Abstract

A novel technique for the fabrication of polarization selective electro-optic polymer waveguide devices with direct electron beam writing was described. Birefringence induced by the electric field poling in the electro-optic polymer film was erased in the electron beam exposed regions. The formed waveguides had stronger confinement for the light polarized along the poling direction. High fabrication resolution on the 100 nm scale or smaller could be achieved. Fabrication of polymer polarizer and polarization selective microring resonators with this technique was reported. The highest polarization extinction ratio was measured to be 21.4 dB.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Imai and T. Matsumoto, "Polarization fluctuations in a single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1366-1375 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, and A. Dandridge, "Observation of input-polarization-induced phase noise in interferometric fiber-optic sensors," Opt. Lett. 13, 847-849 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Janz, "Silicon-based waveguide technology for wavelength division multiplexing," in Silicon Photonics, L. Pavesi, and D. J. Lockwood, eds., (Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg, 2004).
  4. M. Chin, C. Xu, and W. Huang, "Theoretical approach to a polarization-insensitive single-mode microring resonator," Opt. Express 12, 3245-3250 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, "Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. G. Kazovsky, "Phase- and polarization-diversity coherent optical techniques," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 279-292 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. J. W. Klunder, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, and A. Driessen, "A novel polarization-independent wavelength-division-multiplexing filter based on cylindrical microresonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1294-1299 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Suematsu, M. Hakuta, K. Furuya, K. Chiba, and R. Hasumi, "Fundamental transverse electric field (TE0) mode selection for thin-film asymmetric light guides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 291-293 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Uehara, T. Izawa, and H. Nakagome, "Optical waveguiding polarizer," Appl. Opt. 13, 1753-1754 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Dalton, "Photonic integration improves on current technologies: Newsroom: SPIE.org," http://spie.org/x16998.xml?highlight=x2414.
  11. S. Herminghaus, B. A. Smith, and J. D. Swalen, "Electro-optic coefficients in electric-field-poled polymer waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2311-2317 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, "Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031-1033 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. C. Oh, S. Y. Shin, W. Y. Hwang, and J. J. Kim, "Poling-induced waveguide polarizers in electrooptic polymers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 375-377 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506-143503 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Song, A. Yick, and W. H. Steier, "Conductivity-dependency-free in-plane poling for Mach-Zehnder modulator with highly conductive electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191103-191103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, "Optical modulation and detection in slotted silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5216-5226 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. Dalton, "Revisiting organic optical nonlinearity leads to a new class of materials: Newsroom: SPIE.org," http://spie.org/x17559.xml.
  18. R. H. Page, M. C. Jurich, B. Reck, A. Sen, R. J. Twieg, J. D. Swalen, G. C. Bjorklund, and C. G. Willson, "Electrochromic and optical waveguide studies of corona-poled electro-optic polymer films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 1239-1250 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. K. Kim, K. Geary, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, C. Wang, and W. H. Steier, "TM-pass polymer modulators with poling-induced waveguides and self-aligned electrodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 721-722 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Dawes, L. C. Glover, and D. A. Vroom, "The Effects of Electron Beam and ?-Irradiation on Polymeric Materials," in Physical Properties of Polymers Handbook, J. E. Mark, ed., (Springer, New York, 2007).

2007

R. Song, A. Yick, and W. H. Steier, "Conductivity-dependency-free in-plane poling for Mach-Zehnder modulator with highly conductive electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191103-191103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506-143503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

M. Chin, C. Xu, and W. Huang, "Theoretical approach to a polarization-insensitive single-mode microring resonator," Opt. Express 12, 3245-3250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, "Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. K. Kim, K. Geary, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, C. Wang, and W. H. Steier, "TM-pass polymer modulators with poling-induced waveguides and self-aligned electrodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 721-722 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. J. W. Klunder, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, and A. Driessen, "A novel polarization-independent wavelength-division-multiplexing filter based on cylindrical microresonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1294-1299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. C. Oh, S. Y. Shin, W. Y. Hwang, and J. J. Kim, "Poling-induced waveguide polarizers in electrooptic polymers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 375-377 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

1989

L. G. Kazovsky, "Phase- and polarization-diversity coherent optical techniques," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 279-292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

T. Imai and T. Matsumoto, "Polarization fluctuations in a single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1366-1375 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, and A. Dandridge, "Observation of input-polarization-induced phase noise in interferometric fiber-optic sensors," Opt. Lett. 13, 847-849 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, "Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031-1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1974

1972

Y. Suematsu, M. Hakuta, K. Furuya, K. Chiba, and R. Hasumi, "Fundamental transverse electric field (TE0) mode selection for thin-film asymmetric light guides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 291-293 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Bjorklund, G. C.

Chang, D. H.

S. K. Kim, K. Geary, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, C. Wang, and W. H. Steier, "TM-pass polymer modulators with poling-induced waveguides and self-aligned electrodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 721-722 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, K.

Y. Suematsu, M. Hakuta, K. Furuya, K. Chiba, and R. Hasumi, "Fundamental transverse electric field (TE0) mode selection for thin-film asymmetric light guides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 291-293 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chin, M.

Dalton, L.

Dandridge, A.

DeRose, C. T.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506-143503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

D. J. W. Klunder, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, and A. Driessen, "A novel polarization-independent wavelength-division-multiplexing filter based on cylindrical microresonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1294-1299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Enami, Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506-143503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

S. K. Kim, K. Geary, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, C. Wang, and W. H. Steier, "TM-pass polymer modulators with poling-induced waveguides and self-aligned electrodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 721-722 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Furuya, K.

Y. Suematsu, M. Hakuta, K. Furuya, K. Chiba, and R. Hasumi, "Fundamental transverse electric field (TE0) mode selection for thin-film asymmetric light guides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 291-293 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Geary, K.

S. K. Kim, K. Geary, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, C. Wang, and W. H. Steier, "TM-pass polymer modulators with poling-induced waveguides and self-aligned electrodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 721-722 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hakuta, M.

Y. Suematsu, M. Hakuta, K. Furuya, K. Chiba, and R. Hasumi, "Fundamental transverse electric field (TE0) mode selection for thin-film asymmetric light guides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 291-293 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hasumi, R.

Y. Suematsu, M. Hakuta, K. Furuya, K. Chiba, and R. Hasumi, "Fundamental transverse electric field (TE0) mode selection for thin-film asymmetric light guides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 291-293 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Headley, W. R.

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, "Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herminghaus, S.

Hochberg, M.

Howe, S.

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, "Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

Hwang, W. Y.

M. C. Oh, S. Y. Shin, W. Y. Hwang, and J. J. Kim, "Poling-induced waveguide polarizers in electrooptic polymers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 375-377 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Imai, T.

T. Imai and T. Matsumoto, "Polarization fluctuations in a single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1366-1375 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Izawa, T.

Jen, A. K. Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506-143503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, "Optical modulation and detection in slotted silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5216-5226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jurich, M. C.

Kazovsky, L. G.

L. G. Kazovsky, "Phase- and polarization-diversity coherent optical techniques," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 279-292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

Kim, J. J.

M. C. Oh, S. Y. Shin, W. Y. Hwang, and J. J. Kim, "Poling-induced waveguide polarizers in electrooptic polymers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 375-377 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. K.

S. K. Kim, K. Geary, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, C. Wang, and W. H. Steier, "TM-pass polymer modulators with poling-induced waveguides and self-aligned electrodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 721-722 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klunder, D. J. W.

D. J. W. Klunder, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, and A. Driessen, "A novel polarization-independent wavelength-division-multiplexing filter based on cylindrical microresonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1294-1299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, R.

Liao, Y.

Lipscomb, G. F.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, "Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031-1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, "Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Loychik, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506-143503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506-143503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lytel, R.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, "Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031-1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Marrone, M. J.

Mathine, D.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506-143503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

T. Imai and T. Matsumoto, "Polarization fluctuations in a single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1366-1375 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nakagome, H.

Norwood, R. A.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506-143503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M. C.

M. C. Oh, S. Y. Shin, W. Y. Hwang, and J. J. Kim, "Poling-induced waveguide polarizers in electrooptic polymers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 375-377 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Page, R. H.

Paniccia, M.

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, "Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506-143503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reck, B.

Reed, G. T.

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, "Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roeloffzen, C. G. H.

D. J. W. Klunder, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, and A. Driessen, "A novel polarization-independent wavelength-division-multiplexing filter based on cylindrical microresonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1294-1299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Sen, A.

Shin, S. Y.

M. C. Oh, S. Y. Shin, W. Y. Hwang, and J. J. Kim, "Poling-induced waveguide polarizers in electrooptic polymers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 375-377 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. A.

Song, R.

R. Song, A. Yick, and W. H. Steier, "Conductivity-dependency-free in-plane poling for Mach-Zehnder modulator with highly conductive electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191103-191103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

R. Song, A. Yick, and W. H. Steier, "Conductivity-dependency-free in-plane poling for Mach-Zehnder modulator with highly conductive electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191103-191103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, K. Geary, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, C. Wang, and W. H. Steier, "TM-pass polymer modulators with poling-induced waveguides and self-aligned electrodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 721-722 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, M. A.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, "Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031-1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Suematsu, Y.

Y. Suematsu, M. Hakuta, K. Furuya, K. Chiba, and R. Hasumi, "Fundamental transverse electric field (TE0) mode selection for thin-film asymmetric light guides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 291-293 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P. A.

Swalen, J. D.

Thackara, J. I.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, "Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031-1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ticknor, A. J.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, "Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031-1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

Uehara, S.

Wang, C.

S. K. Kim, K. Geary, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, C. Wang, and W. H. Steier, "TM-pass polymer modulators with poling-induced waveguides and self-aligned electrodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 721-722 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

Willson, C. G.

Xu, C.

Yick, A.

R. Song, A. Yick, and W. H. Steier, "Conductivity-dependency-free in-plane poling for Mach-Zehnder modulator with highly conductive electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191103-191103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

S. K. Kim, K. Geary, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, C. Wang, and W. H. Steier, "TM-pass polymer modulators with poling-induced waveguides and self-aligned electrodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 721-722 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

S. K. Kim, K. Geary, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, C. Wang, and W. H. Steier, "TM-pass polymer modulators with poling-induced waveguides and self-aligned electrodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 721-722 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, "Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Suematsu, M. Hakuta, K. Furuya, K. Chiba, and R. Hasumi, "Fundamental transverse electric field (TE0) mode selection for thin-film asymmetric light guides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 291-293 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, "Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031-1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506-143503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Song, A. Yick, and W. H. Steier, "Conductivity-dependency-free in-plane poling for Mach-Zehnder modulator with highly conductive electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191103-191103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

S. K. Kim, K. Geary, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, C. Wang, and W. H. Steier, "TM-pass polymer modulators with poling-induced waveguides and self-aligned electrodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 721-722 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. J. W. Klunder, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, and A. Driessen, "A novel polarization-independent wavelength-division-multiplexing filter based on cylindrical microresonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1294-1299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. C. Oh, S. Y. Shin, W. Y. Hwang, and J. J. Kim, "Poling-induced waveguide polarizers in electrooptic polymers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 375-377 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

L. G. Kazovsky, "Phase- and polarization-diversity coherent optical techniques," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 279-292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Imai and T. Matsumoto, "Polarization fluctuations in a single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1366-1375 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

S. Janz, "Silicon-based waveguide technology for wavelength division multiplexing," in Silicon Photonics, L. Pavesi, and D. J. Lockwood, eds., (Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg, 2004).

L. Dalton, "Photonic integration improves on current technologies: Newsroom: SPIE.org," http://spie.org/x16998.xml?highlight=x2414.

L. Dalton, "Revisiting organic optical nonlinearity leads to a new class of materials: Newsroom: SPIE.org," http://spie.org/x17559.xml.

K. Dawes, L. C. Glover, and D. A. Vroom, "The Effects of Electron Beam and ?-Irradiation on Polymeric Materials," in Physical Properties of Polymers Handbook, J. E. Mark, ed., (Springer, New York, 2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Chemical structures of the electro-optic chromophores used in this study.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The index of refraction across a channel waveguide before poling (a), after poling (b), and after electron-beam pattering (c).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A schematic view of the polarization selective 90° bent waveguide defined by direct electron-beam writing.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

TM to TE polarization extinction ratios as functions of the electron beam doses for three different electro-optic polymer waveguide material systems: (a) 25% AJLS102/75PMMA on OG125. (b) 25% AJLS102/APC on UV16. (c) 25% YL124/950PMMA on UV16.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

A microscopic image of a polarization selective electro-optic polymer microring resonator fabricated with direct electron beam writing.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmission spectra of the electron beam defined polarization selective microring resonators: (a) material system 3, coupling length 100 µm, coupling gap 100 nm, (b) material system 2, coupling length 100 µm, coupling gap 400 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Electro-optic polymer waveguide material systems used in the experiments

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