Abstract

A novel, multi-wavelength, fiberoptic system was constructed, evaluated and implemented to determine internal tissue optical properties at ultraviolet A (UVA) and visible (VIS) wavelengths. Inverse modeling was performed with a neural network to estimate absorption and reduced scattering coefficients based on spatially-resolved reflectance distributions. The model was calibrated with simulated reflectance datasets generated using a condensed Monte Carlo approach with absorption coefficients up to 85 cm-1 and reduced scattering coefficients up to 118 cm-1. After theoretical and experimental evaluations of the system, optical properties of porcine bladder, colon, esophagus, oral mucosa, and liver were measured at 325, 375, 405, 445 and 532 nm. These data provide evidence that as wavelengths decrease into the UVA, the dominant tissue chromophore shifts from hemoglobin to structural proteins such as collagen. This system provides a high level of accuracy over a wide range of optical properties, and should be particularly useful for in situ characterization of highly attenuating biological tissues in the UVA-VIS.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (5)

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2007," CA-Cancer J. Clin. 57, 43-66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, "Use of genetic algorithms to optimize fiber optic probe design for the extraction of tissue optical properties," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54, 1533-1535 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Holmer, K. S. Lehmann, J. Wanken, C. Reissfelder, A. Roggan, G. Mueller, H. J. Buhr, and J. P. Ritz, "Optical properties of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Seo, J. S. You, C. K. Hayakawa, and V. Venugopalan, "Perturbation and differential Monte Carlo methods for measurement of optical properties in a layered epithelial tissue model," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014030 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, "Scaling method for fast Monte Carlo simulation of diffuse reflectance spectra from multilayered turbid media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1011-1025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

2005 (3)

H.-J. Wei, D. Xing, J.-J. Lu, H.-M. Gu, G.-Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, "Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques," World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413-2419 (2005).
[PubMed]

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, "In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hidovic-Rowe and E. Claridge, "Modelling and validation of spectral reflectance for the colon," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 1071-1093 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (4)

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, C. F. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, "Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 223-236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

G. M. Palmer, C. L. Marshek, K. M. Vrotsos, and N. Ramanujam, "Optimal methods for fluorescence and diffuse reflectance measurements of tissue biopsy samples," Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 191-200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. P. van Veen, W. Verkruysse, and H. Sterenborg, "Diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy from 500 to 1060 nm by correction for inhomogeneously distributed absorbers," Opt. Lett. 27, 246-248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

J. S. Dam, C. B. Pedersen, T. Dalgaard, P. E. Fabricius, P. Aruna, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Fiber-optic probe for noninvasive real-time determination of tissue optical properties at multiple wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 40, 1155-1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Muller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, "Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm," Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 205-212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Moffitt and S. A. Prahl, "Sized-fiber reflectometry for measuring local optical properties," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 952-958 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, "Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 2304-2314 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. VanDam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, and G. Bottiroli, "Ex-vivo optical-properties of human colon tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351-357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (3)

W. J. Cui and L. E. Ostrander, "The Relationship of Surface Reflectance Measurements to Optical-Properties of Layered Biological Media," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39, 194-201 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, G. H. Pettit, I. S. Saidi, F. K. Tittel, and P. D. Henry, "XeCl Laser Ablation of Atherosclerotic Aorta - Optical-Properties and Energy Pathways," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 585-597 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, "The use of a neural network to determine tissue optical-properties from spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281-2286 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. Keijzer, J. W. Pickering, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Laser-beam diameter for Port wine stain treatment," Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 601-605 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (5)

S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, "Monte-Carlo modeling of light-propagation in highly scattering tissues. 1. Model predictions and comparison with diffusion-theory," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1162-1168 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Flock, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, "Monte-Carlo modeling of light-propagation in highly scattering tissues. 2. Comparison with measurements in phantoms," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1169-1173 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "Light distributions in artery tissue - Monte-Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser-beams," Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148-154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Parsa, S. L. Jacques, and N. S. Nishioka, "Optical-properties of rat-liver between 350 and 2200 nm," Appl. Opt. 28, 2325-2330 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, R. R. Richards-Kortum, S. L. Jacques, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Turbid Media - Autofluorescence of the Human Aorta," Appl. Opt. 28, 4286-4292 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

B. C. Wilson and G. Adam, "A Monte-Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue," Med. Phys. 10, 824-830 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

Aarnoudse, J. G.

Adam, G.

B. C. Wilson and G. Adam, "A Monte-Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue," Med. Phys. 10, 824-830 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agrawal, A.

D. Sharma, A. Agrawal, L. S. Matchette, and T. J. Pfefer, "Evaluation of a fiberoptic-based system for measurement of optical properties in highly attenuating turbid media," Biomed. Eng. Online 5, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amelink, A.

Andersson-Engels, S.

Arendt, J. T.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. VanDam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arifler, D.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aruna, P.

Backman, V.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bard, M. P. L.

Bargo, P. R.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, "In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, C. L.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

Blair, G.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, "In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bottiroli, G.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, and G. Bottiroli, "Ex-vivo optical-properties of human colon tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351-357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buhr, H. J.

C. Holmer, K. S. Lehmann, J. Wanken, C. Reissfelder, A. Roggan, G. Mueller, H. J. Buhr, and J. P. Ritz, "Optical properties of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Muller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, "Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm," Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 205-212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgers, S. A.

Charvet, I.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claridge, E.

D. Hidovic-Rowe and E. Claridge, "Modelling and validation of spectral reflectance for the colon," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 1071-1093 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collier, T.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cothren, R. M.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. VanDam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. VanDam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Croce, A. C.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, and G. Bottiroli, "Ex-vivo optical-properties of human colon tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351-357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, W. J.

W. J. Cui and L. E. Ostrander, "The Relationship of Surface Reflectance Measurements to Optical-Properties of Layered Biological Media," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39, 194-201 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalfante, M.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, and G. Bottiroli, "Ex-vivo optical-properties of human colon tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351-357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalgaard, T.

Dam, J. S.

Dassel, A. C. M.

Demul, F. F. M.

Depeursinge, C.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dipalma, S.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, and G. Bottiroli, "Ex-vivo optical-properties of human colon tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351-357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R.

Durkin, A. J.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ediger, M. N.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabricius, P. E.

Farrell, T. J.

T. J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, "The use of a neural network to determine tissue optical-properties from spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281-2286 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. VanDam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, R. R. Richards-Kortum, S. L. Jacques, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Turbid Media - Autofluorescence of the Human Aorta," Appl. Opt. 28, 4286-4292 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flock, S. T.

S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, "Monte-Carlo modeling of light-propagation in highly scattering tissues. 1. Model predictions and comparison with diffusion-theory," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1162-1168 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Flock, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, "Monte-Carlo modeling of light-propagation in highly scattering tissues. 2. Comparison with measurements in phantoms," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1169-1173 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fu, K.

Fumagalli, S.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, and G. Bottiroli, "Ex-vivo optical-properties of human colon tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351-357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gall, J. A.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Germer, C. T.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Muller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, "Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm," Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 205-212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodell, T. T.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, "In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graaff, R.

Gu, H.-M.

H.-J. Wei, D. Xing, J.-J. Lu, H.-M. Gu, G.-Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, "Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques," World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413-2419 (2005).
[PubMed]

Hayakawa, C. K.

I. Seo, J. S. You, C. K. Hayakawa, and V. Venugopalan, "Perturbation and differential Monte Carlo methods for measurement of optical properties in a layered epithelial tissue model," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014030 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, P. D.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, G. H. Pettit, I. S. Saidi, F. K. Tittel, and P. D. Henry, "XeCl Laser Ablation of Atherosclerotic Aorta - Optical-Properties and Energy Pathways," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 585-597 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibst, R.

Hidovic-Rowe, D.

D. Hidovic-Rowe and E. Claridge, "Modelling and validation of spectral reflectance for the colon," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 1071-1093 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmer, C.

C. Holmer, K. S. Lehmann, J. Wanken, C. Reissfelder, A. Roggan, G. Mueller, H. J. Buhr, and J. P. Ritz, "Optical properties of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isbert, C.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Muller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, "Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm," Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 205-212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishimaru, A.

Jack, D. A.

Jacobson, B. C.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, "In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, G. H. Pettit, I. S. Saidi, F. K. Tittel, and P. D. Henry, "XeCl Laser Ablation of Atherosclerotic Aorta - Optical-Properties and Energy Pathways," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 585-597 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Parsa, S. L. Jacques, and N. S. Nishioka, "Optical-properties of rat-liver between 350 and 2200 nm," Appl. Opt. 28, 2325-2330 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, R. R. Richards-Kortum, S. L. Jacques, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Turbid Media - Autofluorescence of the Human Aorta," Appl. Opt. 28, 4286-4292 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "Light distributions in artery tissue - Monte-Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser-beams," Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148-154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jemal, A.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2007," CA-Cancer J. Clin. 57, 43-66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

H.-J. Wei, D. Xing, J.-J. Lu, H.-M. Gu, G.-Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, "Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques," World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413-2419 (2005).
[PubMed]

Johnson, C.

Johnson, T. M.

Keijzer, M.

M. Keijzer, J. W. Pickering, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Laser-beam diameter for Port wine stain treatment," Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 601-605 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, R. R. Richards-Kortum, S. L. Jacques, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Turbid Media - Autofluorescence of the Human Aorta," Appl. Opt. 28, 4286-4292 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "Light distributions in artery tissue - Monte-Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser-beams," Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148-154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienle, A.

Koelink, M. H.

Koval, G.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, "In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehmann, K. S.

C. Holmer, K. S. Lehmann, J. Wanken, C. Reissfelder, A. Roggan, G. Mueller, H. J. Buhr, and J. P. Ritz, "Optical properties of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lilge, L.

Lin, A. W. H.

Liu, Q.

Lu, J.-J.

H.-J. Wei, D. Xing, J.-J. Lu, H.-M. Gu, G.-Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, "Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques," World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413-2419 (2005).
[PubMed]

Malpica, A.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manoharan, R.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. VanDam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchesini, R.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, and G. Bottiroli, "Ex-vivo optical-properties of human colon tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351-357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquet, P.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshek, C. L.

G. M. Palmer, C. L. Marshek, K. M. Vrotsos, and N. Ramanujam, "Optimal methods for fluorescence and diffuse reflectance measurements of tissue biopsy samples," Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 191-200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matchette, L. S.

D. Sharma, A. Agrawal, L. S. Matchette, and T. J. Pfefer, "Evaluation of a fiberoptic-based system for measurement of optical properties in highly attenuating turbid media," Biomed. Eng. Online 5, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meda, P.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, H. D.

Millon, S. R.

S. R. Millon, K. M. Roldan-Perez, K. M. Riching, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, "Effect of optical clearing agents on the in vivo optical properties of squamous epithelial tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 920-927 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moffitt, T. P.

T. P. Moffitt and S. A. Prahl, "Sized-fiber reflectometry for measuring local optical properties," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 952-958 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mourant, J. R.

Mueller, G.

C. Holmer, K. S. Lehmann, J. Wanken, C. Reissfelder, A. Roggan, G. Mueller, H. J. Buhr, and J. P. Ritz, "Optical properties of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, G.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Muller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, "Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm," Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 205-212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, M. G.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, T.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2007," CA-Cancer J. Clin. 57, 43-66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, N. S.

Oraevsky, A. A.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, G. H. Pettit, I. S. Saidi, F. K. Tittel, and P. D. Henry, "XeCl Laser Ablation of Atherosclerotic Aorta - Optical-Properties and Energy Pathways," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 585-597 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ory, G.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ostrander, L. E.

W. J. Cui and L. E. Ostrander, "The Relationship of Surface Reflectance Measurements to Optical-Properties of Layered Biological Media," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39, 194-201 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, "Use of genetic algorithms to optimize fiber optic probe design for the extraction of tissue optical properties," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54, 1533-1535 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Millon, K. M. Roldan-Perez, K. M. Riching, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, "Effect of optical clearing agents on the in vivo optical properties of squamous epithelial tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 920-927 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, "Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms," Appl. Opt. 45, 1062-1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, C. L. Marshek, K. M. Vrotsos, and N. Ramanujam, "Optimal methods for fluorescence and diffuse reflectance measurements of tissue biopsy samples," Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 191-200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parsa, P.

Patterson, M. S.

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, "Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 2304-2314 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, "The use of a neural network to determine tissue optical-properties from spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281-2286 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, "Monte-Carlo modeling of light-propagation in highly scattering tissues. 1. Model predictions and comparison with diffusion-theory," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1162-1168 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Flock, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, "Monte-Carlo modeling of light-propagation in highly scattering tissues. 2. Comparison with measurements in phantoms," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1169-1173 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedersen, C. B.

Perelman, L. T.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pettit, G. H.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, G. H. Pettit, I. S. Saidi, F. K. Tittel, and P. D. Henry, "XeCl Laser Ablation of Atherosclerotic Aorta - Optical-Properties and Energy Pathways," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 585-597 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfefer, T. J.

D. Sharma, A. Agrawal, L. S. Matchette, and T. J. Pfefer, "Evaluation of a fiberoptic-based system for measurement of optical properties in highly attenuating turbid media," Biomed. Eng. Online 5, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickering, J. W.

M. Keijzer, J. W. Pickering, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Laser-beam diameter for Port wine stain treatment," Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 601-605 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pignoli, E.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, and G. Bottiroli, "Ex-vivo optical-properties of human colon tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351-357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, "In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Moffitt and S. A. Prahl, "Sized-fiber reflectometry for measuring local optical properties," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 952-958 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "Light distributions in artery tissue - Monte-Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser-beams," Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148-154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, "Use of genetic algorithms to optimize fiber optic probe design for the extraction of tissue optical properties," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54, 1533-1535 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, "Scaling method for fast Monte Carlo simulation of diffuse reflectance spectra from multilayered turbid media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1011-1025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, "Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms," Appl. Opt. 45, 1062-1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, "Sequential estimation of optical properties of a two-layered epithelial tissue model from depth-resolved ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra," Appl. Opt. 45, 4776-4790 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Millon, K. M. Roldan-Perez, K. M. Riching, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, "Effect of optical clearing agents on the in vivo optical properties of squamous epithelial tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 920-927 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, C. F. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, "Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 223-236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, C. L. Marshek, K. M. Vrotsos, and N. Ramanujam, "Optimal methods for fluorescence and diffuse reflectance measurements of tissue biopsy samples," Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 191-200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reissfelder, C.

C. Holmer, K. S. Lehmann, J. Wanken, C. Reissfelder, A. Roggan, G. Mueller, H. J. Buhr, and J. P. Ritz, "Optical properties of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynolds, L.

Richards-Kortum, R.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

Riching, K. M.

S. R. Millon, K. M. Roldan-Perez, K. M. Riching, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, "Effect of optical clearing agents on the in vivo optical properties of squamous epithelial tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 920-927 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritz, J. P.

C. Holmer, K. S. Lehmann, J. Wanken, C. Reissfelder, A. Roggan, G. Mueller, H. J. Buhr, and J. P. Ritz, "Optical properties of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Muller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, "Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm," Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 205-212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roggan, A.

C. Holmer, K. S. Lehmann, J. Wanken, C. Reissfelder, A. Roggan, G. Mueller, H. J. Buhr, and J. P. Ritz, "Optical properties of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. Isbert, G. Muller, H. J. Buhr, and C. T. Germer, "Optical properties of native and coagulated porcine liver tissue between 400 and 2400 nm," Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 205-212 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roldan-Perez, K. M.

S. R. Millon, K. M. Roldan-Perez, K. M. Riching, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, "Effect of optical clearing agents on the in vivo optical properties of squamous epithelial tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 920-927 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saidi, I. S.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, G. H. Pettit, I. S. Saidi, F. K. Tittel, and P. D. Henry, "XeCl Laser Ablation of Atherosclerotic Aorta - Optical-Properties and Energy Pathways," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 585-597 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, I.

I. Seo, J. S. You, C. K. Hayakawa, and V. Venugopalan, "Perturbation and differential Monte Carlo methods for measurement of optical properties in a layered epithelial tissue model," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014030 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, D.

D. Sharma, A. Agrawal, L. S. Matchette, and T. J. Pfefer, "Evaluation of a fiberoptic-based system for measurement of optical properties in highly attenuating turbid media," Biomed. Eng. Online 5, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sichirollo, A. E.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, and G. Bottiroli, "Ex-vivo optical-properties of human colon tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351-357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, R.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2007," CA-Cancer J. Clin. 57, 43-66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sleven, R. A.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, "In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinelli, P.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, and G. Bottiroli, "Ex-vivo optical-properties of human colon tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351-357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

St Ghislain, M.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, R.

Sterenborg, H.

Sun, D.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

Thomas, G. A.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thueler, P.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thun, M. J.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2007," CA-Cancer J. Clin. 57, 43-66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, G. H. Pettit, I. S. Saidi, F. K. Tittel, and P. D. Henry, "XeCl Laser Ablation of Atherosclerotic Aorta - Optical-Properties and Energy Pathways," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 585-597 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomatis, S.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, and G. Bottiroli, "Ex-vivo optical-properties of human colon tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351-357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

Van Dam, J.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

M. Keijzer, J. W. Pickering, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Laser-beam diameter for Port wine stain treatment," Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 601-605 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Veen, R. L. P.

VanDam, J.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. VanDam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venugopalan, V.

I. Seo, J. S. You, C. K. Hayakawa, and V. Venugopalan, "Perturbation and differential Monte Carlo methods for measurement of optical properties in a layered epithelial tissue model," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014030 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verkruysse, W.

Vermeulen, B.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrotsos, K. M.

G. M. Palmer, C. L. Marshek, K. M. Vrotsos, and N. Ramanujam, "Optimal methods for fluorescence and diffuse reflectance measurements of tissue biopsy samples," Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 191-200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. B.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, A.

Wang, L. H.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wanken, J.

C. Holmer, K. S. Lehmann, J. Wanken, C. Reissfelder, A. Roggan, G. Mueller, H. J. Buhr, and J. P. Ritz, "Optical properties of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, E.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2007," CA-Cancer J. Clin. 57, 43-66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H.-J.

H.-J. Wei, D. Xing, J.-J. Lu, H.-M. Gu, G.-Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, "Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques," World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413-2419 (2005).
[PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "Light distributions in artery tissue - Monte-Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser-beams," Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148-154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilke, J. N.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, "Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 2304-2314 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, "The use of a neural network to determine tissue optical-properties from spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281-2286 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, "Monte-Carlo modeling of light-propagation in highly scattering tissues. 1. Model predictions and comparison with diffusion-theory," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1162-1168 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Flock, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, "Monte-Carlo modeling of light-propagation in highly scattering tissues. 2. Comparison with measurements in phantoms," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1169-1173 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Wilson and G. Adam, "A Monte-Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue," Med. Phys. 10, 824-830 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, G.-Y.

H.-J. Wei, D. Xing, J.-J. Lu, H.-M. Gu, G.-Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, "Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques," World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413-2419 (2005).
[PubMed]

Wu, J.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. VanDam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyman, D. R.

S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, "Monte-Carlo modeling of light-propagation in highly scattering tissues. 1. Model predictions and comparison with diffusion-theory," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1162-1168 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xing, D.

H.-J. Wei, D. Xing, J.-J. Lu, H.-M. Gu, G.-Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, "Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques," World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413-2419 (2005).
[PubMed]

Xu, J. Q.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2007," CA-Cancer J. Clin. 57, 43-66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

You, J. S.

I. Seo, J. S. You, C. K. Hayakawa, and V. Venugopalan, "Perturbation and differential Monte Carlo methods for measurement of optical properties in a layered epithelial tissue model," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014030 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, L. Q.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, C. F.

Q. Liu, C. F. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, "Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 223-236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zijlstra, W. G.

Zonios, G. I.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. VanDam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (10)

L. Reynolds, C. Johnson, and A. Ishimaru, "Diffuse reflectance from a finite blood medium - applications to modeling of fiber optic catheters," Appl. Opt. 15, 2059-2067 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Parsa, S. L. Jacques, and N. S. Nishioka, "Optical-properties of rat-liver between 350 and 2200 nm," Appl. Opt. 28, 2325-2330 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, R. R. Richards-Kortum, S. L. Jacques, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Turbid Media - Autofluorescence of the Human Aorta," Appl. Opt. 28, 4286-4292 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. Demul, W. G. Zijlstra, A. C. M. Dassel, and J. G. Aarnoudse, "Condensed Monte-Carlo simulations for the description of light transport," Appl. Opt. 32, 426-434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, "Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 2304-2314 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Dam, C. B. Pedersen, T. Dalgaard, P. E. Fabricius, P. Aruna, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Fiber-optic probe for noninvasive real-time determination of tissue optical properties at multiple wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 40, 1155-1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, D. A. Jack, T. M. Johnson, and H. D. Miller, "Measuring absorption coefficients in small volumes of highly scattering media: Source-detector separations for which path lengths do not depend on scattering properties," Appl. Opt. 36, 5655-5661 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, "Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms," Appl. Opt. 45, 1062-1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, "Sequential estimation of optical properties of a two-layered epithelial tissue model from depth-resolved ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra," Appl. Opt. 45, 4776-4790 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sun, K. Fu, A. Wang, A. W. H. Lin, U. Utzinger, and R. Drezek, "Influence of fiber optic probe geometry on the applicability of inverse models of tissue reflectance spectroscopy: computational models and experimental measurements," Appl. Opt. 45, 8152-8162 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Eng. Online (1)

D. Sharma, A. Agrawal, L. S. Matchette, and T. J. Pfefer, "Evaluation of a fiberoptic-based system for measurement of optical properties in highly attenuating turbid media," Biomed. Eng. Online 5, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

CA-Cancer J. Clin. (1)

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2007," CA-Cancer J. Clin. 57, 43-66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (1)

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Moffitt and S. A. Prahl, "Sized-fiber reflectometry for measuring local optical properties," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 952-958 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (5)

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, "Use of genetic algorithms to optimize fiber optic probe design for the extraction of tissue optical properties," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54, 1533-1535 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, "Monte-Carlo modeling of light-propagation in highly scattering tissues. 1. Model predictions and comparison with diffusion-theory," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1162-1168 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Flock, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, "Monte-Carlo modeling of light-propagation in highly scattering tissues. 2. Comparison with measurements in phantoms," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1169-1173 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. VanDam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, "Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113-122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Cui and L. E. Ostrander, "The Relationship of Surface Reflectance Measurements to Optical-Properties of Layered Biological Media," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39, 194-201 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (6)

C. Holmer, K. S. Lehmann, J. Wanken, C. Reissfelder, A. Roggan, G. Mueller, H. J. Buhr, and J. P. Ritz, "Optical properties of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014025 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Seo, J. S. You, C. K. Hayakawa, and V. Venugopalan, "Perturbation and differential Monte Carlo methods for measurement of optical properties in a layered epithelial tissue model," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014030 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, C. F. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, "Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 223-236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, "In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Flow chart of the investigation

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The 4mm diameter face of the fiberoptic probe

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Multi-wavelength, fiberoptic diffuse reflectance system for optical property measurement

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Contours of dimensionless reflectance from each detection fiber with radius of 0.1mm, where graphs a, b, c, d and e correspond to center-to-center distances of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mm, respectively, between the illumination and collection fibers.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The calculated μa and μs ′ from the neural network based on four detection fibers versus their theoretical values (straight lines indicate where the calculated values are equal to the theoretical values).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Absolute errors of μa and μs ′ of each evaluation dataset from neural network based on 4 detection fibers.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison of theoretical optical properties (curves in the graphs) with estimates based on reflectance measured with the fiberoptic system.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Optical properties of porcine tissues (average values of three animals)

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Reflectance as a function of distance from center of illumination fiber (r) (Hollow symbols indicate the values from forward condensed Monte Carlo simulations. Solid symbols indicate the measured values.)

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Absorption coefficient of Hb and type I collagen

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Absolute errors of four neural networks (cm-1)

Tables Icon

Table 2. Optical properties from literature

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r new = r sim · ( μ s , sim + μ a , sim μ s , new + μ a , new )
W new = W sim · ( μ s , new μ s , new + μ a , new · μ s , sim + μ a , sim μ s , sim ) N
p = 2 π 2 r i 2 max ( r i s r new r c ) min ( r i , s r new + r c ) ( s x ) · cos 1 [ s 2 + ( s x ) 2 r i 2 2 ( s x ) s ]
· cos 1 [ r new 2 + ( s x ) 2 r c 2 2 ( s x ) r new ] · d x
W collect = W new · p
R = P P 0 I t P 0 = I P 0 * t = I E 0
R = k · I E 0

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