Abstract

We have investigated the quality factors of silicon-based photonic crystal nanocavities using the photoluminescence of a single layer of Ge/Si self-assembled islands as an internal source. We focus on membrane-type L3 elongated cavities with or without their lateral edge air holes shifted in position. The photoluminescence measurements are performed at room temperature. We show that the quality factor of the fundamental mode observed at a normalized frequency u=a/λ≃0.25 is strongly dependent on the incident pump power. This dependence is associated with the free-carrier absorption of the photogenerated carriers. The slope of the quality factor vs. incident pump power gives access to the carrier recombination dynamics in these Si-based nanocavities. The measurements indicate that the carrier dynamics is controlled by non-radiative recombination associated with surface recombinations. A surface recombination velocity of 4.8×104 cm/s is deduced from the experiments. The spectral red-shift of the cavity modes as a function of incident pump power is correlated to the temperature rise due to thermo-optic effects. The measured temperature rise, which can reach 190 K, is correlated to the value estimated by a thermal analysis.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Gerard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, "Enhanced spontaneous emission by quantum boxes in a monolithic optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110-1113 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Englund, I. Fushman, and J. Vuckovic, "General recipe for designing photonic crystal cavities," Opt. Express 13, 5961-5975 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Materials 4, 207-210 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nat. Photonics 1, 49-52 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Weidner, S. Combrie, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, J. Nagle, S. Cassette, A. Talneau, and H. Benisty, "Achievement of ultrahigh quality factors in GaAs photonic crystal membrane nanocavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, "Nonlinear response of silicon photonic crystal microresonators excited via an integrated waveguide and fiber taper," Opt. Express 13, 801-820 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, "Finely resolved transmission spectra and band structure of two-dimensional photonic crystals using emission from InAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, 1649-1652 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, "Probing photonic crystals on silicon-on-insulator with Ge/Si self-assembled islands as an internal source," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. David, S. Sauvage, N. Yam, F. Fossard, D. Bouchier, J.M. Fedeli, A. Salomon, V. Calvo, and E. Hadji, "Quality factor control of Si-based two-dimensional photonic crystals with a Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091122 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, M. Elkurdi, E. Mercier, T. Brunhes, V. Le Thanh, D. Bouchier, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, "Optical recombination from excited states in Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 64, 155310 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. D. Happ, I. I. Tartakovskii, V. D. Kulakovskii, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, "Enhanced light emission of InxGa1-xAs quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal defect microcavity," Phys. Rev. B 66, 041303 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. J. Sabbah and D. M. Riffe, "Measurement of silicon surface recombination velocity using ultrafast pumpprobe reflectivity in the near infrared," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6954-6956 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, "Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient in crystalline silicon between room temperature and 550 K at the wavelength of 1523 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3338-3340 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. D. McConnell and K. E. Goodson, "Thermal conduction in silicon micro- and nanostructures," Annual review of heat transfer 14, 129-168 (2005).
  25. G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, "Optical-absorption of silicon between 1.6-Ev and 4.7-Ev at elevatedtemperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 180-182 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Trupke, M. A. Green, P. Wurfel, P. P. Altermatt, A. Wang, J. Zhao, and R. Corkish, "Temperature dependence of the radiative recombination coefficient of intrinsic crystalline silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4930-4937 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Dziewior and W. Schmid, "Auger coefficients for highly doped and highly excited silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 346-348 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

2007

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nat. Photonics 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O???Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H. Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, "Probing photonic crystals on silicon-on-insulator with Ge/Si self-assembled islands as an internal source," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. David, S. Sauvage, N. Yam, F. Fossard, D. Bouchier, J.M. Fedeli, A. Salomon, V. Calvo, and E. Hadji, "Quality factor control of Si-based two-dimensional photonic crystals with a Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Xia, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, N. Usami, and Y. Nakata, "Strong resonant luminescence from Ge quantum dots in photonic crystal microcavity at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Weidner, S. Combrie, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, J. Nagle, S. Cassette, A. Talneau, and H. Benisty, "Achievement of ultrahigh quality factors in GaAs photonic crystal membrane nanocavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, "Nonlinear response of silicon photonic crystal microresonators excited via an integrated waveguide and fiber taper," Opt. Express 13, 801-820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, I. Fushman, and J. Vuckovic, "General recipe for designing photonic crystal cavities," Opt. Express 13, 5961-5975 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Materials 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H.M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B 72, 193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. David, M. El kurdi, P. Boucaud, A. Chelnokov, V. Le Thanh, D. Bouchier, and J. M. Lourtioz, "Twodimensional photonic crystals with Ge/Si self-assembled islands," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2509-2511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, P. Wurfel, P. P. Altermatt, A. Wang, J. Zhao, and R. Corkish, "Temperature dependence of the radiative recombination coefficient of intrinsic crystalline silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4930-4937 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. D. Happ, I. I. Tartakovskii, V. D. Kulakovskii, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, "Enhanced light emission of InxGa1-xAs quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal defect microcavity," Phys. Rev. B 66, 041303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, H. Mabuchi, and A. Scherer, "Optimization of the Q factor in photonic crystal microcavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 850-856 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, M. Elkurdi, E. Mercier, T. Brunhes, V. Le Thanh, D. Bouchier, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, "Optical recombination from excited states in Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 64, 155310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. J. Sabbah and D. M. Riffe, "Measurement of silicon surface recombination velocity using ultrafast pumpprobe reflectivity in the near infrared," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6954-6956 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, "Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient in crystalline silicon between room temperature and 550 K at the wavelength of 1523 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3338-3340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, "Finely resolved transmission spectra and band structure of two-dimensional photonic crystals using emission from InAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, 1649-1652 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. M. Gerard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, "Enhanced spontaneous emission by quantum boxes in a monolithic optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110-1113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, "Optical-absorption of silicon between 1.6-Ev and 4.7-Ev at elevatedtemperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 180-182 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977

J. Dziewior and W. Schmid, "Auger coefficients for highly doped and highly excited silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 346-348 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Materials 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altermatt, P. P.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, P. Wurfel, P. P. Altermatt, A. Wang, J. Zhao, and R. Corkish, "Temperature dependence of the radiative recombination coefficient of intrinsic crystalline silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4930-4937 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Materials 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barclay, P. E.

Benisty, H.

E. Weidner, S. Combrie, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, J. Nagle, S. Cassette, A. Talneau, and H. Benisty, "Achievement of ultrahigh quality factors in GaAs photonic crystal membrane nanocavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, "Finely resolved transmission spectra and band structure of two-dimensional photonic crystals using emission from InAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, 1649-1652 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bensahel, D.

X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, "Probing photonic crystals on silicon-on-insulator with Ge/Si self-assembled islands as an internal source," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, M. Elkurdi, E. Mercier, T. Brunhes, V. Le Thanh, D. Bouchier, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, "Optical recombination from excited states in Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 64, 155310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boucaud, P.

X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. David, S. Sauvage, N. Yam, F. Fossard, D. Bouchier, J.M. Fedeli, A. Salomon, V. Calvo, and E. Hadji, "Quality factor control of Si-based two-dimensional photonic crystals with a Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, "Probing photonic crystals on silicon-on-insulator with Ge/Si self-assembled islands as an internal source," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, M. Elkurdi, E. Mercier, T. Brunhes, V. Le Thanh, D. Bouchier, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, "Optical recombination from excited states in Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 64, 155310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bouchier, D.

X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. David, S. Sauvage, N. Yam, F. Fossard, D. Bouchier, J.M. Fedeli, A. Salomon, V. Calvo, and E. Hadji, "Quality factor control of Si-based two-dimensional photonic crystals with a Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, M. Elkurdi, E. Mercier, T. Brunhes, V. Le Thanh, D. Bouchier, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, "Optical recombination from excited states in Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 64, 155310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brunhes, T.

P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, M. Elkurdi, E. Mercier, T. Brunhes, V. Le Thanh, D. Bouchier, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, "Optical recombination from excited states in Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 64, 155310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Calvo, V.

X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. David, S. Sauvage, N. Yam, F. Fossard, D. Bouchier, J.M. Fedeli, A. Salomon, V. Calvo, and E. Hadji, "Quality factor control of Si-based two-dimensional photonic crystals with a Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campidelli, Y.

X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, "Probing photonic crystals on silicon-on-insulator with Ge/Si self-assembled islands as an internal source," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, M. Elkurdi, E. Mercier, T. Brunhes, V. Le Thanh, D. Bouchier, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, "Optical recombination from excited states in Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 64, 155310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cassette, S.

E. Weidner, S. Combrie, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, J. Nagle, S. Cassette, A. Talneau, and H. Benisty, "Achievement of ultrahigh quality factors in GaAs photonic crystal membrane nanocavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chalcraft, A. R. A.

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O???Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H. Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Checoury, X.

X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, "Probing photonic crystals on silicon-on-insulator with Ge/Si self-assembled islands as an internal source," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. David, S. Sauvage, N. Yam, F. Fossard, D. Bouchier, J.M. Fedeli, A. Salomon, V. Calvo, and E. Hadji, "Quality factor control of Si-based two-dimensional photonic crystals with a Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christenson, C.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H.M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B 72, 193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cocorullo, G.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, "Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient in crystalline silicon between room temperature and 550 K at the wavelength of 1523 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3338-3340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Combrie, S.

E. Weidner, S. Combrie, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, J. Nagle, S. Cassette, A. Talneau, and H. Benisty, "Achievement of ultrahigh quality factors in GaAs photonic crystal membrane nanocavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corkish, R.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, P. Wurfel, P. P. Altermatt, A. Wang, J. Zhao, and R. Corkish, "Temperature dependence of the radiative recombination coefficient of intrinsic crystalline silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4930-4937 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Costard, E.

J. M. Gerard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, "Enhanced spontaneous emission by quantum boxes in a monolithic optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110-1113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

David, S.

X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. David, S. Sauvage, N. Yam, F. Fossard, D. Bouchier, J.M. Fedeli, A. Salomon, V. Calvo, and E. Hadji, "Quality factor control of Si-based two-dimensional photonic crystals with a Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H.M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B 72, 193303 (2005).
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E. Weidner, S. Combrie, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, J. Nagle, S. Cassette, A. Talneau, and H. Benisty, "Achievement of ultrahigh quality factors in GaAs photonic crystal membrane nanocavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221104 (2006).
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A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O???Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H. Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241117 (2007).
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D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, "Finely resolved transmission spectra and band structure of two-dimensional photonic crystals using emission from InAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, 1649-1652 (1999).
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A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O???Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H. Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241117 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H.M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B 72, 193303 (2005).
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X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. David, S. Sauvage, N. Yam, F. Fossard, D. Bouchier, J.M. Fedeli, A. Salomon, V. Calvo, and E. Hadji, "Quality factor control of Si-based two-dimensional photonic crystals with a Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091122 (2006).
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A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O???Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H. Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241117 (2007).
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X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. David, S. Sauvage, N. Yam, F. Fossard, D. Bouchier, J.M. Fedeli, A. Salomon, V. Calvo, and E. Hadji, "Quality factor control of Si-based two-dimensional photonic crystals with a Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091122 (2006).
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J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H.M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B 72, 193303 (2005).
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T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, H. Mabuchi, and A. Scherer, "Optimization of the Q factor in photonic crystal microcavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 850-856 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, W.

J. Dziewior and W. Schmid, "Auger coefficients for highly doped and highly excited silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 346-348 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sermage, B.

J. M. Gerard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, "Enhanced spontaneous emission by quantum boxes in a monolithic optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110-1113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H.M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B 72, 193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinya, A.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nat. Photonics 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shiraki, Y.

J. S. Xia, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, N. Usami, and Y. Nakata, "Strong resonant luminescence from Ge quantum dots in photonic crystal microcavity at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skolnick, M. S.

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O???Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H. Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. J. M.

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, "Finely resolved transmission spectra and band structure of two-dimensional photonic crystals using emission from InAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, 1649-1652 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Song, B. S.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Materials 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, K.

Sweet, J.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H.M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B 72, 193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Szymanski, D.

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O???Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H. Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Talneau, A.

E. Weidner, S. Combrie, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, J. Nagle, S. Cassette, A. Talneau, and H. Benisty, "Achievement of ultrahigh quality factors in GaAs photonic crystal membrane nanocavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nat. Photonics 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taniyama, H.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nat. Photonics 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tartakovskii, I. I.

T. D. Happ, I. I. Tartakovskii, V. D. Kulakovskii, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, "Enhanced light emission of InxGa1-xAs quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal defect microcavity," Phys. Rev. B 66, 041303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thierry-Mieg, V.

J. M. Gerard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, "Enhanced spontaneous emission by quantum boxes in a monolithic optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110-1113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tran, N. V. Q.

E. Weidner, S. Combrie, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, J. Nagle, S. Cassette, A. Talneau, and H. Benisty, "Achievement of ultrahigh quality factors in GaAs photonic crystal membrane nanocavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, P. Wurfel, P. P. Altermatt, A. Wang, J. Zhao, and R. Corkish, "Temperature dependence of the radiative recombination coefficient of intrinsic crystalline silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4930-4937 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Usami, N.

J. S. Xia, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, N. Usami, and Y. Nakata, "Strong resonant luminescence from Ge quantum dots in photonic crystal microcavity at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

D. Englund, I. Fushman, and J. Vuckovic, "General recipe for designing photonic crystal cavities," Opt. Express 13, 5961-5975 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, H. Mabuchi, and A. Scherer, "Optimization of the Q factor in photonic crystal microcavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 850-856 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, P. Wurfel, P. P. Altermatt, A. Wang, J. Zhao, and R. Corkish, "Temperature dependence of the radiative recombination coefficient of intrinsic crystalline silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4930-4937 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weidner, E.

E. Weidner, S. Combrie, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, J. Nagle, S. Cassette, A. Talneau, and H. Benisty, "Achievement of ultrahigh quality factors in GaAs photonic crystal membrane nanocavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, "Finely resolved transmission spectra and band structure of two-dimensional photonic crystals using emission from InAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, 1649-1652 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, D. M.

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O???Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H. Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wurfel, P.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, P. Wurfel, P. P. Altermatt, A. Wang, J. Zhao, and R. Corkish, "Temperature dependence of the radiative recombination coefficient of intrinsic crystalline silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4930-4937 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xia, J. S.

J. S. Xia, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, N. Usami, and Y. Nakata, "Strong resonant luminescence from Ge quantum dots in photonic crystal microcavity at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yam, N.

X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. David, S. Sauvage, N. Yam, F. Fossard, D. Bouchier, J.M. Fedeli, A. Salomon, V. Calvo, and E. Hadji, "Quality factor control of Si-based two-dimensional photonic crystals with a Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshie, T.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H.M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B 72, 193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, P. Wurfel, P. P. Altermatt, A. Wang, J. Zhao, and R. Corkish, "Temperature dependence of the radiative recombination coefficient of intrinsic crystalline silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4930-4937 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Weidner, S. Combrie, N. V. Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, J. Nagle, S. Cassette, A. Talneau, and H. Benisty, "Achievement of ultrahigh quality factors in GaAs photonic crystal membrane nanocavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. David, M. El kurdi, P. Boucaud, A. Chelnokov, V. Le Thanh, D. Bouchier, and J. M. Lourtioz, "Twodimensional photonic crystals with Ge/Si self-assembled islands," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2509-2511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. David, S. Sauvage, N. Yam, F. Fossard, D. Bouchier, J.M. Fedeli, A. Salomon, V. Calvo, and E. Hadji, "Quality factor control of Si-based two-dimensional photonic crystals with a Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Xia, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, N. Usami, and Y. Nakata, "Strong resonant luminescence from Ge quantum dots in photonic crystal microcavity at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O???Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H. Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, "Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient in crystalline silicon between room temperature and 550 K at the wavelength of 1523 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3338-3340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, "Optical-absorption of silicon between 1.6-Ev and 4.7-Ev at elevatedtemperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 180-182 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Dziewior and W. Schmid, "Auger coefficients for highly doped and highly excited silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 346-348 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, H. Mabuchi, and A. Scherer, "Optimization of the Q factor in photonic crystal microcavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 850-856 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

X. Li, P. Boucaud, X. Checoury, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, "Probing photonic crystals on silicon-on-insulator with Ge/Si self-assembled islands as an internal source," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Sabbah and D. M. Riffe, "Measurement of silicon surface recombination velocity using ultrafast pumpprobe reflectivity in the near infrared," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6954-6956 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, P. Wurfel, P. P. Altermatt, A. Wang, J. Zhao, and R. Corkish, "Temperature dependence of the radiative recombination coefficient of intrinsic crystalline silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4930-4937 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nat. Photonics 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Materials

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Materials 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, "Finely resolved transmission spectra and band structure of two-dimensional photonic crystals using emission from InAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, 1649-1652 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H.M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B 72, 193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, M. Elkurdi, E. Mercier, T. Brunhes, V. Le Thanh, D. Bouchier, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, "Optical recombination from excited states in Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 64, 155310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Happ, I. I. Tartakovskii, V. D. Kulakovskii, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, "Enhanced light emission of InxGa1-xAs quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal defect microcavity," Phys. Rev. B 66, 041303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gerard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, "Enhanced spontaneous emission by quantum boxes in a monolithic optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110-1113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. D. McConnell and K. E. Goodson, "Thermal conduction in silicon micro- and nanostructures," Annual review of heat transfer 14, 129-168 (2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Scanning electron micrograph image of the L3 cavity. (b) Scanning electron micrograph image of the cavity with laterally shifted air holes (0.15 a).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

a) Room temperature photoluminescence of the L3 cavity as shown in Fig. 1 (a). (b) Room temperature photoluminescence of an elongated three-hole defect cavity with laterally shifted air holes (0.15 a) as shown in Fig. 1 (b). The incident excitation power is 1 mW. (c) Calculated radiation spectrum of the L3 cavity obtained by 3D-FDTD simulation. (d) Calculated radiation spectrum of the L3 cavity with laterally shifted air holes (0.15 a) obtained by 3D-FDTD simulation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Quality factor of the fundamental mode as a function of the symmetric lateral shift of the edge air holes of the L3 cavity. The spectrometer resolution limits the measurement at 16 000.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Room temperature photoluminescence of the unprocessed sample (bottom figure) as compared to the photoluminescence of the L3 cavity with shifted air holes (0.15 a) (upper panel). The photoluminescence of the unprocessed sample has been multiplied by a factor of 10. The incident excitation power is 1 mW for both measurements. The dominant peak corresponds to an amplitude of 100 cts/s.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dependence of the quality factor of the fundamental mode as a function of the incident excitation power for the L3 cavity and the L3 cavity with shifted air holes (0.15 a). The full lines correspond to the numerical fit as described in the text, with an intrinsic quality factor of 5160 and 20000 respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Dependence of the resonance wavelength of the fundamental mode as a function of the incident excitation power. The full line is a guide to the eye. The inset shows a comparison between the measured temperature rise, deduced from the wavelength shift, and the calculated temperature rise.

Equations (1)

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d N d t = α I h v N τ nr B N 2 C N 3

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