Abstract

Green top-emitting organic light-emitting devices based on tris-(8-hydroxyl-quinoline) aluminum are fabricated with a low reflective Sm/Ag cathode and a comparative Al/Ag cathode. An additional 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (BCP) layer, used as a light outcoupling layer, is deposited onto the SmAg cathode to improve device performances. The influence of different cathodes and the BCP layer on electrical and optical characteristics are investigated and discussed. It is worth mentioning that the introduction of the BCP layer not only enhances the brightness and the luminous efficiency but also improves the viewing angle and the pixel contrast ratio.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, "Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca-Ag double layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4614-4616 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, "Green top-emitting organic light emitting device with transparent Ba/Ag bilayer cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123501-123503 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, "Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515-113517 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043505-043507 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, "Highly efficient top-emitting white organic electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508-253510 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Chen, W. Xie, Y. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10- phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electro-luminescent performances in top-emitting organic light- emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Chen, Y. Zhao, G. Cheng, J. Li, C. Liu, Z. Zhao, Z. Jie, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153517-153519 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (1)

S. Chen, W. Xie, Y. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10- phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electro-luminescent performances in top-emitting organic light- emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

S. Chen, Y. Zhao, G. Cheng, J. Li, C. Liu, Z. Zhao, Z. Jie, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153517-153519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, "Green top-emitting organic light emitting device with transparent Ba/Ag bilayer cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123501-123503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, "Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515-113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043505-043507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, "Highly efficient top-emitting white organic electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508-253510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, "High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207-1209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, "Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca-Ag double layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4614-4616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Fred Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, RogerJ. Malik, M. Micovic, and D. L. Cliller, "Temperature and modulation characteristics of resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1721 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Bajcar, R. C.

Chen, C. H.

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, "Highly efficient top-emitting white organic electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508-253510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

S. Chen, W. Xie, Y. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10- phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electro-luminescent performances in top-emitting organic light- emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, W. Xie, Y. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10- phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electro-luminescent performances in top-emitting organic light- emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043505-043507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Y. Zhao, G. Cheng, J. Li, C. Liu, Z. Zhao, Z. Jie, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153517-153519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, G.

S. Chen, Y. Zhao, G. Cheng, J. Li, C. Liu, Z. Zhao, Z. Jie, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153517-153519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043505-043507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Dodabalapur, A.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fred Schubert, E.

E. Fred Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, RogerJ. Malik, M. Micovic, and D. L. Cliller, "Temperature and modulation characteristics of resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1721 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. I.

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, "Green top-emitting organic light emitting device with transparent Ba/Ag bilayer cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123501-123503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, "Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca-Ag double layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4614-4616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

He, G.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, "Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515-113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S.-F.

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, "Highly efficient top-emitting white organic electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508-253510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Q.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, "Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515-113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hung, L. S.

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, "High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207-1209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, N. E. J.

E. Fred Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, RogerJ. Malik, M. Micovic, and D. L. Cliller, "Temperature and modulation characteristics of resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1721 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S.-W.

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, "Highly efficient top-emitting white organic electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508-253510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jie, Z.

S. Chen, Y. Zhao, G. Cheng, J. Li, C. Liu, Z. Zhao, Z. Jie, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153517-153519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043505-043507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. H.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. J.

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, "Green top-emitting organic light emitting device with transparent Ba/Ag bilayer cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123501-123503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, "Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca-Ag double layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4614-4616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-C.

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, "Highly efficient top-emitting white organic electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508-253510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, "Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515-113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

S. Chen, Y. Zhao, G. Cheng, J. Li, C. Liu, Z. Zhao, Z. Jie, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153517-153519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

S. Chen, Y. Zhao, G. Cheng, J. Li, C. Liu, Z. Zhao, Z. Jie, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153517-153519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

S. Chen, W. Xie, Y. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10- phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electro-luminescent performances in top-emitting organic light- emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043505-043507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Y. Zhao, G. Cheng, J. Li, C. Liu, Z. Zhao, Z. Jie, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153517-153519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lyssenko, V.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, "Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515-113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Y.

S. Chen, W. Xie, Y. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10- phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electro-luminescent performances in top-emitting organic light- emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. G.

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, "Green top-emitting organic light emitting device with transparent Ba/Ag bilayer cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123501-123503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, "Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca-Ag double layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4614-4616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, M.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, "Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515-113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pode, R. B.

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, "Green top-emitting organic light emitting device with transparent Ba/Ag bilayer cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123501-123503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, "Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca-Ag double layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4614-4616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quan, B.

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043505-043507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roger, N. E. J.

E. Fred Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, RogerJ. Malik, M. Micovic, and D. L. Cliller, "Temperature and modulation characteristics of resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1721 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L. J.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, B. T.

Walzer, K.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, "Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515-113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043505-043507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W.

S. Chen, W. Xie, Y. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10- phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electro-luminescent performances in top-emitting organic light- emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, "High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207-1209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

S. Chen, W. Xie, Y. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10- phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electro-luminescent performances in top-emitting organic light- emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043505-043507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Y. Zhao, G. Cheng, J. Li, C. Liu, Z. Zhao, Z. Jie, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153517-153519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

S. Chen, Y. Zhao, G. Cheng, J. Li, C. Liu, Z. Zhao, Z. Jie, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153517-153519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043505-043507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, "High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207-1209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, "Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca-Ag double layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4614-4616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, "Green top-emitting organic light emitting device with transparent Ba/Ag bilayer cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123501-123503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, "Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515-113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043505-043507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, "Highly efficient top-emitting white organic electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508-253510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Y. Zhao, G. Cheng, J. Li, C. Liu, Z. Zhao, Z. Jie, and S. Liu, "Improved light outcoupling for phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153517-153519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Chen, W. Xie, Y. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10- phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electro-luminescent performances in top-emitting organic light- emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

E. Fred Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, RogerJ. Malik, M. Micovic, and D. L. Cliller, "Temperature and modulation characteristics of resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1721 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Styles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

http://homepages.wmich.edu/~korista/sun-images/solar_specbb.jpg.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Comparison of reflective curves for the 23 nm-thick Sm and Ag film, and (b) schematic illustration of devices A, B, and C.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) (Color online) L-J-V, (b) L-J, and (c) η-V characteristics of devices A, B, and C.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Color online) The T(λ) and R(λ) characteristics of cathodes (a) and the R(λ) characteristic of the anode (b) of devices A, B, and C, and (c) resonant emission enhancement factors Gcav (λ) normalized to Z as described in the text.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(Color online) Dependence of EL spectra on the viewing angle of 0-80° for devices A (a), B (b), and C (c).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(Color online) (a) Luminous reflectance of devices A, B, and C, and (b) reflection of Ag (23 and 12 nm), Ag (12 nm)/Sm (11 nm), and BCP (97 nm)/Ag (12 nm)/Sm (11 nm).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G cav ( λ ) = ξ 2 × τ cav τ × ( 1 + R 1 ( λ ) ) 2 × T 2 ( λ ) ( 1 R 1 ( λ ) R 2 ( λ ) ) 2 . ( in the forward direction )
PCR = L on + LR L L off + LR L
R L = λ 1 λ 2 V ( λ ) S ( λ ) R ( λ ) d λ λ 1 λ 2 V ( λ ) S ( λ ) d λ ,

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