Abstract

The substrates in emitting structure were found to have an influence on the surface plasmon mediated light emission of ZnO films. Ag film mediated photoluminescence was quenched for ZnO on silicon substrate but enhanced for ZnO on quartz or sapphire substrate. Through a theoretical simulation, the quenching for ZnO on silicon substrate is ascribed to the power lost to the substrate mode nonradiatively at the expense of the power coupled to the SP mode. The substrate with a high refractive index may capture and dissipate the emitting power which limits the efficiency of SP mediated light extraction. Therefore, a proper arrangement of the refractive index of the substrate and emitting layers in the device structure is decisive for the SP coupled light emission enhancement. Base on the theoretical analysis, a four-layered structure was advanced to recover SP mediated emission enhancement from ZnO film on silicon substrate.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, "Lifetime of an emitting molecule near a partially reflecting surface," J.Chem. Phys. 60, 2744-2748 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Axel Scherer,"Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. J. Yates, I. D. W. Samuel, P. L. Burn, S. Wedge, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon-polariton mediated emission from phosphorescent dendrimer light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,161105-1-3 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, "Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,041119-1-3 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. S. Biteen, D. Pacifici, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, "Enhance radiative emission rate and quantum efficiency in coupled silicon nanocrystal-nanostructured gold emitters," Nano Lett. 5, 1768-1773 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Y. Lei, J. Li, and H. C. Ong, "Tunable surface plasmon mediated emission from semiconductors by using metal alloys," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 021112-1-3 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. D. Neal, K. Okamoto, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced emission from dye doped polymer layers," Opt. Express. 13, 5522-5528 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Wedge and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon-polariton mediated light emission through thin metal films," Opt. Express. 12, 3673-3685 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. L. Barnes and P. T. Worthing, "Spontaneous emission and metal-clad microcavities," Opt. Commun. 162, 16-20 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C.-Y. Chen, D.-M. Yeh, Y.-C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, "Dependence of resonant coupling between surface plasmons and an InGaN quantum well on metallic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 203113-1-3 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, "Comments on the classical theory of energy transfer," J. Chem. Phys. 62, 2245-2253 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. G. Sullivan and D. G. Hall, "Enhancement and inhibition of electromagnetic radiation in plane-layered media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1149-1159 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Kawabata, K. Ishihara, Y. Hoshi, and T. Fukazawa, "Observation of silver film growth using an in situ ultra-high vacuum spectroscopic ellipsometer," Thin Solid Film 313-314, 516-521 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. EdwardD.  Palik, Handbook of optical constant of solid (Academic, 1985)
  15. B. J. Soller and D. G. Hall, "Energy transfer at optical frequencies to silicon-based waveguiding structures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2577-2584 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Nakamura, M. Fujii, K. Imakita, and S. Hayashi, "Modification of energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+ near a Au thin film," Phys. Rev. B 72, 235412-1-6 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. M. Amos and W. L. Barnes, "Modification of the spontaneous emission rate of Eu3+ ions close to a thin metal mirror," Phys. Rev. B 55, 7249-7254 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. <jrn>. J. Kalkman, H. Gersen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, "Excitation of surface plasmons at SiO2/Ag interface by silicon quantum dots:experiment and theory, " Phys. Rev. B 73, 075317-1-8 (2006).</jrn>
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. S. Biteen, D. Pacifici, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, "Enhance radiative emission rate and quantum efficiency in coupled silicon nanocrystal-nanostructured gold emitters," Nano Lett. 5, 1768-1773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Neal, K. Okamoto, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced emission from dye doped polymer layers," Opt. Express. 13, 5522-5528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. Wedge and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon-polariton mediated light emission through thin metal films," Opt. Express. 12, 3673-3685 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Axel Scherer,"Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

W. L. Barnes and P. T. Worthing, "Spontaneous emission and metal-clad microcavities," Opt. Commun. 162, 16-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Kawabata, K. Ishihara, Y. Hoshi, and T. Fukazawa, "Observation of silver film growth using an in situ ultra-high vacuum spectroscopic ellipsometer," Thin Solid Film 313-314, 516-521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

K. G. Sullivan and D. G. Hall, "Enhancement and inhibition of electromagnetic radiation in plane-layered media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1149-1159 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Amos and W. L. Barnes, "Modification of the spontaneous emission rate of Eu3+ ions close to a thin metal mirror," Phys. Rev. B 55, 7249-7254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, "Comments on the classical theory of energy transfer," J. Chem. Phys. 62, 2245-2253 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, "Lifetime of an emitting molecule near a partially reflecting surface," J.Chem. Phys. 60, 2744-2748 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Amos, R. M.

R. M. Amos and W. L. Barnes, "Modification of the spontaneous emission rate of Eu3+ ions close to a thin metal mirror," Phys. Rev. B 55, 7249-7254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. S. Biteen, D. Pacifici, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, "Enhance radiative emission rate and quantum efficiency in coupled silicon nanocrystal-nanostructured gold emitters," Nano Lett. 5, 1768-1773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

S. Wedge and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon-polariton mediated light emission through thin metal films," Opt. Express. 12, 3673-3685 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes and P. T. Worthing, "Spontaneous emission and metal-clad microcavities," Opt. Commun. 162, 16-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Amos and W. L. Barnes, "Modification of the spontaneous emission rate of Eu3+ ions close to a thin metal mirror," Phys. Rev. B 55, 7249-7254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biteen, J. S.

J. S. Biteen, D. Pacifici, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, "Enhance radiative emission rate and quantum efficiency in coupled silicon nanocrystal-nanostructured gold emitters," Nano Lett. 5, 1768-1773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, R. R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, "Comments on the classical theory of energy transfer," J. Chem. Phys. 62, 2245-2253 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, "Lifetime of an emitting molecule near a partially reflecting surface," J.Chem. Phys. 60, 2744-2748 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Fukazawa, T.

S. Kawabata, K. Ishihara, Y. Hoshi, and T. Fukazawa, "Observation of silver film growth using an in situ ultra-high vacuum spectroscopic ellipsometer," Thin Solid Film 313-314, 516-521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

Hoshi, Y.

S. Kawabata, K. Ishihara, Y. Hoshi, and T. Fukazawa, "Observation of silver film growth using an in situ ultra-high vacuum spectroscopic ellipsometer," Thin Solid Film 313-314, 516-521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

S. Kawabata, K. Ishihara, Y. Hoshi, and T. Fukazawa, "Observation of silver film growth using an in situ ultra-high vacuum spectroscopic ellipsometer," Thin Solid Film 313-314, 516-521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawabata, S.

S. Kawabata, K. Ishihara, Y. Hoshi, and T. Fukazawa, "Observation of silver film growth using an in situ ultra-high vacuum spectroscopic ellipsometer," Thin Solid Film 313-314, 516-521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, N. S.

J. S. Biteen, D. Pacifici, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, "Enhance radiative emission rate and quantum efficiency in coupled silicon nanocrystal-nanostructured gold emitters," Nano Lett. 5, 1768-1773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Axel Scherer,"Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Axel Scherer,"Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neal, T. D.

T. D. Neal, K. Okamoto, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced emission from dye doped polymer layers," Opt. Express. 13, 5522-5528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Axel Scherer,"Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, K.

T. D. Neal, K. Okamoto, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced emission from dye doped polymer layers," Opt. Express. 13, 5522-5528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Axel Scherer,"Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacifici, D.

J. S. Biteen, D. Pacifici, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, "Enhance radiative emission rate and quantum efficiency in coupled silicon nanocrystal-nanostructured gold emitters," Nano Lett. 5, 1768-1773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prock, A.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, "Comments on the classical theory of energy transfer," J. Chem. Phys. 62, 2245-2253 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, "Lifetime of an emitting molecule near a partially reflecting surface," J.Chem. Phys. 60, 2744-2748 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

T. D. Neal, K. Okamoto, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced emission from dye doped polymer layers," Opt. Express. 13, 5522-5528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, Axel

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Axel Scherer,"Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Axel Scherer,"Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silbey, R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, "Comments on the classical theory of energy transfer," J. Chem. Phys. 62, 2245-2253 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, "Lifetime of an emitting molecule near a partially reflecting surface," J.Chem. Phys. 60, 2744-2748 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Soller, B. J.

Sullivan, K. G.

Wedge, S.

S. Wedge and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon-polariton mediated light emission through thin metal films," Opt. Express. 12, 3673-3685 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Worthing, P. T.

W. L. Barnes and P. T. Worthing, "Spontaneous emission and metal-clad microcavities," Opt. Commun. 162, 16-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, "Comments on the classical theory of energy transfer," J. Chem. Phys. 62, 2245-2253 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J.Chem. Phys. (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, "Lifetime of an emitting molecule near a partially reflecting surface," J.Chem. Phys. 60, 2744-2748 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. S. Biteen, D. Pacifici, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, "Enhance radiative emission rate and quantum efficiency in coupled silicon nanocrystal-nanostructured gold emitters," Nano Lett. 5, 1768-1773 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Axel Scherer,"Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. L. Barnes and P. T. Worthing, "Spontaneous emission and metal-clad microcavities," Opt. Commun. 162, 16-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express. (2)

T. D. Neal, K. Okamoto, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced emission from dye doped polymer layers," Opt. Express. 13, 5522-5528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wedge and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon-polariton mediated light emission through thin metal films," Opt. Express. 12, 3673-3685 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. M. Amos and W. L. Barnes, "Modification of the spontaneous emission rate of Eu3+ ions close to a thin metal mirror," Phys. Rev. B 55, 7249-7254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Film (1)

S. Kawabata, K. Ishihara, Y. Hoshi, and T. Fukazawa, "Observation of silver film growth using an in situ ultra-high vacuum spectroscopic ellipsometer," Thin Solid Film 313-314, 516-521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

EdwardD.  Palik, Handbook of optical constant of solid (Academic, 1985)

C.-Y. Chen, D.-M. Yeh, Y.-C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, "Dependence of resonant coupling between surface plasmons and an InGaN quantum well on metallic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 203113-1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakamura, M. Fujii, K. Imakita, and S. Hayashi, "Modification of energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+ near a Au thin film," Phys. Rev. B 72, 235412-1-6 (2005)
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Lei, J. Li, and H. C. Ong, "Tunable surface plasmon mediated emission from semiconductors by using metal alloys," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 021112-1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Yates, I. D. W. Samuel, P. L. Burn, S. Wedge, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon-polariton mediated emission from phosphorescent dendrimer light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,161105-1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, "Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,041119-1-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

<jrn>. J. Kalkman, H. Gersen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, "Excitation of surface plasmons at SiO2/Ag interface by silicon quantum dots:experiment and theory, " Phys. Rev. B 73, 075317-1-8 (2006).</jrn>
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematics of the Si/ZnO/Ag sample structure; (b) Cross-section SEM image of the sample quartz/ZnO/Ag; (c) Schematics of the structure of the four-layer sample Si/SiO2/ZnO/Ag.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photoluminescence of (a) quartz/ZnO/Ag, (b)sapphire/ZnO/Ag, and (c) Si/ZnO/Ag; solid line: before Ag sputtering, broken line: after Ag sputtering.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Calculated power spectra versus the normalized transverse wavenumber of the quartz/ZnO/Ag, sapphire/ZnO/Ag and Si/ZnO/Ag; (b) Calculated power spectra versus the normalized transverse wavenumber for substrate/ZnO/Ag, The refractive index of the substrate varies from 2 to 6.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Calculated power spectrum versus the normalized transverse wavenumber of quartz/ZnO/Ag, sapphire/ZnO/Ag, and Si/SiO2/ZnO/Ag; (b) Photoluminescence of Si/SiO2/ZnO/Ag and reference sample.

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