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fainberg, B.

B. Fainberg, "Laser-induced grating spectroscopy of electron-phonon interaction in metallic and hightemperature superconductors," Opt. Commun. 89, 403-409 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Forget, A.

M. L. Tacon, A. Sacuto, A. Georges, G. Kotliar, Y. Gallais, D. Colson, and A. Forget, "Two energy scales and two distinct quasiparticle dynamics in the superconducting state of the underdoped cuprates," Nature Phys. 2, 537-543 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Friedmann, T. A.

S. E. Inderhees, M. B. Salamon, T. A. Friedmann, and D. M. Ginsberg, "Measurement of the specific-heat anomaly at the superconducting transition of YBa2Cu3O7-???," Phys. Rev. B 36, 2401-2403 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gallais, Y.

M. L. Tacon, A. Sacuto, A. Georges, G. Kotliar, Y. Gallais, D. Colson, and A. Forget, "Two energy scales and two distinct quasiparticle dynamics in the superconducting state of the underdoped cuprates," Nature Phys. 2, 537-543 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gedik, N.

N. Gedik, J. Orenstein, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, and W. N. Hardy, "Diffusion of nonequilibrium quasi-particles in a cuprate superconductor," Science 300, 1410- 1412 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georges, A.

M. L. Tacon, A. Sacuto, A. Georges, G. Kotliar, Y. Gallais, D. Colson, and A. Forget, "Two energy scales and two distinct quasiparticle dynamics in the superconducting state of the underdoped cuprates," Nature Phys. 2, 537-543 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ginsberg, D. M.

S. E. Inderhees, M. B. Salamon, T. A. Friedmann, and D. M. Ginsberg, "Measurement of the specific-heat anomaly at the superconducting transition of YBa2Cu3O7-???," Phys. Rev. B 36, 2401-2403 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hackl, R.

T. P. Devereaux and R. Hackl, "Inelastic light scattering from correlated electrons," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 175-233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, W. N.

N. Gedik, J. Orenstein, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, and W. N. Hardy, "Diffusion of nonequilibrium quasi-particles in a cuprate superconductor," Science 300, 1410- 1412 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, C. A.

J. R. Meyer, F. J. Bartoli, E. R. Youngdale, and C. A. Hoffman, "Effects of energy gap and band structure on free-carrier nonlinear susceptibilites in semiconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4317-4321 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Inderhees, S. E.

S. E. Inderhees, M. B. Salamon, T. A. Friedmann, and D. M. Ginsberg, "Measurement of the specific-heat anomaly at the superconducting transition of YBa2Cu3O7-???," Phys. Rev. B 36, 2401-2403 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kotliar, G.

M. L. Tacon, A. Sacuto, A. Georges, G. Kotliar, Y. Gallais, D. Colson, and A. Forget, "Two energy scales and two distinct quasiparticle dynamics in the superconducting state of the underdoped cuprates," Nature Phys. 2, 537-543 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, R.

N. Gedik, J. Orenstein, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, and W. N. Hardy, "Diffusion of nonequilibrium quasi-particles in a cuprate superconductor," Science 300, 1410- 1412 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lobastov, V. A.

A. N. Zherikhin, V. A. Lobastov, V. M. Petnikova, and V. V. Shuvalov, "Biharmonic pumping technique for Y-Ba-Cu-O energy spectrum research in the vicinity of the phase transition," Phys. Lett. A 179, 145-148 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Bagratashvili, V. A. Lobastov, A. N. Zherikhin, V. M. Petnikova, and V. V. Shuvalov, "Nonlinear spectroscopy of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Ni thin films by a biharmonic pumping technique," Phys. Lett. A 164, 99-102 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. R.

J. R. Meyer, F. J. Bartoli, E. R. Youngdale, and C. A. Hoffman, "Effects of energy gap and band structure on free-carrier nonlinear susceptibilites in semiconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4317-4321 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Newns, D. M.

D. M. Newns and C. C. Tsuei, "Fluctuating CuOCu bond model of high-temperature superconductivity," Nature Phys. 3, 184-191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Orenstein, J.

N. Gedik, J. Orenstein, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, and W. N. Hardy, "Diffusion of nonequilibrium quasi-particles in a cuprate superconductor," Science 300, 1410- 1412 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petnikova, V. M.

A. N. Zherikhin, V. A. Lobastov, V. M. Petnikova, and V. V. Shuvalov, "Biharmonic pumping technique for Y-Ba-Cu-O energy spectrum research in the vicinity of the phase transition," Phys. Lett. A 179, 145-148 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Bagratashvili, V. A. Lobastov, A. N. Zherikhin, V. M. Petnikova, and V. V. Shuvalov, "Nonlinear spectroscopy of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Ni thin films by a biharmonic pumping technique," Phys. Lett. A 164, 99-102 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sacuto, A.

M. L. Tacon, A. Sacuto, A. Georges, G. Kotliar, Y. Gallais, D. Colson, and A. Forget, "Two energy scales and two distinct quasiparticle dynamics in the superconducting state of the underdoped cuprates," Nature Phys. 2, 537-543 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salamon, M. B.

S. E. Inderhees, M. B. Salamon, T. A. Friedmann, and D. M. Ginsberg, "Measurement of the specific-heat anomaly at the superconducting transition of YBa2Cu3O7-???," Phys. Rev. B 36, 2401-2403 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

D. S. Chemla and J. Shah, "Many-body and correlation effects in semiconductors," Nature 411, 549-557 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shuvalov, V. V.

A. N. Zherikhin, V. A. Lobastov, V. M. Petnikova, and V. V. Shuvalov, "Biharmonic pumping technique for Y-Ba-Cu-O energy spectrum research in the vicinity of the phase transition," Phys. Lett. A 179, 145-148 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Bagratashvili, V. A. Lobastov, A. N. Zherikhin, V. M. Petnikova, and V. V. Shuvalov, "Nonlinear spectroscopy of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Ni thin films by a biharmonic pumping technique," Phys. Lett. A 164, 99-102 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tacon, M. L.

M. L. Tacon, A. Sacuto, A. Georges, G. Kotliar, Y. Gallais, D. Colson, and A. Forget, "Two energy scales and two distinct quasiparticle dynamics in the superconducting state of the underdoped cuprates," Nature Phys. 2, 537-543 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsuei, C. C.

D. M. Newns and C. C. Tsuei, "Fluctuating CuOCu bond model of high-temperature superconductivity," Nature Phys. 3, 184-191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Youngdale, E. R.

J. R. Meyer, F. J. Bartoli, E. R. Youngdale, and C. A. Hoffman, "Effects of energy gap and band structure on free-carrier nonlinear susceptibilites in semiconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4317-4321 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A. M.

A. M. Zheltikov, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering: from proof-of-the-principle experiments to femtosecond CARS and higher order wave-mixing generalizations," J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 653-667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zherikhin, A. N.

A. N. Zherikhin, V. A. Lobastov, V. M. Petnikova, and V. V. Shuvalov, "Biharmonic pumping technique for Y-Ba-Cu-O energy spectrum research in the vicinity of the phase transition," Phys. Lett. A 179, 145-148 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Bagratashvili, V. A. Lobastov, A. N. Zherikhin, V. M. Petnikova, and V. V. Shuvalov, "Nonlinear spectroscopy of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Ni thin films by a biharmonic pumping technique," Phys. Lett. A 164, 99-102 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. R. Meyer, F. J. Bartoli, E. R. Youngdale, and C. A. Hoffman, "Effects of energy gap and band structure on free-carrier nonlinear susceptibilites in semiconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4317-4321 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

A. M. Zheltikov, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering: from proof-of-the-principle experiments to femtosecond CARS and higher order wave-mixing generalizations," J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 653-667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. S. Chemla and J. Shah, "Many-body and correlation effects in semiconductors," Nature 411, 549-557 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Phys. (2)

M. L. Tacon, A. Sacuto, A. Georges, G. Kotliar, Y. Gallais, D. Colson, and A. Forget, "Two energy scales and two distinct quasiparticle dynamics in the superconducting state of the underdoped cuprates," Nature Phys. 2, 537-543 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Newns and C. C. Tsuei, "Fluctuating CuOCu bond model of high-temperature superconductivity," Nature Phys. 3, 184-191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Fainberg, "Laser-induced grating spectroscopy of electron-phonon interaction in metallic and hightemperature superconductors," Opt. Commun. 89, 403-409 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (2)

V. N. Bagratashvili, V. A. Lobastov, A. N. Zherikhin, V. M. Petnikova, and V. V. Shuvalov, "Nonlinear spectroscopy of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Ni thin films by a biharmonic pumping technique," Phys. Lett. A 164, 99-102 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Zherikhin, V. A. Lobastov, V. M. Petnikova, and V. V. Shuvalov, "Biharmonic pumping technique for Y-Ba-Cu-O energy spectrum research in the vicinity of the phase transition," Phys. Lett. A 179, 145-148 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. E. Inderhees, M. B. Salamon, T. A. Friedmann, and D. M. Ginsberg, "Measurement of the specific-heat anomaly at the superconducting transition of YBa2Cu3O7-???," Phys. Rev. B 36, 2401-2403 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. Bozovic, "Plasmons in cuprate superconductors," Phys. Rev. B 42, 1969-1984 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Physica C (1)

M. Cardona, "Raman scattering in high T superconductors: phonons, electrons, and electronphonon interaction," Physica C 317-318, 30-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

T. P. Devereaux and R. Hackl, "Inelastic light scattering from correlated electrons," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 175-233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

N. Gedik, J. Orenstein, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, and W. N. Hardy, "Diffusion of nonequilibrium quasi-particles in a cuprate superconductor," Science 300, 1410- 1412 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

M. D. Levenson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic Press, New York, 1982).

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984).

S. Mukamel, Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy (Oxford University Press, New York, 1995).

C. Thomsen and G. Kaczmarczyk, "Vibrational Raman spectroscopy of high-temperature superconductors," in Handbook of vibrational spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths, eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 2002), pp. 2651-2669.

It must be noted that our experimental geometry leads to a small walk-off of the output CRS wave during wavelength tuning, small enough not to lead to significant variations in our detection sensitivity (to minimize this effect, we arranged the detection line so as to have all beam displacements occurring along the long axis of the monochromator entrance slit).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experiment illustration. (a) Apparatus layout. Acronym legend: BBO - nonlinear crystal used for synchronization and testing; OPG - optical parametric generator; MC - monochromator; DA - data acquisition. (b) Geometry of the wave mixing process: Shown are the input pump and tuner waves directions (thick green and red arrows), the corresponding reflected waves (thin green and red arrows), and the CRS output wave (thick blue arrow), all lying within the same (incidence) plane. The gray wavy line inside the sample represents the optically-induced dynamical grating.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Coherent Raman reflection spectra from a germanium single crystal. Data: gray lines. Best-fit theory: black line. Upper panel: crossed polarization combination (ps or sp). Lower panel: parallel polarization combination (pp or ss). Positive frequencies refer to the anti-Stokes branch and negative ones to the Stokes branch.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Coherent Raman reflection spectra from YBCO thin films at room temperature (parallel polarization combination). Data: gray lines. Best-fit theory: black line. Positive frequencies refer to the anti-Stokes branch and negative ones to the Stokes branch.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Best-fit values of the YBCO CRS response parameters entering Eq. (2)

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( Δ ω ) = A Δ ω + i Γ B ( ± ) e i φ Δ ω ω 0 + i γ 0 2
I ( ± ) ( Δ ω ) = A ( ± ) Δ ω + i Γ ( ± ) h = 1 4 B h ( ± ) e i φ h ( ± ) Δ ω ω h + i γ h 2

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