Abstract

We report a novel hybrid integrated optic device consisting of AlGaInAs/InP electroabsorption modulators and a four-arm silica-on-silicon planar lightwave circuit optical interferometer. The device is designed for generation of high spectral efficiency optical modulation formats. We demonstrate generation of 21.4 Gb/s quadrature phase shift keyed optical signals with electrical data drives of 2Vpp amplitudes, achieving a bit error rate of 10-9 with the required optical signal to noise ratio of ~18 dB in a 0.1 nm resolution bandwidth.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E. D. Schmidt, B. Lankl, and W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Chandrasekhar,  et al., "Hybrid 107-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed DQPSK and 42.7-Gb/s DQPSK transmission at 1.4-bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1280 km of SSMF and 4 bandwidth-managed ROADMs," ECOC 2007, PD1.92 (2007).
  3. S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, "Experimental investigation of system impairments in polarization multiplexed 107-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK," OFC 2008, OThU7 (2008).
  4. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, and S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 883-885 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Daikoku, I. Morita, H. Taga, H. Tanaka, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, T. Miyazaki, and T. Fujita, "100-Gb/s DQPSK transmission experiment without OTDM for 100G Ethernet transport," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 139-145 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, "Coherent receivers for practical optical communication systems," OFC 2007, OThK4 (2007).
  7. T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, T. Miyazaki, M. Izutsu, T. Fujita, S. Mori, K. Higuma, and J. Ichikawa, "High-speed optical DQPSK and FSK modulation using integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Opt. Express 14, 4469-4478 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Keang-Po and C. Han-Wei, "Generation of arbitrary quadrature signals using one dual-drive Modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 764-770 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. A. Griffin, "Integrated DQPSK transmitters," OFC 2005, OWE3 (2005).
  10. I. Kang, "Interferometric operation of an electroabsorption modulator for PSK modulation and OOK modulation with performance enhancements," ECOC 2006, We3.P.59 (2006).
  11. I. Kang, "Phase-shift-keying and on-off-keying with improved performances using electroabsorption modulators with interferometric effects," Opt. Express 15, 1467-1473 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, "Compact high-speed InP DQPSK modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1184-1186 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, A. L. Adamiecki, N. J. Sauer, J. H. Sinsky, and P. J. Winzer, "Compact EAM-Based InP DQPSK Modulator and Demonstration at 80 Gb/s," OFC 2007, PDP33 (2007).
  14. S. Gouraud, M.-C. Cuisin, C. Kazmierski, J. Decobert, F. Alexandre, F. Elache, A. Paraskevopoulos, and D. Franke, "High speed AlGaInAs multiple-quantum- well electroabsorption modulator buried and planarized with semi-insulating Fe-doped InP grown by chloride assisted LP-MOVPE," IPRM 2005 Glasgow TuA-1-2 (2005).
  15. M. S. Rasras, I. Kang, M. Dinu, J. Jaques, N. Dutta, A. Piccirilli, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, S. Cabot, G. S. Johnson, L. Buhl, and S. S. Patel, "A Programmable 8-bit optical correlator filter for optical pattern recognition," to be published in IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2007).
  16. N. Dupuis,  et al., "10Gbit/s semi-insulating buried heterostructure loss-less reflective amplified modulators for wavelength agnostic networks," OFC 2008, OThC2 (2008).
  17. C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, and P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Serbay, C. Wree, and W. Rosenkranz, "Implementation of differential precoder for high-speed optical DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 40, 1288-1289 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Wree, J. Leibrich, J. Eick, W. Rosenkranz, and D. Mohr, "Experimental investigation of receiver sensitivity of RZ-DQPSK modulation using balanced detection," OFC2003, ThE5 (2003).
  20. P. J. Winzer, and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced modulation formats for high-capacity optical transport networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4711-4728 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (4)

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, "Compact high-speed InP DQPSK modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1184-1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, A. L. Adamiecki, N. J. Sauer, J. H. Sinsky, and P. J. Winzer, "Compact EAM-Based InP DQPSK Modulator and Demonstration at 80 Gb/s," OFC 2007, PDP33 (2007).

I. Kang, "Phase-shift-keying and on-off-keying with improved performances using electroabsorption modulators with interferometric effects," Opt. Express 15, 1467-1473 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Daikoku, I. Morita, H. Taga, H. Tanaka, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, T. Miyazaki, and T. Fujita, "100-Gb/s DQPSK transmission experiment without OTDM for 100G Ethernet transport," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 139-145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

M. Serbay, C. Wree, and W. Rosenkranz, "Implementation of differential precoder for high-speed optical DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 40, 1288-1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E. D. Schmidt, B. Lankl, and W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adamiecki, A.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, "Compact high-speed InP DQPSK modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1184-1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adamiecki, A. L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, A. L. Adamiecki, N. J. Sauer, J. H. Sinsky, and P. J. Winzer, "Compact EAM-Based InP DQPSK Modulator and Demonstration at 80 Gb/s," OFC 2007, PDP33 (2007).

Chandrasekhar, S.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, and S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 883-885 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daikoku, M.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, "Compact high-speed InP DQPSK modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1184-1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, A. L. Adamiecki, N. J. Sauer, J. H. Sinsky, and P. J. Winzer, "Compact EAM-Based InP DQPSK Modulator and Demonstration at 80 Gb/s," OFC 2007, PDP33 (2007).

C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, and P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dorrer, C.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, and S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 883-885 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, and P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R.-J.

Fujita, T.

Gnauck, A. H.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, and S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 883-885 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gottwald, E.

C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E. D. Schmidt, B. Lankl, and W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, R. A.

R. A. Griffin, "Integrated DQPSK transmitters," OFC 2005, OWE3 (2005).

Han-Wei, C.

Hecker-Denschlag, N.

C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E. D. Schmidt, B. Lankl, and W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Higuma, K.

Ichikawa, J.

Izutsu, M.

Kang, I.

Kawanishi, T.

Keang-Po, H.

Krummrich, P.

C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E. D. Schmidt, B. Lankl, and W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lankl, B.

C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E. D. Schmidt, B. Lankl, and W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leibrich, J.

C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E. D. Schmidt, B. Lankl, and W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

Miyazaki, T.

Mori, S.

Morita, I.

Raybon, G.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, "Compact high-speed InP DQPSK modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1184-1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosenkranz, W.

M. Serbay, C. Wree, and W. Rosenkranz, "Implementation of differential precoder for high-speed optical DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 40, 1288-1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E. D. Schmidt, B. Lankl, and W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ryf, R.

Sakamoto, T.

Sauer, N.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, "Compact high-speed InP DQPSK modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1184-1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, N. J.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, A. L. Adamiecki, N. J. Sauer, J. H. Sinsky, and P. J. Winzer, "Compact EAM-Based InP DQPSK Modulator and Demonstration at 80 Gb/s," OFC 2007, PDP33 (2007).

Schmidt, E. D.

C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E. D. Schmidt, B. Lankl, and W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Serbay, M.

M. Serbay, C. Wree, and W. Rosenkranz, "Implementation of differential precoder for high-speed optical DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 40, 1288-1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sinsky, J. H.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, A. L. Adamiecki, N. J. Sauer, J. H. Sinsky, and P. J. Winzer, "Compact EAM-Based InP DQPSK Modulator and Demonstration at 80 Gb/s," OFC 2007, PDP33 (2007).

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, "Compact high-speed InP DQPSK modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1184-1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taga, H.

Tanaka, H.

Winzer, P. J.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, A. L. Adamiecki, N. J. Sauer, J. H. Sinsky, and P. J. Winzer, "Compact EAM-Based InP DQPSK Modulator and Demonstration at 80 Gb/s," OFC 2007, PDP33 (2007).

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, "Compact high-speed InP DQPSK modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1184-1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, and S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 883-885 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer, and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced modulation formats for high-capacity optical transport networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4711-4728 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, and P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wree, C.

M. Serbay, C. Wree, and W. Rosenkranz, "Implementation of differential precoder for high-speed optical DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 40, 1288-1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E. D. Schmidt, B. Lankl, and W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, "Compact high-speed InP DQPSK modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1184-1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, A. L. Adamiecki, N. J. Sauer, J. H. Sinsky, and P. J. Winzer, "Compact EAM-Based InP DQPSK Modulator and Demonstration at 80 Gb/s," OFC 2007, PDP33 (2007).

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Serbay, C. Wree, and W. Rosenkranz, "Implementation of differential precoder for high-speed optical DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 40, 1288-1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E. D. Schmidt, B. Lankl, and W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, and S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 883-885 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, "Compact high-speed InP DQPSK modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1184-1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

OFC (2)

R. A. Griffin, "Integrated DQPSK transmitters," OFC 2005, OWE3 (2005).

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, A. L. Adamiecki, N. J. Sauer, J. H. Sinsky, and P. J. Winzer, "Compact EAM-Based InP DQPSK Modulator and Demonstration at 80 Gb/s," OFC 2007, PDP33 (2007).

Opt. Express (2)

Other (8)

I. Kang, "Interferometric operation of an electroabsorption modulator for PSK modulation and OOK modulation with performance enhancements," ECOC 2006, We3.P.59 (2006).

C. Wree, J. Leibrich, J. Eick, W. Rosenkranz, and D. Mohr, "Experimental investigation of receiver sensitivity of RZ-DQPSK modulation using balanced detection," OFC2003, ThE5 (2003).

S. Gouraud, M.-C. Cuisin, C. Kazmierski, J. Decobert, F. Alexandre, F. Elache, A. Paraskevopoulos, and D. Franke, "High speed AlGaInAs multiple-quantum- well electroabsorption modulator buried and planarized with semi-insulating Fe-doped InP grown by chloride assisted LP-MOVPE," IPRM 2005 Glasgow TuA-1-2 (2005).

M. S. Rasras, I. Kang, M. Dinu, J. Jaques, N. Dutta, A. Piccirilli, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, S. Cabot, G. S. Johnson, L. Buhl, and S. S. Patel, "A Programmable 8-bit optical correlator filter for optical pattern recognition," to be published in IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2007).

N. Dupuis,  et al., "10Gbit/s semi-insulating buried heterostructure loss-less reflective amplified modulators for wavelength agnostic networks," OFC 2008, OThC2 (2008).

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, "Coherent receivers for practical optical communication systems," OFC 2007, OThK4 (2007).

S. Chandrasekhar,  et al., "Hybrid 107-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed DQPSK and 42.7-Gb/s DQPSK transmission at 1.4-bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1280 km of SSMF and 4 bandwidth-managed ROADMs," ECOC 2007, PD1.92 (2007).

S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, "Experimental investigation of system impairments in polarization multiplexed 107-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK," OFC 2008, OThU7 (2008).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A layout of the EAM/SOA device. The electrical contact pads are shown in red.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A layout of the silica PLC device containing a 1×4 MMI, variable optical attenuators (VOAs), and phase shifters. Optical waveguides are in red and electrical contacts are in green.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic showing the hybrid integration of the silica PLC and the SOA/EAM device. The drawing is not to scale.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Scanning electron microscope image of an EAM-SOA guide cross section showing planarized regrowth over 2µm stripe height.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic of the experimental setup for generating and testing the performance of QPSK signals. The received optical powers are measured after the VOA and before the first EDFA. OSNR: optical signal to noise ratio. BERT: bit-error-rate tester.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Optical spectrum of the 21.4 Gb/s QPSK signal measured with 0.01 nm resolution bandwidth.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(left) Optical intensity eye diagram of 21.4 Gb/s QPSK signals measured using linear optical sampling. (right) Measured constellation diagram of the quadratures sampled with a 30-ps wide window near the centers of the bit slots.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(left) An eye diagram of error-free photodetected output of the demodulated QPSK signals. (right) log(BER) as a function of the received powers and the required OSNR. Squares are for I- phase and circles are for Q-phase.

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