Abstract

A supercontinuum source has been proposed as a new tool for measurement of minor species concentrations on long paths through the atmosphere. The present work describes results from recent experiments that demonstrate the potential for Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (DAS) and Spectral Pattern Recognition Differential Absorption Lidar (SPR-DIAL) measurements utilizing a supercontinuum source. As an initial example of this measurement approach, the results include the quantification of water vapor concentration through indoor and outdoor path absorption measurements using a collimated supercontinuum source. Experimental spectra are compared with equivalent simulations from MODTRAN™ versions 4 and 5 to examine the water vapor band between 1300 and 1500 nm to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

2005 (1)

R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," JOSA B 22, 369-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

P. Weibring, C. Abrahamsson, M. Sjöholm, J. N. Smith, H. Edner, and S. Svanber, "Multi-Component Chemical Analysis of Gas Mixtures Using a Continuously-Tuneable Lidar System," Appl. Phys. B 79, 525-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, "MODTRAN5: A reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options," in Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery X, Proc. SPIE 425, 341-347 2004.

W. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. Knight, T. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres" Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a Supercontinuum- based Infrared Lidar," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: a Mobile Femtosecond-Terawatt Laser and Detection System," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Cecilia Galvez, M. Fujita, N. Inoue, R. Moriki, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, "Three-wavelength backscatter measurement of clouds and aerosols using a white light lidar system," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L284-L286 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1978 (1)

Abrahamsson, C.

P. Weibring, C. Abrahamsson, M. Sjöholm, J. N. Smith, H. Edner, and S. Svanber, "Multi-Component Chemical Analysis of Gas Mixtures Using a Continuously-Tuneable Lidar System," Appl. Phys. B 79, 525-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Acharya, P. K.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, "MODTRAN5: A reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options," in Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery X, Proc. SPIE 425, 341-347 2004.

Adler-Golden, S. M.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, "MODTRAN5: A reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options," in Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery X, Proc. SPIE 425, 341-347 2004.

Anderson, G. P.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, "MODTRAN5: A reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options," in Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery X, Proc. SPIE 425, 341-347 2004.

Baumgartner, R. A.

Berk, A.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, "MODTRAN5: A reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options," in Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery X, Proc. SPIE 425, 341-347 2004.

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, "MODTRAN5: A reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options," in Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery X, Proc. SPIE 425, 341-347 2004.

Biancalana, F.

Birks, T.

Bourayou, R.

R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," JOSA B 22, 369-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a Supercontinuum- based Infrared Lidar," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Cecilia Galvez, M.

M. Cecilia Galvez, M. Fujita, N. Inoue, R. Moriki, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, "Three-wavelength backscatter measurement of clouds and aerosols using a white light lidar system," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L284-L286 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, "MODTRAN5: A reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options," in Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery X, Proc. SPIE 425, 341-347 2004.

Cooley, T. W.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, "MODTRAN5: A reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options," in Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery X, Proc. SPIE 425, 341-347 2004.

Edner, H.

P. Weibring, C. Abrahamsson, M. Sjöholm, J. N. Smith, H. Edner, and S. Svanber, "Multi-Component Chemical Analysis of Gas Mixtures Using a Continuously-Tuneable Lidar System," Appl. Phys. B 79, 525-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eislöffel, J.

R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," JOSA B 22, 369-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a Supercontinuum- based Infrared Lidar," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fox, M. J.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, "MODTRAN5: A reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options," in Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery X, Proc. SPIE 425, 341-347 2004.

Fujita, M.

M. Cecilia Galvez, M. Fujita, N. Inoue, R. Moriki, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, "Three-wavelength backscatter measurement of clouds and aerosols using a white light lidar system," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L284-L286 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, J. A.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, "MODTRAN5: A reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options," in Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery X, Proc. SPIE 425, 341-347 2004.

Hatzes, A. P.

R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," JOSA B 22, 369-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a Supercontinuum- based Infrared Lidar," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoke, M. L.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, "MODTRAN5: A reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options," in Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery X, Proc. SPIE 425, 341-347 2004.

Inoue, N.

M. Cecilia Galvez, M. Fujita, N. Inoue, R. Moriki, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, "Three-wavelength backscatter measurement of clouds and aerosols using a white light lidar system," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L284-L286 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Izawa, Y.

M. Cecilia Galvez, M. Fujita, N. Inoue, R. Moriki, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, "Three-wavelength backscatter measurement of clouds and aerosols using a white light lidar system," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L284-L286 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Joly, N.

Kasparian, J.

R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," JOSA B 22, 369-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a Supercontinuum- based Infrared Lidar," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: a Mobile Femtosecond-Terawatt Laser and Detection System," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J.

Laux, U.

R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," JOSA B 22, 369-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a Supercontinuum- based Infrared Lidar," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, "MODTRAN5: A reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options," in Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery X, Proc. SPIE 425, 341-347 2004.

Lehmann, H.

R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," JOSA B 22, 369-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a Supercontinuum- based Infrared Lidar," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, P. E.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, "MODTRAN5: A reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options," in Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery X, Proc. SPIE 425, 341-347 2004.

Lockwood, R. B.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, "MODTRAN5: A reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options," in Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery X, Proc. SPIE 425, 341-347 2004.

Méjean, G.

R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," JOSA B 22, 369-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a Supercontinuum- based Infrared Lidar," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mondelain, D.

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: a Mobile Femtosecond-Terawatt Laser and Detection System," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moriki, R.

M. Cecilia Galvez, M. Fujita, N. Inoue, R. Moriki, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, "Three-wavelength backscatter measurement of clouds and aerosols using a white light lidar system," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L284-L286 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muratov, L.

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, "MODTRAN5: A reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options," in Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery X, Proc. SPIE 425, 341-347 2004.

Mysyrowicz, A.

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: a Mobile Femtosecond-Terawatt Laser and Detection System," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M.

R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," JOSA B 22, 369-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a Supercontinuum- based Infrared Lidar," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: a Mobile Femtosecond-Terawatt Laser and Detection System," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.

Salmon, E.

R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," JOSA B 22, 369-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a Supercontinuum- based Infrared Lidar," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," JOSA B 22, 369-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a Supercontinuum- based Infrared Lidar," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: a Mobile Femtosecond-Terawatt Laser and Detection System," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, A.

R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," JOSA B 22, 369-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a Supercontinuum- based Infrared Lidar," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sjöholm, M.

P. Weibring, C. Abrahamsson, M. Sjöholm, J. N. Smith, H. Edner, and S. Svanber, "Multi-Component Chemical Analysis of Gas Mixtures Using a Continuously-Tuneable Lidar System," Appl. Phys. B 79, 525-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. N.

P. Weibring, C. Abrahamsson, M. Sjöholm, J. N. Smith, H. Edner, and S. Svanber, "Multi-Component Chemical Analysis of Gas Mixtures Using a Continuously-Tuneable Lidar System," Appl. Phys. B 79, 525-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stecklum, B.

R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," JOSA B 22, 369-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a Supercontinuum- based Infrared Lidar," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Svanber, S.

P. Weibring, C. Abrahamsson, M. Sjöholm, J. N. Smith, H. Edner, and S. Svanber, "Multi-Component Chemical Analysis of Gas Mixtures Using a Continuously-Tuneable Lidar System," Appl. Phys. B 79, 525-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W.

Wang, W.

Warren, R. E.

Weibring, P.

P. Weibring, C. Abrahamsson, M. Sjöholm, J. N. Smith, H. Edner, and S. Svanber, "Multi-Component Chemical Analysis of Gas Mixtures Using a Continuously-Tuneable Lidar System," Appl. Phys. B 79, 525-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wille, H.

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: a Mobile Femtosecond-Terawatt Laser and Detection System," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.

R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," JOSA B 22, 369-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J. P.

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a Supercontinuum- based Infrared Lidar," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.P.

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: a Mobile Femtosecond-Terawatt Laser and Detection System," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Woste, L.

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: a Mobile Femtosecond-Terawatt Laser and Detection System," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wöste, L.

R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," JOSA B 22, 369-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a Supercontinuum- based Infrared Lidar," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, C.

M. Cecilia Galvez, M. Fujita, N. Inoue, R. Moriki, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, "Three-wavelength backscatter measurement of clouds and aerosols using a white light lidar system," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L284-L286 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yin, S.

Yu, J.

R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," JOSA B 22, 369-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a Supercontinuum- based Infrared Lidar," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: a Mobile Femtosecond-Terawatt Laser and Detection System," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Weibring, C. Abrahamsson, M. Sjöholm, J. N. Smith, H. Edner, and S. Svanber, "Multi-Component Chemical Analysis of Gas Mixtures Using a Continuously-Tuneable Lidar System," Appl. Phys. B 79, 525-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a Supercontinuum- based Infrared Lidar," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: a Mobile Femtosecond-Terawatt Laser and Detection System," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

JOSA B (1)

R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," JOSA B 22, 369-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Cecilia Galvez, M. Fujita, N. Inoue, R. Moriki, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, "Three-wavelength backscatter measurement of clouds and aerosols using a white light lidar system," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L284-L286 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Berk, T. W. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. J. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, and P. E. Lewis, "MODTRAN5: A reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options," in Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery X, Proc. SPIE 425, 341-347 2004.

Other (6)

C. R. Philbrick, Z. Liu, H. Hallen, D. Brown, and A. Willitsford. "Lidar Techniques Applied To Remote Detection of Chemical Species in the Atmosphere," Proc. International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (ISSSR), 2006.

D. M. Brown, A. Willitsford, K. Shi, Z. Liu, and C. R. Philbrick, "Advanced Optical Techniques for Measurements of Atmospheric Constituents," in Proceedings of the 28th Annual Review of Atmospheric Transmission Models, Lexington MA, June 2006.

C. R. Philbrick, "Raman Lidar Characterization of the Meteorological, Electromagnetic, and Electro-optical Environment," Proc. SPIE 5887, Lidar Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring VI, 85-99 (2005).

R. R. Alfano, Supercontinuum Laser Source (Springer Verlag, New York, 1989).

J. Begnoché, "Analytical Techniques for Laser Remote Sensing with a Supercontinuum White Light Laser" The Pennsylvania State University M.S. Thesis, 2005.

U. Platt, "Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS)," in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. Sigrist, ed., (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1994).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Supercontinuum source spectrum; (b) The far field pattern of the supercontinuum spectrum generated from a photonic crystal fiber; and (c) Rainbow observed after collimated light passes through a prism.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup used to measure water vapor spectrum with a supercontinuum source.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized water vapor transmittance 1300–1500 nm measurements using the supercontinuum laser (red) are compared when the spectrometer slit is set for the 1 cm-1 resolution corresponding with of MODTRAN™ 4 (blue).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Water vapor transmittance 1380–1420 nm experimental measurements (red) compared with MODTRAN™ 5 simulation (blue), with resolution matched to the instrument 0.4 cm-1 parameter.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Water vapor transmittance 1400–1420 nm experimental measurement (red) compared to MODTRAN™ 5 simulation with parameters selected to match the sensor (blue). The highest resolution available (0.1 cm-1) for MODTRAN™ 5 simulations (green) is also shown for reference.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Shown on the left is the calculated water vapor absorption spectrum (top) and experimental data (bottom). The red vertical lines are utilize a linearly spaced wavelength sampling scheme to feed spectral absorption information into the MLE algorithm. The algorithm iterates until it converges upon a best fit CPL (right), given the set of experimental data and absorption spectra of water vapor in a predetermined wavelength region.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Calculation of water vapor concentration showing the convergence using 10 to 500 laser lines for comparison.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Experimental setup for long path SAS measurements; (b) view through the laboratory door shows the reflection of UV-NIR supercontinuum source from a 6” retroreflector located ~150 m away; (c) the wavelength spread of the supercontinuum light can be observed in the PCF, when it is properly tuned for maximum output power, it is spread in wavelengths through visible and near IR due to self phase modulation.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Spectral measurement in the 1420 to 1460 nm infrared region with strong water vapor absorption features.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Result of MLE algorithm for two 300 m path averaged measurements of water vapor.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Comparison of averaged MLE results to local MET data.

Equations (3)

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CPL l = 1 n 1 M = n x n [ j = 1 M [ α jl Λ ̂ 1 1 ( j , j ) [ H ̂ 1 Q ¯ ( j ) l = 1 , l 1 L α jl CPL l ] ] j = 1 M [ α jl Λ ̂ 1 1 ( j , j ) α jl ] ] [ ppm · m ]
C H 2 O [ ppm ] = 10 4 ( RH ) Saturation Water Vapor Pressure Partial Pressure of Water = P H 2 O o P H 2 O
= 10 4 ( RH ) exp [ 13.3185 ( 1 373.15 T ) 1.976 ( 1 373.15 T ) 2 0.6445 ( 1 373.15 T ) 3 0.1299 ( 1 373.15 T ) 4 ]

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