Abstract

Optical imaging of fluorescent objects embedded in a tissue simulating medium was characterized using non-contact based approaches to fluorescence remittance imaging (FRI) and sub-surface fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT). Using Protoporphyrin IX as a fluorescent agent, experiments were performed on tissue phantoms comprised of typical in-vivo tumor to normal tissue contrast ratios, ranging from 3.5:1 up to 10:1. It was found that tomographic imaging was able to recover interior inclusions with high contrast relative to the background; however, simple planar fluorescence imaging provided a superior contrast to noise ratio. Overall, FRI performed optimally when the object was located on or close to the surface and, perhaps most importantly, FDOT was able to recover specific depth information about the location of embedded regions. The results indicate that an optimal system for localizing embedded fluorescent regions should combine fluorescence reflectance imaging for high sensitivity and sub-surface tomography for depth detection, thereby allowing more accurate localization in all three directions within the tissue.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (4)

D. Piao, H. Xie, W. Zhang, J. Krasinski, G. Zhang, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, "Endoscopic, rapid near-infrared optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 31, 2876-2878 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kepshire, S. Gibbs, S. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Sub-surface Fluorescence Imaging of Protoporphyrin IX with B-Scan Mode Tomography," Proc. SPIE 6139, In Press (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Stummer, U. T. Meinel, O. D. Wiestler, F. Zanella, and H.-J. Reulen, "Fluorescence-guided surgery with 5-aminolevulinic acid for resection of malignant glioma: a randomised controlled multicentre phase III trial " Lancet Oncol. 7, 392-401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Imaging Breast Adipose and Fibroglandular Tissue Molecular Signatures using Hybrid MRI-Guided Near-Infrared Spectral Tomography," PNAS USA 103, 8828-8833 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magentic reasonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504-1-051504-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhu, S. H. Kurtzma, P. Hegde, S. Tannenbaum, M. Kane, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, B. Jagjivan, and K. Zarfos, "Utilizing optical tomography with ultrasound localization to image heterogeneous hemoglobin distribution in large breast cancers," Neoplasia 7, 263-270 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, "Contrast-detail analysis characterizing diffuse optical fluorescence tomography image reconstruction," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 10, 1-3 (2005).

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Accuracy of Fluorescent Tomography in thePresence of Heterogeneities: Study of theNormalized Born Ratio," IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 24, 1377-1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Partridge, J. E. Gibbs, Y. Lu, L. J. Esserman, D. Tripathy, D. S. Wolverton, H. S. Rugo, E. S. Hwang, C. A. Ewing, and N. M. Hylton, "MRI measurements of breast tumor volume predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence-free survival," Am. J. Roentgenol. 184, 1774-1781 (2005).

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

B. W. Pogue, S. L. Gibbs, and B. Chen, "Fluorescence Imaging In Vivo: Raster Scanned Point-Source Imaging Provides More Accurate Quantification than Broad Beam Geometries," Tech. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 15-21 (2004).

E. E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models," Curr. Molec. Med. 4, 419-430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Franceschini and D. A. Boas, "Noninvasive measurement of neuronal activity with near-infrared optical imaging," NeuroImage 21, 372-386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bogaards, A. Varma, S. P. Collens, A. Lin, A. Giles, V. Yang, J. M. Bilbao, L. D. Lilge, P. J. Muller, and B. C. Wilson, "Increased Brain Tumor Resection Using Fluorescence Image Guidance in a preclinical Model " Lasers Surg. Med. 35,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Song, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, M. M. Doyley, H. Dehghani, T. D. Tosteson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Automated region detection based on the contrast-to-noise ratio in near-infrared tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 1053-1062 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (8)

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: initial simulation, phantom, and clinical results," Appl. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, N. Chen, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis by use of combined near-infrared diffusive light and ultrasound," Opt. Lett. 28, 337-339 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical tomography: resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, "Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Met. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. F. Springett, K. D. Paulsen, and J. F. Dunn, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. De Grand and J. V. Frangioni, "An operational near-infrared fluorescence imaging system prototype for large animal surgery," Tech. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 553-562 (2003).

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging," Eur. Radiol. 13, 195-208 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (5)

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. P. Houston, and M. Gurfinkel, "Fluorescence-enhanced, near infrared diagnostic imaging with contrast agents," Curr. Op. Chem. Biol. 6, 642-650 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Friesen, G. O. Hjortland, S. J. Madsen, H. Hirschberg, O. Engebraten, J. M. Nesland, and Q. Peng, "5-Aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic detection and therapy of brain tumors," Int. J. Oncol. 21, 577-582 (2002).
[PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, and B. Chance, "MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, "Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement," PNAS USA 97, 2767-2772 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

1995 (3)

B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, H. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Initial assessment of a simple system for frequency domain diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1709-1729 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Paulsen and JiangH. , "Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation," Med. Phys. 22, 691-701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Paulsen and JiangH. , "Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation," Med. Phys. 22, 691-701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, J. Chang, S. S. Barbour, P. C. Koo, and R. Aronson, "MRI-Guided Optical Tomography: Prospects and Computation for a New Imaging Method," IEEE Comp. Sci. Eng. 2, 63-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

??sterberg, U. L.

Abdoulaev, G.

Aronson, R.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, J. Chang, S. S. Barbour, P. C. Koo, and R. Aronson, "MRI-Guided Optical Tomography: Prospects and Computation for a New Imaging Method," IEEE Comp. Sci. Eng. 2, 63-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Austin, T.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbour, R.

Barbour, R. L.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, J. Chang, S. S. Barbour, P. C. Koo, and R. Aronson, "MRI-Guided Optical Tomography: Prospects and Computation for a New Imaging Method," IEEE Comp. Sci. Eng. 2, 63-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barbour, S. S.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, J. Chang, S. S. Barbour, P. C. Koo, and R. Aronson, "MRI-Guided Optical Tomography: Prospects and Computation for a New Imaging Method," IEEE Comp. Sci. Eng. 2, 63-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bilbao, J. M.

A. Bogaards, A. Varma, S. P. Collens, A. Lin, A. Giles, V. Yang, J. M. Bilbao, L. D. Lilge, P. J. Muller, and B. C. Wilson, "Increased Brain Tumor Resection Using Fluorescence Image Guidance in a preclinical Model " Lasers Surg. Med. 35,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bluestone, A.

Boas, D. A.

M. Franceschini and D. A. Boas, "Noninvasive measurement of neuronal activity with near-infrared optical imaging," NeuroImage 21, 372-386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaards, A.

A. Bogaards, A. Varma, S. P. Collens, A. Lin, A. Giles, V. Yang, J. M. Bilbao, L. D. Lilge, P. J. Muller, and B. C. Wilson, "Increased Brain Tumor Resection Using Fluorescence Image Guidance in a preclinical Model " Lasers Surg. Med. 35,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bremer, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging," Eur. Radiol. 13, 195-208 (2003).
[PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooksby, B.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Imaging Breast Adipose and Fibroglandular Tissue Molecular Signatures using Hybrid MRI-Guided Near-Infrared Spectral Tomography," PNAS USA 103, 8828-8833 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magentic reasonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504-1-051504-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical tomography: resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, and B. Chance, "MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, "Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement," PNAS USA 97, 2767-2772 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, J.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, J. Chang, S. S. Barbour, P. C. Koo, and R. Aronson, "MRI-Guided Optical Tomography: Prospects and Computation for a New Imaging Method," IEEE Comp. Sci. Eng. 2, 63-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

B. W. Pogue, S. L. Gibbs, and B. Chen, "Fluorescence Imaging In Vivo: Raster Scanned Point-Source Imaging Provides More Accurate Quantification than Broad Beam Geometries," Tech. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 15-21 (2004).

Chen, N.

Chen, N. G.

Q. Zhu, S. H. Kurtzma, P. Hegde, S. Tannenbaum, M. Kane, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, B. Jagjivan, and K. Zarfos, "Utilizing optical tomography with ultrasound localization to image heterogeneous hemoglobin distribution in large breast cancers," Neoplasia 7, 263-270 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheung, C.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Met. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Collens, S. P.

A. Bogaards, A. Varma, S. P. Collens, A. Lin, A. Giles, V. Yang, J. M. Bilbao, L. D. Lilge, P. J. Muller, and B. C. Wilson, "Increased Brain Tumor Resection Using Fluorescence Image Guidance in a preclinical Model " Lasers Surg. Med. 35,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornell, K. K.

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Met. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S.

D. Kepshire, S. Gibbs, S. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Sub-surface Fluorescence Imaging of Protoporphyrin IX with B-Scan Mode Tomography," Proc. SPIE 6139, In Press (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. C.

D. S. Kepshire, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Sub-Surface Diffuse Optical Tomography can Localize Absorber and Fluorescent Objects but Recovered Image Sensitivity is Non-Linear with Depth," Appl. Opt. 46, 1669-1678 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, "Contrast-detail analysis characterizing diffuse optical fluorescence tomography image reconstruction," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 10, 1-3 (2005).

De Grand, A. M.

A. M. De Grand and J. V. Frangioni, "An operational near-infrared fluorescence imaging system prototype for large animal surgery," Tech. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 553-562 (2003).

Dehghani, H.

D. S. Kepshire, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Sub-Surface Diffuse Optical Tomography can Localize Absorber and Fluorescent Objects but Recovered Image Sensitivity is Non-Linear with Depth," Appl. Opt. 46, 1669-1678 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Piao, H. Xie, W. Zhang, J. Krasinski, G. Zhang, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, "Endoscopic, rapid near-infrared optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 31, 2876-2878 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Imaging Breast Adipose and Fibroglandular Tissue Molecular Signatures using Hybrid MRI-Guided Near-Infrared Spectral Tomography," PNAS USA 103, 8828-8833 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kepshire, S. Gibbs, S. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Sub-surface Fluorescence Imaging of Protoporphyrin IX with B-Scan Mode Tomography," Proc. SPIE 6139, In Press (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magentic reasonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504-1-051504-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, "Contrast-detail analysis characterizing diffuse optical fluorescence tomography image reconstruction," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 10, 1-3 (2005).

X. Song, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, M. M. Doyley, H. Dehghani, T. D. Tosteson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Automated region detection based on the contrast-to-noise ratio in near-infrared tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 1053-1062 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: initial simulation, phantom, and clinical results," Appl. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical tomography: resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. F. Springett, K. D. Paulsen, and J. F. Dunn, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doyley, M. M.

Dunn, J. F.

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. F. Springett, K. D. Paulsen, and J. F. Dunn, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Met. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Engebraten, O.

S. A. Friesen, G. O. Hjortland, S. J. Madsen, H. Hirschberg, O. Engebraten, J. M. Nesland, and Q. Peng, "5-Aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic detection and therapy of brain tumors," Int. J. Oncol. 21, 577-582 (2002).
[PubMed]

Esserman, L. J.

S. C. Partridge, J. E. Gibbs, Y. Lu, L. J. Esserman, D. Tripathy, D. S. Wolverton, H. S. Rugo, E. S. Hwang, C. A. Ewing, and N. M. Hylton, "MRI measurements of breast tumor volume predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence-free survival," Am. J. Roentgenol. 184, 1774-1781 (2005).

Everdell, N.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ewing, C. A.

S. C. Partridge, J. E. Gibbs, Y. Lu, L. J. Esserman, D. Tripathy, D. S. Wolverton, H. S. Rugo, E. S. Hwang, C. A. Ewing, and N. M. Hylton, "MRI measurements of breast tumor volume predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence-free survival," Am. J. Roentgenol. 184, 1774-1781 (2005).

Farrell, T. J.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M.

M. Franceschini and D. A. Boas, "Noninvasive measurement of neuronal activity with near-infrared optical imaging," NeuroImage 21, 372-386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frangioni, J. V.

A. M. De Grand and J. V. Frangioni, "An operational near-infrared fluorescence imaging system prototype for large animal surgery," Tech. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 553-562 (2003).

Friesen, S. A.

S. A. Friesen, G. O. Hjortland, S. J. Madsen, H. Hirschberg, O. Engebraten, J. M. Nesland, and Q. Peng, "5-Aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic detection and therapy of brain tumors," Int. J. Oncol. 21, 577-582 (2002).
[PubMed]

Furuya, D.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Met. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geimer, S.

Gibbs, J. E.

S. C. Partridge, J. E. Gibbs, Y. Lu, L. J. Esserman, D. Tripathy, D. S. Wolverton, H. S. Rugo, E. S. Hwang, C. A. Ewing, and N. M. Hylton, "MRI measurements of breast tumor volume predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence-free survival," Am. J. Roentgenol. 184, 1774-1781 (2005).

Gibbs, S.

D. Kepshire, S. Gibbs, S. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Sub-surface Fluorescence Imaging of Protoporphyrin IX with B-Scan Mode Tomography," Proc. SPIE 6139, In Press (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, S. L.

B. W. Pogue, S. L. Gibbs, and B. Chen, "Fluorescence Imaging In Vivo: Raster Scanned Point-Source Imaging Provides More Accurate Quantification than Broad Beam Geometries," Tech. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 15-21 (2004).

Gibson, A.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giles, A.

A. Bogaards, A. Varma, S. P. Collens, A. Lin, A. Giles, V. Yang, J. M. Bilbao, L. D. Lilge, P. J. Muller, and B. C. Wilson, "Increased Brain Tumor Resection Using Fluorescence Image Guidance in a preclinical Model " Lasers Surg. Med. 35,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graber, H. L.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, J. Chang, S. S. Barbour, P. C. Koo, and R. Aronson, "MRI-Guided Optical Tomography: Prospects and Computation for a New Imaging Method," IEEE Comp. Sci. Eng. 2, 63-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Graves, E. E.

E. E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models," Curr. Molec. Med. 4, 419-430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, J. H.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Met. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gurfinkel, M.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. P. Houston, and M. Gurfinkel, "Fluorescence-enhanced, near infrared diagnostic imaging with contrast agents," Curr. Op. Chem. Biol. 6, 642-650 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

C. Sheng, P. J. Hoopes, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, "Photobleaching-based Dosimetry Predicts Deposited Dose in ALA-PpIX PDT of Rodent Esophagus," Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 738-748 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hegde, P.

Q. Zhu, S. H. Kurtzma, P. Hegde, S. Tannenbaum, M. Kane, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, B. Jagjivan, and K. Zarfos, "Utilizing optical tomography with ultrasound localization to image heterogeneous hemoglobin distribution in large breast cancers," Neoplasia 7, 263-270 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hielscher, A.

Hillman, E. M.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirschberg, H.

S. A. Friesen, G. O. Hjortland, S. J. Madsen, H. Hirschberg, O. Engebraten, J. M. Nesland, and Q. Peng, "5-Aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic detection and therapy of brain tumors," Int. J. Oncol. 21, 577-582 (2002).
[PubMed]

Hjortland, G. O.

S. A. Friesen, G. O. Hjortland, S. J. Madsen, H. Hirschberg, O. Engebraten, J. M. Nesland, and Q. Peng, "5-Aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic detection and therapy of brain tumors," Int. J. Oncol. 21, 577-582 (2002).
[PubMed]

Hoopes, P. J.

C. Sheng, P. J. Hoopes, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, "Photobleaching-based Dosimetry Predicts Deposited Dose in ALA-PpIX PDT of Rodent Esophagus," Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 738-748 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houston, J. P.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. P. Houston, and M. Gurfinkel, "Fluorescence-enhanced, near infrared diagnostic imaging with contrast agents," Curr. Op. Chem. Biol. 6, 642-650 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

Q. Zhu, S. H. Kurtzma, P. Hegde, S. Tannenbaum, M. Kane, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, B. Jagjivan, and K. Zarfos, "Utilizing optical tomography with ultrasound localization to image heterogeneous hemoglobin distribution in large breast cancers," Neoplasia 7, 263-270 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, E. S.

S. C. Partridge, J. E. Gibbs, Y. Lu, L. J. Esserman, D. Tripathy, D. S. Wolverton, H. S. Rugo, E. S. Hwang, C. A. Ewing, and N. M. Hylton, "MRI measurements of breast tumor volume predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence-free survival," Am. J. Roentgenol. 184, 1774-1781 (2005).

Hylton, N. M.

S. C. Partridge, J. E. Gibbs, Y. Lu, L. J. Esserman, D. Tripathy, D. S. Wolverton, H. S. Rugo, E. S. Hwang, C. A. Ewing, and N. M. Hylton, "MRI measurements of breast tumor volume predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence-free survival," Am. J. Roentgenol. 184, 1774-1781 (2005).

Jagjivan, B.

Q. Zhu, S. H. Kurtzma, P. Hegde, S. Tannenbaum, M. Kane, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, B. Jagjivan, and K. Zarfos, "Utilizing optical tomography with ultrasound localization to image heterogeneous hemoglobin distribution in large breast cancers," Neoplasia 7, 263-270 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, H. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Initial assessment of a simple system for frequency domain diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1709-1729 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, K. D.

K. D. Paulsen and JiangH. , "Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation," Med. Phys. 22, 691-701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Imaging Breast Adipose and Fibroglandular Tissue Molecular Signatures using Hybrid MRI-Guided Near-Infrared Spectral Tomography," PNAS USA 103, 8828-8833 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magentic reasonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504-1-051504-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Song, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, M. M. Doyley, H. Dehghani, T. D. Tosteson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Automated region detection based on the contrast-to-noise ratio in near-infrared tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 1053-1062 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Geimer, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, U. L. ??sterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional Simulation of Near-Infrared Diffusion in Tissue: Boundary Condition and Geometry Analysis For Finite Element Image Reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 40, 588-600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kane, M.

Q. Zhu, S. H. Kurtzma, P. Hegde, S. Tannenbaum, M. Kane, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, B. Jagjivan, and K. Zarfos, "Utilizing optical tomography with ultrasound localization to image heterogeneous hemoglobin distribution in large breast cancers," Neoplasia 7, 263-270 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kepshire, D.

D. Kepshire, S. Gibbs, S. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Sub-surface Fluorescence Imaging of Protoporphyrin IX with B-Scan Mode Tomography," Proc. SPIE 6139, In Press (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kepshire, D. S.

Kogel, C.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Imaging Breast Adipose and Fibroglandular Tissue Molecular Signatures using Hybrid MRI-Guided Near-Infrared Spectral Tomography," PNAS USA 103, 8828-8833 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magentic reasonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504-1-051504-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koo, P. C.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, J. Chang, S. S. Barbour, P. C. Koo, and R. Aronson, "MRI-Guided Optical Tomography: Prospects and Computation for a New Imaging Method," IEEE Comp. Sci. Eng. 2, 63-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krasinski, J.

Kurtzma, S. H.

Q. Zhu, S. H. Kurtzma, P. Hegde, S. Tannenbaum, M. Kane, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, B. Jagjivan, and K. Zarfos, "Utilizing optical tomography with ultrasound localization to image heterogeneous hemoglobin distribution in large breast cancers," Neoplasia 7, 263-270 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurtzman, S. H.

Lilge, L. D.

A. Bogaards, A. Varma, S. P. Collens, A. Lin, A. Giles, V. Yang, J. M. Bilbao, L. D. Lilge, P. J. Muller, and B. C. Wilson, "Increased Brain Tumor Resection Using Fluorescence Image Guidance in a preclinical Model " Lasers Surg. Med. 35,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, A.

A. Bogaards, A. Varma, S. P. Collens, A. Lin, A. Giles, V. Yang, J. M. Bilbao, L. D. Lilge, P. J. Muller, and B. C. Wilson, "Increased Brain Tumor Resection Using Fluorescence Image Guidance in a preclinical Model " Lasers Surg. Med. 35,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

S. C. Partridge, J. E. Gibbs, Y. Lu, L. J. Esserman, D. Tripathy, D. S. Wolverton, H. S. Rugo, E. S. Hwang, C. A. Ewing, and N. M. Hylton, "MRI measurements of breast tumor volume predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence-free survival," Am. J. Roentgenol. 184, 1774-1781 (2005).

Madsen, S. J.

S. A. Friesen, G. O. Hjortland, S. J. Madsen, H. Hirschberg, O. Engebraten, J. M. Nesland, and Q. Peng, "5-Aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic detection and therapy of brain tumors," Int. J. Oncol. 21, 577-582 (2002).
[PubMed]

Mayer, R. H.

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McBride, T.

McBride, T. O.

Meek, J. H.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meinel, U. T.

W. P. Stummer, U. T. Meinel, O. D. Wiestler, F. Zanella, and H.-J. Reulen, "Fluorescence-guided surgery with 5-aminolevulinic acid for resection of malignant glioma: a randomised controlled multicentre phase III trial " Lancet Oncol. 7, 392-401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Muller, P. J.

A. Bogaards, A. Varma, S. P. Collens, A. Lin, A. Giles, V. Yang, J. M. Bilbao, L. D. Lilge, P. J. Muller, and B. C. Wilson, "Increased Brain Tumor Resection Using Fluorescence Image Guidance in a preclinical Model " Lasers Surg. Med. 35,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nesland, J. M.

S. A. Friesen, G. O. Hjortland, S. J. Madsen, H. Hirschberg, O. Engebraten, J. M. Nesland, and Q. Peng, "5-Aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic detection and therapy of brain tumors," Int. J. Oncol. 21, 577-582 (2002).
[PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Accuracy of Fluorescent Tomography in thePresence of Heterogeneities: Study of theNormalized Born Ratio," IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 24, 1377-1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models," Curr. Molec. Med. 4, 419-430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging," Eur. Radiol. 13, 195-208 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, "Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, and B. Chance, "MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, "Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement," PNAS USA 97, 2767-2772 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osterberg, U.

Osterberg, U. L.

Partridge, S. C.

S. C. Partridge, J. E. Gibbs, Y. Lu, L. J. Esserman, D. Tripathy, D. S. Wolverton, H. S. Rugo, E. S. Hwang, C. A. Ewing, and N. M. Hylton, "MRI measurements of breast tumor volume predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence-free survival," Am. J. Roentgenol. 184, 1774-1781 (2005).

Patterson, M. S.

B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, H. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Initial assessment of a simple system for frequency domain diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1709-1729 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson and B. W. Pogue, "Mathimatical model for time-resolved and frequency-domain fluorescence spectroscopy in biological tissues," Appl. Opt. 33, 1963-1974 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K.

Paulsen, K. D.

D. S. Kepshire, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Sub-Surface Diffuse Optical Tomography can Localize Absorber and Fluorescent Objects but Recovered Image Sensitivity is Non-Linear with Depth," Appl. Opt. 46, 1669-1678 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Imaging Breast Adipose and Fibroglandular Tissue Molecular Signatures using Hybrid MRI-Guided Near-Infrared Spectral Tomography," PNAS USA 103, 8828-8833 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kepshire, S. Gibbs, S. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Sub-surface Fluorescence Imaging of Protoporphyrin IX with B-Scan Mode Tomography," Proc. SPIE 6139, In Press (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magentic reasonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504-1-051504-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, "Contrast-detail analysis characterizing diffuse optical fluorescence tomography image reconstruction," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 10, 1-3 (2005).

X. Song, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, M. M. Doyley, H. Dehghani, T. D. Tosteson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Automated region detection based on the contrast-to-noise ratio in near-infrared tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 1053-1062 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical tomography: resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: initial simulation, phantom, and clinical results," Appl. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. F. Springett, K. D. Paulsen, and J. F. Dunn, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Geimer, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, U. L. ??sterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional Simulation of Near-Infrared Diffusion in Tissue: Boundary Condition and Geometry Analysis For Finite Element Image Reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 40, 588-600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, J. Prewitt, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Spatially variant regularization improves diffuse optical tomography," Appl. Opt. 38, 2950-2961 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, H. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Initial assessment of a simple system for frequency domain diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1709-1729 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Paulsen and JiangH. , "Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation," Med. Phys. 22, 691-701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, Q.

S. A. Friesen, G. O. Hjortland, S. J. Madsen, H. Hirschberg, O. Engebraten, J. M. Nesland, and Q. Peng, "5-Aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic detection and therapy of brain tumors," Int. J. Oncol. 21, 577-582 (2002).
[PubMed]

Piao, D.

Pogue, B. W.

D. S. Kepshire, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Sub-Surface Diffuse Optical Tomography can Localize Absorber and Fluorescent Objects but Recovered Image Sensitivity is Non-Linear with Depth," Appl. Opt. 46, 1669-1678 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sheng, P. J. Hoopes, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, "Photobleaching-based Dosimetry Predicts Deposited Dose in ALA-PpIX PDT of Rodent Esophagus," Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 738-748 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Piao, H. Xie, W. Zhang, J. Krasinski, G. Zhang, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, "Endoscopic, rapid near-infrared optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 31, 2876-2878 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Imaging Breast Adipose and Fibroglandular Tissue Molecular Signatures using Hybrid MRI-Guided Near-Infrared Spectral Tomography," PNAS USA 103, 8828-8833 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kepshire, S. Gibbs, S. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Sub-surface Fluorescence Imaging of Protoporphyrin IX with B-Scan Mode Tomography," Proc. SPIE 6139, In Press (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magentic reasonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504-1-051504-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, "Contrast-detail analysis characterizing diffuse optical fluorescence tomography image reconstruction," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 10, 1-3 (2005).

X. Song, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, M. M. Doyley, H. Dehghani, T. D. Tosteson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Automated region detection based on the contrast-to-noise ratio in near-infrared tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 1053-1062 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. L. Gibbs, and B. Chen, "Fluorescence Imaging In Vivo: Raster Scanned Point-Source Imaging Provides More Accurate Quantification than Broad Beam Geometries," Tech. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 15-21 (2004).

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical tomography: resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: initial simulation, phantom, and clinical results," Appl. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. F. Springett, K. D. Paulsen, and J. F. Dunn, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, O. K. S., U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative Hemoglobin Tomography with Diffuse Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Pilot Results in the Breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).

B. W. Pogue, S. Geimer, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, U. L. ??sterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional Simulation of Near-Infrared Diffusion in Tissue: Boundary Condition and Geometry Analysis For Finite Element Image Reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 40, 588-600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, J. Prewitt, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Spatially variant regularization improves diffuse optical tomography," Appl. Opt. 38, 2950-2961 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, T. McBride, U. Osterberg, and K. Paulsen, "Comparison of imaging geometries for diffuse optical tomography of tissue," Opt. Express 4, 270-286 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, H. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Initial assessment of a simple system for frequency domain diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1709-1729 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson and B. W. Pogue, "Mathimatical model for time-resolved and frequency-domain fluorescence spectroscopy in biological tissues," Appl. Opt. 33, 1963-1974 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poplack, S. P.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Imaging Breast Adipose and Fibroglandular Tissue Molecular Signatures using Hybrid MRI-Guided Near-Infrared Spectral Tomography," PNAS USA 103, 8828-8833 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magentic reasonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504-1-051504-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: initial simulation, phantom, and clinical results," Appl. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, O. K. S., U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative Hemoglobin Tomography with Diffuse Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Pilot Results in the Breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).

Prewitt, J.

Reulen, H.-J.

W. P. Stummer, U. T. Meinel, O. D. Wiestler, F. Zanella, and H.-J. Reulen, "Fluorescence-guided surgery with 5-aminolevulinic acid for resection of malignant glioma: a randomised controlled multicentre phase III trial " Lancet Oncol. 7, 392-401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, J. S.

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripoll, J.

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Accuracy of Fluorescent Tomography in thePresence of Heterogeneities: Study of theNormalized Born Ratio," IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 24, 1377-1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, "Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rugo, H. S.

S. C. Partridge, J. E. Gibbs, Y. Lu, L. J. Esserman, D. Tripathy, D. S. Wolverton, H. S. Rugo, E. S. Hwang, C. A. Ewing, and N. M. Hylton, "MRI measurements of breast tumor volume predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence-free survival," Am. J. Roentgenol. 184, 1774-1781 (2005).

Schmitz, C.

Schnall, M.

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, "Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement," PNAS USA 97, 2767-2772 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnall, M. D.

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, and B. Chance, "MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, R. B.

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, "Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. P. Houston, and M. Gurfinkel, "Fluorescence-enhanced, near infrared diagnostic imaging with contrast agents," Curr. Op. Chem. Biol. 6, 642-650 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheng, C.

C. Sheng, P. J. Hoopes, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, "Photobleaching-based Dosimetry Predicts Deposited Dose in ALA-PpIX PDT of Rodent Esophagus," Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 738-748 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shudong, J.

Snyder, P. W.

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, X.

Soubret, A.

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Accuracy of Fluorescent Tomography in thePresence of Heterogeneities: Study of theNormalized Born Ratio," IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 24, 1377-1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Springett, R. F.

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. F. Springett, K. D. Paulsen, and J. F. Dunn, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Imaging Breast Adipose and Fibroglandular Tissue Molecular Signatures using Hybrid MRI-Guided Near-Infrared Spectral Tomography," PNAS USA 103, 8828-8833 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stummer, W. P.

W. P. Stummer, U. T. Meinel, O. D. Wiestler, F. Zanella, and H.-J. Reulen, "Fluorescence-guided surgery with 5-aminolevulinic acid for resection of malignant glioma: a randomised controlled multicentre phase III trial " Lancet Oncol. 7, 392-401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tannenbaum, S.

Q. Zhu, S. H. Kurtzma, P. Hegde, S. Tannenbaum, M. Kane, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, B. Jagjivan, and K. Zarfos, "Utilizing optical tomography with ultrasound localization to image heterogeneous hemoglobin distribution in large breast cancers," Neoplasia 7, 263-270 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, A. B.

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tosteson, T. D.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Imaging Breast Adipose and Fibroglandular Tissue Molecular Signatures using Hybrid MRI-Guided Near-Infrared Spectral Tomography," PNAS USA 103, 8828-8833 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Song, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, M. M. Doyley, H. Dehghani, T. D. Tosteson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Automated region detection based on the contrast-to-noise ratio in near-infrared tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 1053-1062 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tripathy, D.

S. C. Partridge, J. E. Gibbs, Y. Lu, L. J. Esserman, D. Tripathy, D. S. Wolverton, H. S. Rugo, E. S. Hwang, C. A. Ewing, and N. M. Hylton, "MRI measurements of breast tumor volume predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence-free survival," Am. J. Roentgenol. 184, 1774-1781 (2005).

Troy, T. L.

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tung, C. H.

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varma, A.

A. Bogaards, A. Varma, S. P. Collens, A. Lin, A. Giles, V. Yang, J. M. Bilbao, L. D. Lilge, P. J. Muller, and B. C. Wilson, "Increased Brain Tumor Resection Using Fluorescence Image Guidance in a preclinical Model " Lasers Surg. Med. 35,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waters, D. J.

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weaver, J.

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Imaging Breast Adipose and Fibroglandular Tissue Molecular Signatures using Hybrid MRI-Guided Near-Infrared Spectral Tomography," PNAS USA 103, 8828-8833 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magentic reasonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504-1-051504-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weissleder, R.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models," Curr. Molec. Med. 4, 419-430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging," Eur. Radiol. 13, 195-208 (2003).
[PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells, W. A.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, O. K. S., U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative Hemoglobin Tomography with Diffuse Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Pilot Results in the Breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).

Wiestler, O. D.

W. P. Stummer, U. T. Meinel, O. D. Wiestler, F. Zanella, and H.-J. Reulen, "Fluorescence-guided surgery with 5-aminolevulinic acid for resection of malignant glioma: a randomised controlled multicentre phase III trial " Lancet Oncol. 7, 392-401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

A. Bogaards, A. Varma, S. P. Collens, A. Lin, A. Giles, V. Yang, J. M. Bilbao, L. D. Lilge, P. J. Muller, and B. C. Wilson, "Increased Brain Tumor Resection Using Fluorescence Image Guidance in a preclinical Model " Lasers Surg. Med. 35,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolverton, D. S.

S. C. Partridge, J. E. Gibbs, Y. Lu, L. J. Esserman, D. Tripathy, D. S. Wolverton, H. S. Rugo, E. S. Hwang, C. A. Ewing, and N. M. Hylton, "MRI measurements of breast tumor volume predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence-free survival," Am. J. Roentgenol. 184, 1774-1781 (2005).

Wyatt, J. S.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, H.

Xu, H.

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. F. Springett, K. D. Paulsen, and J. F. Dunn, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, V.

A. Bogaards, A. Varma, S. P. Collens, A. Lin, A. Giles, V. Yang, J. M. Bilbao, L. D. Lilge, P. J. Muller, and B. C. Wilson, "Increased Brain Tumor Resection Using Fluorescence Image Guidance in a preclinical Model " Lasers Surg. Med. 35,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Met. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, and B. Chance, "MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, "Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement," PNAS USA 97, 2767-2772 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yusof, R. M.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zanella, F.

W. P. Stummer, U. T. Meinel, O. D. Wiestler, F. Zanella, and H.-J. Reulen, "Fluorescence-guided surgery with 5-aminolevulinic acid for resection of malignant glioma: a randomised controlled multicentre phase III trial " Lancet Oncol. 7, 392-401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zarfos, K.

Q. Zhu, S. H. Kurtzma, P. Hegde, S. Tannenbaum, M. Kane, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, B. Jagjivan, and K. Zarfos, "Utilizing optical tomography with ultrasound localization to image heterogeneous hemoglobin distribution in large breast cancers," Neoplasia 7, 263-270 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

Zhang, W.

Zhu, Q.

Q. Zhu, S. H. Kurtzma, P. Hegde, S. Tannenbaum, M. Kane, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, B. Jagjivan, and K. Zarfos, "Utilizing optical tomography with ultrasound localization to image heterogeneous hemoglobin distribution in large breast cancers," Neoplasia 7, 263-270 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, N. Chen, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis by use of combined near-infrared diffusive light and ultrasound," Opt. Lett. 28, 337-339 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Roentgenol. (1)

S. C. Partridge, J. E. Gibbs, Y. Lu, L. J. Esserman, D. Tripathy, D. S. Wolverton, H. S. Rugo, E. S. Hwang, C. A. Ewing, and N. M. Hylton, "MRI measurements of breast tumor volume predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence-free survival," Am. J. Roentgenol. 184, 1774-1781 (2005).

Appl. Opt. (7)

M. S. Patterson and B. W. Pogue, "Mathimatical model for time-resolved and frequency-domain fluorescence spectroscopy in biological tissues," Appl. Opt. 33, 1963-1974 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, J. Prewitt, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Spatially variant regularization improves diffuse optical tomography," Appl. Opt. 38, 2950-2961 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, S. Geimer, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, U. L. ??sterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional Simulation of Near-Infrared Diffusion in Tissue: Boundary Condition and Geometry Analysis For Finite Element Image Reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 40, 588-600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: initial simulation, phantom, and clinical results," Appl. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical tomography: resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Song, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, M. M. Doyley, H. Dehghani, T. D. Tosteson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Automated region detection based on the contrast-to-noise ratio in near-infrared tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 1053-1062 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kepshire, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Sub-Surface Diffuse Optical Tomography can Localize Absorber and Fluorescent Objects but Recovered Image Sensitivity is Non-Linear with Depth," Appl. Opt. 46, 1669-1678 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Molec. Med. (1)

E. E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models," Curr. Molec. Med. 4, 419-430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Op. Chem. Biol. (1)

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. P. Houston, and M. Gurfinkel, "Fluorescence-enhanced, near infrared diagnostic imaging with contrast agents," Curr. Op. Chem. Biol. 6, 642-650 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Radiol. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging," Eur. Radiol. 13, 195-208 (2003).
[PubMed]

IEEE Comp. Sci. Eng. (1)

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, J. Chang, S. S. Barbour, P. C. Koo, and R. Aronson, "MRI-Guided Optical Tomography: Prospects and Computation for a New Imaging Method," IEEE Comp. Sci. Eng. 2, 63-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. (1)

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Accuracy of Fluorescent Tomography in thePresence of Heterogeneities: Study of theNormalized Born Ratio," IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 24, 1377-1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Oncol. (1)

S. A. Friesen, G. O. Hjortland, S. J. Madsen, H. Hirschberg, O. Engebraten, J. M. Nesland, and Q. Peng, "5-Aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic detection and therapy of brain tumors," Int. J. Oncol. 21, 577-582 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. F. Springett, K. D. Paulsen, and J. F. Dunn, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, "Combining near infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magentic reasonance structure," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051504-1-051504-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. (1)

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, "Contrast-detail analysis characterizing diffuse optical fluorescence tomography image reconstruction," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 10, 1-3 (2005).

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Met. (1)

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Met. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lancet Oncol. (1)

W. P. Stummer, U. T. Meinel, O. D. Wiestler, F. Zanella, and H.-J. Reulen, "Fluorescence-guided surgery with 5-aminolevulinic acid for resection of malignant glioma: a randomised controlled multicentre phase III trial " Lancet Oncol. 7, 392-401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

A. Bogaards, A. Varma, S. P. Collens, A. Lin, A. Giles, V. Yang, J. M. Bilbao, L. D. Lilge, P. J. Muller, and B. C. Wilson, "Increased Brain Tumor Resection Using Fluorescence Image Guidance in a preclinical Model " Lasers Surg. Med. 35,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (2)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Paulsen and JiangH. , "Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation," Med. Phys. 22, 691-701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neoplasia (2)

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, and B. Chance, "MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, S. H. Kurtzma, P. Hegde, S. Tannenbaum, M. Kane, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, B. Jagjivan, and K. Zarfos, "Utilizing optical tomography with ultrasound localization to image heterogeneous hemoglobin distribution in large breast cancers," Neoplasia 7, 263-270 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

NeuroImage (1)

M. Franceschini and D. A. Boas, "Noninvasive measurement of neuronal activity with near-infrared optical imaging," NeuroImage 21, 372-386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photochem. Photobiol. (2)

C. Sheng, P. J. Hoopes, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, "Photobleaching-based Dosimetry Predicts Deposited Dose in ALA-PpIX PDT of Rodent Esophagus," Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 738-748 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, R. H. Mayer, A. B. Thompson, D. J. Waters, K. K. Cornell, P. W. Snyder, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 87-94 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, H. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Initial assessment of a simple system for frequency domain diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1709-1729 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, "Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

PNAS USA (2)

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, "Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement," PNAS USA 97, 2767-2772 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Brooksby, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, C. Kogel, T. D. Tosteson, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Imaging Breast Adipose and Fibroglandular Tissue Molecular Signatures using Hybrid MRI-Guided Near-Infrared Spectral Tomography," PNAS USA 103, 8828-8833 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Kepshire, S. Gibbs, S. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Sub-surface Fluorescence Imaging of Protoporphyrin IX with B-Scan Mode Tomography," Proc. SPIE 6139, In Press (2006).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (1)

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, O. K. S., U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative Hemoglobin Tomography with Diffuse Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Pilot Results in the Breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).

Tech. Cancer Res. Treat. (2)

B. W. Pogue, S. L. Gibbs, and B. Chen, "Fluorescence Imaging In Vivo: Raster Scanned Point-Source Imaging Provides More Accurate Quantification than Broad Beam Geometries," Tech. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 15-21 (2004).

A. M. De Grand and J. V. Frangioni, "An operational near-infrared fluorescence imaging system prototype for large animal surgery," Tech. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 553-562 (2003).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The experimental FDOT setup is comprised of an excitation light source (D1), two orthogonal galvanometers (XY) for scanning the source position, a filter for attenuating the excitation light (F1), filters for separating the excitation and emission light (F2/F3), and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera for detection. This hardware set up, with the detector camera pointing upwards at a glass plate upon which phantoms and animals can be placed, is shown schematically in (a). The surface imaging experiments utilized a similar hardware configuration, but with a high-power broadbeam laser (D2). A schematic of the virtual detector scheme (b) used for tomography illustrates the intensity from a group of pixels (256) being averaged together to form a virtual detector.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A photograph of the liquid phantom used in these experiments is shown in (a). All experiments were performed by submerging a cylindrical target in the liquid phantom shown here. Targets of varying diameter were filled with fluorescent contrast agents, positioned at varying depths and imaged using surface imaging and FDOT. In both cases imaging was performed from below; the experimental image dimensions are shown in schematic (b) for FRI (top) and FDOT (bottom).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Examples of the imaged region segmentation used in the CNR and contrast calculations for tomographic (a) and surface (b) images. In the tomographic images, the target ROI was determined based on the position of the recovered centroid whereas the regions were fixed for the broadbeam analysis. The Tomographic image in (a) is a few into the medium, similar to an ultrasound B-scan, but the surface is located at the bottom of the image. The surface image in (b) shows the extended shape of the cylinder as viewed from the bottom surface.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A representative set of fluorescence image reconstructions in the remission-slab geometry, using a cylindrical region to be imaged. The images are shown as a function of depth into the medium (like an ultrasound image) with the surface at the bottom, and the round circular region being the cylinder shown cut through the middle (bottom). Images were reconstructed from experimental data collected for an 8 mm target submerged in a liquid phantom, when the target had 10:1, 5:1, and 3.5:1 fluorescent contrast with respect to the background. The true target locations are shown at the bottom of the Fig.

Fig. 5:
Fig. 5:

Experimental fluorescence centroid results when the depth of an 8mm target was varied for contrasts of 10:1, 5:1, and 3.5:1. When contrasts of 5:1 and above were considered, mean positional error in the recovered centroid was determined to be 0.87 mm on average.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental fluorescence broad beam imaging results when the depth and target-to-background contrast of an 8mm target was adjusted. It is clear that the ability to recover targets using this technique degrades rapidly with depth below the surface.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental fluorescence tomography recovered contrast (a) and recovered CNR (b) results when the depth of an 8mm target was varied for contrasts of 10:1, 5:1, and 3.5:1.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Experimental recovered contrast (a) and recovered CNR (b) analysis for the set of fluorescence broad beam images depicted in Fig. 6.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

· D x ( r ) Φ x ( r ) μ a x ( r ) Φ x ( r ) = Q 0 ( r )
· D m ( r ) · Φ m ( r ) μ a m ( r ) Φ m ( r , ω ) = Φ m ( r ) η μ a f ( r )
μ = ( T + λ ( z ) I ) 1 T ( ϕ meas ϕ calc )
φ f l i , j = ( φ ( hetero _ m ) i , j φ ( homo _ m ) i , j )
C N R = μ af ROI μ af bkg ( w ROI σ ROI 2 w bkg σ bkg 2 )
Contrast = μ af ROI μ af bkg μ af bkg

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