Abstract

Disordered GaN nanopillars of three different heights: 300, 550, and 720 nm are fabricated, and demonstrate broad angular and spectral antireflective characteristics, up to an incident angle of 60� and for the wavelength range of λ=300-1800nm. An algorithm based on a rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method is developed to investigate the correlations between the reflective characteristics and the structural properties of the nanopillars. The broadband and omnidirectional antireflection arises mainly from the refractive-index gradient provided by nanopillars. Calculations show excellent agreement with the measured reflectivities for both s- and p- polarizations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. C. C. Yu, C. F. Chu, J. Y. Tsai, H. W. Huang, T. H. Hsueh, C. F. Lin, and S. C. Wang, "Gallium Nitride Nanorods Fabricated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L910 -L912 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).
  11. Y. Du, S. Han, W. Jin, C. Zhou, and A. F. J. Levi, "Polarization-dependent reflectivity from dielectric nanowires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 996-998 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Kanamori, M. Sasaki, and K. Hane, "Broadband antireflection gratings fabricated upon silicon substrates," Opt. Lett. 24, 1422-1424 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C.-C. Chen, P. Yu, J.-C. Yu, and H.-C. Kuo are preparing a manuscript to be called "Angular and Spectral Reflectivity Calculations of Silicon Nano-Textured Surfaces."

2007

G. R. Lin, Y. C. Chang, E. S. Liu, H. C. Kuo, and H. S. Lin, "Low refractive index Si nanopillars on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181923-181925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

A. Xing, M. Davanco, D. J. Blumenthal, and E. L. Hu, "Fabrication of. 2-D photonic crystal membrane structure," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 22, 70-73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Du, S. Han, W. Jin, C. Zhou, and A. F. J. Levi, "Polarization-dependent reflectivity from dielectric nanowires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 996-998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanamori, K.-I. Kobayashi, H. Yugami, and K. Hane, "Subwavelength antireflection gratings for GaSb in visible and near-infrared wavelengths," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4020-4023 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. C. Yu, C. F. Chu, J. Y. Tsai, H. W. Huang, T. H. Hsueh, C. F. Lin, and S. C. Wang, "Gallium Nitride Nanorods Fabricated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L910 -L912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Kim, D. S. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, "Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2193-2195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

W. Q. Han, S. S. Fan, Q. Q. Li, and Y. D. Hu, "Synthesis of Gallium Nitride nanorods through a carbon nanotube-confined reaction," Science 277, 1287-1289 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D. J.

A. Xing, M. Davanco, D. J. Blumenthal, and E. L. Hu, "Fabrication of. 2-D photonic crystal membrane structure," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 22, 70-73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. C.

G. R. Lin, Y. C. Chang, E. S. Liu, H. C. Kuo, and H. S. Lin, "Low refractive index Si nanopillars on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181923-181925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

C.-C. Chen, P. Yu, J.-C. Yu, and H.-C. Kuo are preparing a manuscript to be called "Angular and Spectral Reflectivity Calculations of Silicon Nano-Textured Surfaces."

Cho, Y. H.

H. M. Kim, D. S. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, "Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2193-2195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C. F.

C. C. Yu, C. F. Chu, J. Y. Tsai, H. W. Huang, T. H. Hsueh, C. F. Lin, and S. C. Wang, "Gallium Nitride Nanorods Fabricated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L910 -L912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. T.

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

Chung, K. S.

H. M. Kim, D. S. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, "Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2193-2195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davanco, M.

A. Xing, M. Davanco, D. J. Blumenthal, and E. L. Hu, "Fabrication of. 2-D photonic crystal membrane structure," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 22, 70-73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Du, Y.

Y. Du, S. Han, W. Jin, C. Zhou, and A. F. J. Levi, "Polarization-dependent reflectivity from dielectric nanowires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 996-998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. S.

W. Q. Han, S. S. Fan, Q. Q. Li, and Y. D. Hu, "Synthesis of Gallium Nitride nanorods through a carbon nanotube-confined reaction," Science 277, 1287-1289 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.

Y. Du, S. Han, W. Jin, C. Zhou, and A. F. J. Levi, "Polarization-dependent reflectivity from dielectric nanowires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 996-998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Han, W. Q.

W. Q. Han, S. S. Fan, Q. Q. Li, and Y. D. Hu, "Synthesis of Gallium Nitride nanorods through a carbon nanotube-confined reaction," Science 277, 1287-1289 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hane, K.

Y. Kanamori, K.-I. Kobayashi, H. Yugami, and K. Hane, "Subwavelength antireflection gratings for GaSb in visible and near-infrared wavelengths," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4020-4023 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanamori, M. Sasaki, and K. Hane, "Broadband antireflection gratings fabricated upon silicon substrates," Opt. Lett. 24, 1422-1424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, T. H.

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

C. C. Yu, C. F. Chu, J. Y. Tsai, H. W. Huang, T. H. Hsueh, C. F. Lin, and S. C. Wang, "Gallium Nitride Nanorods Fabricated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L910 -L912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

A. Xing, M. Davanco, D. J. Blumenthal, and E. L. Hu, "Fabrication of. 2-D photonic crystal membrane structure," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 22, 70-73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y. D.

W. Q. Han, S. S. Fan, Q. Q. Li, and Y. D. Hu, "Synthesis of Gallium Nitride nanorods through a carbon nanotube-confined reaction," Science 277, 1287-1289 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

C. C. Yu, C. F. Chu, J. Y. Tsai, H. W. Huang, T. H. Hsueh, C. F. Lin, and S. C. Wang, "Gallium Nitride Nanorods Fabricated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L910 -L912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Y. Du, S. Han, W. Jin, C. Zhou, and A. F. J. Levi, "Polarization-dependent reflectivity from dielectric nanowires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 996-998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

Y. Kanamori, K.-I. Kobayashi, H. Yugami, and K. Hane, "Subwavelength antireflection gratings for GaSb in visible and near-infrared wavelengths," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4020-4023 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanamori, M. Sasaki, and K. Hane, "Broadband antireflection gratings fabricated upon silicon substrates," Opt. Lett. 24, 1422-1424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kang, T. W.

H. M. Kim, D. S. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, "Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2193-2195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

Kim, D. S.

H. M. Kim, D. S. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, "Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2193-2195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. M.

H. M. Kim, D. S. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, "Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2193-2195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.-I.

Y. Kanamori, K.-I. Kobayashi, H. Yugami, and K. Hane, "Subwavelength antireflection gratings for GaSb in visible and near-infrared wavelengths," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4020-4023 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

G. R. Lin, Y. C. Chang, E. S. Liu, H. C. Kuo, and H. S. Lin, "Low refractive index Si nanopillars on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181923-181925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

Levi, A. F. J.

Y. Du, S. Han, W. Jin, C. Zhou, and A. F. J. Levi, "Polarization-dependent reflectivity from dielectric nanowires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 996-998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q. Q.

W. Q. Han, S. S. Fan, Q. Q. Li, and Y. D. Hu, "Synthesis of Gallium Nitride nanorods through a carbon nanotube-confined reaction," Science 277, 1287-1289 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

C. C. Yu, C. F. Chu, J. Y. Tsai, H. W. Huang, T. H. Hsueh, C. F. Lin, and S. C. Wang, "Gallium Nitride Nanorods Fabricated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L910 -L912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G. R.

G. R. Lin, Y. C. Chang, E. S. Liu, H. C. Kuo, and H. S. Lin, "Low refractive index Si nanopillars on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181923-181925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. S.

G. R. Lin, Y. C. Chang, E. S. Liu, H. C. Kuo, and H. S. Lin, "Low refractive index Si nanopillars on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181923-181925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, E. S.

G. R. Lin, Y. C. Chang, E. S. Liu, H. C. Kuo, and H. S. Lin, "Low refractive index Si nanopillars on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181923-181925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mao, G.

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. Y.

C. C. Yu, C. F. Chu, J. Y. Tsai, H. W. Huang, T. H. Hsueh, C. F. Lin, and S. C. Wang, "Gallium Nitride Nanorods Fabricated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L910 -L912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, S. C.

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

C. C. Yu, C. F. Chu, J. Y. Tsai, H. W. Huang, T. H. Hsueh, C. F. Lin, and S. C. Wang, "Gallium Nitride Nanorods Fabricated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L910 -L912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xing, A.

A. Xing, M. Davanco, D. J. Blumenthal, and E. L. Hu, "Fabrication of. 2-D photonic crystal membrane structure," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 22, 70-73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. C.

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

C. C. Yu, C. F. Chu, J. Y. Tsai, H. W. Huang, T. H. Hsueh, C. F. Lin, and S. C. Wang, "Gallium Nitride Nanorods Fabricated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L910 -L912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.-C.

C.-C. Chen, P. Yu, J.-C. Yu, and H.-C. Kuo are preparing a manuscript to be called "Angular and Spectral Reflectivity Calculations of Silicon Nano-Textured Surfaces."

Yu, P.

C.-C. Chen, P. Yu, J.-C. Yu, and H.-C. Kuo are preparing a manuscript to be called "Angular and Spectral Reflectivity Calculations of Silicon Nano-Textured Surfaces."

Yugami, H.

Y. Kanamori, K.-I. Kobayashi, H. Yugami, and K. Hane, "Subwavelength antireflection gratings for GaSb in visible and near-infrared wavelengths," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4020-4023 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, C.

Y. Du, S. Han, W. Jin, C. Zhou, and A. F. J. Levi, "Polarization-dependent reflectivity from dielectric nanowires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 996-998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. M. Kim, D. S. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, "Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2193-2195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Du, S. Han, W. Jin, C. Zhou, and A. F. J. Levi, "Polarization-dependent reflectivity from dielectric nanowires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 996-998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Lin, Y. C. Chang, E. S. Liu, H. C. Kuo, and H. S. Lin, "Low refractive index Si nanopillars on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181923-181925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B

A. Xing, M. Davanco, D. J. Blumenthal, and E. L. Hu, "Fabrication of. 2-D photonic crystal membrane structure," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 22, 70-73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

C. C. Yu, C. F. Chu, J. Y. Tsai, H. W. Huang, T. H. Hsueh, C. F. Lin, and S. C. Wang, "Gallium Nitride Nanorods Fabricated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L910 -L912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanamori, K.-I. Kobayashi, H. Yugami, and K. Hane, "Subwavelength antireflection gratings for GaSb in visible and near-infrared wavelengths," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4020-4023 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

Opt. Lett.

Science

W. Q. Han, S. S. Fan, Q. Q. Li, and Y. D. Hu, "Synthesis of Gallium Nitride nanorods through a carbon nanotube-confined reaction," Science 277, 1287-1289 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

C.-C. Chen, P. Yu, J.-C. Yu, and H.-C. Kuo are preparing a manuscript to be called "Angular and Spectral Reflectivity Calculations of Silicon Nano-Textured Surfaces."

D. S. Hobbs, B. D. MacLeod, and J. R. Riccobono, "Update on the development of high performance anti-reflecting surface relief micro-structures," Proc. SPIE 6545, 65450Y-1-14 (2007).

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