Abstract

An improved planar structure of left-handed (LH) metamaterial is presented, and then designed and analyzed in microwave regime. In the anticipated LH frequency regime, the LH property is validated from the phenomena of backward wave propagation and negative refraction. To characterize the electromagnetic property of the planar metamaterial, we introduce the wedge method by constructing a wedge-shaped bulk LH metamaterial by stacking the planar LH metamaterials. The effective refractive index estimated by the wedge method is in excellent agreement with that retrieved by the inversion method from the transmission and reflection spectra.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ??? and ???," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verificaiton of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Caloz, C. C. Chang, and T. Itoh, "Full-wave verification of the fundamental properties of left-handed materials in waveguide configuations," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5483 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B (R) 73, 041101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarycher, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 65 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarycher, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes and negative refraction in metal nanowire composites," Opt. Express 11, 735 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Bruek, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Optical negative-index bulk metamaterials consisting of 2D perforated metal-dielectric stacks," Opt. Express 14, 6778 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Vodo, W. T. Lu, Y. Huang, and S. Sidhar, "Negative refraction and plano-concave lens focusing in onedimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbachand, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Negative Refraction and Left-Handed Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-Dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B (R) 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vodo, W. T. Lu, Y. Huang, and S. Sidhar, "Negative refraction and plano-concave lens focusing in onedimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Optical negative-index bulk metamaterials consisting of 2D perforated metal-dielectric stacks," Opt. Express 14, 6778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-Dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Bruek, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Negative Refraction and Left-Handed Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarycher, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes and negative refraction in metal nanowire composites," Opt. Express 11, 735 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbachand, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarycher, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. Caloz, C. C. Chang, and T. Itoh, "Full-wave verification of the fundamental properties of left-handed materials in waveguide configuations," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verificaiton of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ??? and ???," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

Bruek, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Bruek, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Caloz, C.

C. Caloz, C. C. Chang, and T. Itoh, "Full-wave verification of the fundamental properties of left-handed materials in waveguide configuations," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. C.

C. Caloz, C. C. Chang, and T. Itoh, "Full-wave verification of the fundamental properties of left-handed materials in waveguide configuations," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Dolling, G.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drachev, V. P.

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Optical negative-index bulk metamaterials consisting of 2D perforated metal-dielectric stacks," Opt. Express 14, 6778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Bruek, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greegor, R. B.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbachand, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

P. Vodo, W. T. Lu, Y. Huang, and S. Sidhar, "Negative refraction and plano-concave lens focusing in onedimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, T.

C. Caloz, C. C. Chang, and T. Itoh, "Full-wave verification of the fundamental properties of left-handed materials in waveguide configuations," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Koltenbachand, B. E. C.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbachand, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koschny, Th.

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B (R) 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbachand, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, W. T.

P. Vodo, W. T. Lu, Y. Huang, and S. Sidhar, "Negative refraction and plano-concave lens focusing in onedimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Negative Refraction and Left-Handed Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Z.

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-Dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Optical negative-index bulk metamaterials consisting of 2D perforated metal-dielectric stacks," Opt. Express 14, 6778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Bruek, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markos, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murakowski, J. A.

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-Dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemat-Nasser, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Optical negative-index bulk metamaterials consisting of 2D perforated metal-dielectric stacks," Opt. Express 14, 6778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Bruek, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Optical negative-index bulk metamaterials consisting of 2D perforated metal-dielectric stacks," Opt. Express 14, 6778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Bruek, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parazzoli, C. G.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbachand, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parimi, P. V.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Negative Refraction and Left-Handed Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podolskiy, V. A.

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarycher, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes and negative refraction in metal nanowire composites," Opt. Express 11, 735 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarycher, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-Dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Negative Refraction and Left-Handed Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarycher, A. K.

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarycher, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes and negative refraction in metal nanowire composites," Opt. Express 11, 735 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarycher, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schuetz, C. A.

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-Dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verificaiton of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verificaiton of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, S.

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-Dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sidhar, S.

P. Vodo, W. T. Lu, Y. Huang, and S. Sidhar, "Negative refraction and plano-concave lens focusing in onedimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verificaiton of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sneider, G. J.

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-Dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sneider, J. S.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Negative Refraction and Left-Handed Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokoloff, J.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Negative Refraction and Left-Handed Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B (R) 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanielian, M.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbachand, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuttle, G.

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B (R) 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ??? and ???," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vodo, P.

P. Vodo, W. T. Lu, Y. Huang, and S. Sidhar, "Negative refraction and plano-concave lens focusing in onedimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Negative Refraction and Left-Handed Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H. K.

Zhang, L.

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B (R) 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Optical negative-index bulk metamaterials consisting of 2D perforated metal-dielectric stacks," Opt. Express 14, 6778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Bruek, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B (R) 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Vodo, W. T. Lu, Y. Huang, and S. Sidhar, "Negative refraction and plano-concave lens focusing in onedimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Caloz, C. C. Chang, and T. Itoh, "Full-wave verification of the fundamental properties of left-handed materials in waveguide configuations," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarycher, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (R) (1)

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B (R) 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbachand, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Negative Refraction and Left-Handed Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Sneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-Dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Bruek, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verificaiton of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ??? and ???," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (1132 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (934 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The structure details of a planar LH metamaterial. The top view (a) and the side view (b) of the structure with 4×4 unit cells, and the top view (c) of the single unit cell.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectra of the single-piece planar structure for five different values of g=-0.1,-0.05,0,0.05, and 0.1 mm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated parameters of the single-piece planar metamaterial as an effective homogeneous medium under the normal incidence. (a) r 11 and t 21, (b) effective n, (c) effective ε, and (d) effective μ. The inset in (d) is the single-piece planar metamaterial and its effective homogeneous metamaterial slab.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The structure of multi-piece metamaterial slab stacked by ten single-piece planar metamaterials and its effective homogeneous metamaterial slab.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Color maps of electric field distributions in the multi-piece planar metamaterial in the normal incidence at different moments or phases. The phase step between the different moments is 20°. The upper and lower panels are f=14.172 and f=16.77 GHz, respectively (watch also two added media). [Media 1][Media 2]

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) The distribution of the electric field in the wedge configuration. Regions 1 and 2 are our designed metamaterial and vacuum, respectively. (b) The comparison between the real parts of the effective n obtained by the inversion method and the wedge method.

Metrics