Abstract

A coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) consisting of a chain of directly coupled ring-resonators (RRs) fabricated in 4.5%-index-contrast silicon oxynitride technology is employed to control the delay of optical pulses with continuity and over several bit-slots. The moderate deterioration of the signal quality versus the delay is demonstrated by the observation of error-free transmission (BER<10-9) at 10 Gbit/s for fractional delays of up to 3 bits, with fractional losses below 1 dB per bit-delay. The high storage efficiency of the device, exceeding 0.5 bit/RR, enables an easy management of the delay and the reduction of the footprint down to 7 mm2. The presented reconfiguration scheme is hitless with respect to data transmission, since the CROW delay can be tuned without halting the data flow, while preserving the signal quality.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  2. J. T. Mok and B. J. Eggleton, "Expect more delays," Nature (London) 433, 811-812 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Parra and J. R. Lowell, "Toward applications of slow-light technology," Opt. Photon. News 18, 41-45 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, J. C. Howell, A. Schweinsberg, and R. W. Boyd, "Wide-bandwidth, tunable, multiple-pulse-width optical delays using slow light in cesium vapour," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,153601 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Y. Song, M. G. Herrez, and L. Thevenaz, "Long optically controlled delays in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1782-1784 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  8. B. Zhang, L. -S. Yan, J. -Y. Yang, I. Fazal, and A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gb/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081 - 1083 (2007).
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  12. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425, 944-947 (2003).
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  13. D. O???Brien, M. D. Settle, T. Karle, A. Michaeli, M. Salib, and T. F. Krauss, "Coupled photonic crystal heterostructure nanocavities," Opt. Express 15, 1228-1233 (2007).
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  14. T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nat. Photonics 1, 49-52 (2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, "Linear and nonlinear pulse propagation in coupled resonator slowwave optical structures," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 365-379 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Melloni, and F. Morichetti, "Observation of Subluminal and Superluminal Velocity Swinging in Coupled Mode Optical Propagation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 173902 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. Zhang, L. Yan, I. Fazal, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, Z. Zhu, and D. J. Gauthier, "Slow light on Gbit/s differentialphase- shift-keying signals," Opt. Express 15, 1878-1883 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. L. Yi,W. Hu, Y. Su, M. Gao, and L. Leng, "Design and system demonstration of a tunable slow-light delay line based on fiber parametric process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2575-2577, (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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  29. F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, M. Martinelli, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, D. H. Geuzebroek, and A. Borreman, "Box-Shaped Dielectric Waveguides: A New Concept in Integrated Optics?," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2579- 2589 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (13)

E. Parra and J. R. Lowell, "Toward applications of slow-light technology," Opt. Photon. News 18, 41-45 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, J. C. Howell, A. Schweinsberg, and R. W. Boyd, "Wide-bandwidth, tunable, multiple-pulse-width optical delays using slow light in cesium vapour," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nat. Photonics 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.K. Madsen, M. Cappuzzo, E.J. Laskowski, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Stulz, and L. Buhl, "Versatile integrated PMD emulation and compensation elements," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, and F. Morichetti, "Observation of Subluminal and Superluminal Velocity Swinging in Coupled Mode Optical Propagation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 173902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, L. -S. Yan, J. -Y. Yang, I. Fazal, and A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gb/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081 - 1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sedgwick, B. Pesala, J. Y. Lin,W. S. Ko, X. Zhao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "THz-bandwidth tunable slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Express 15, 747-753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. O???Brien, M. D. Settle, T. Karle, A. Michaeli, M. Salib, and T. F. Krauss, "Coupled photonic crystal heterostructure nanocavities," Opt. Express 15, 1228-1233 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, L. Yan, I. Fazal, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, Z. Zhu, and D. J. Gauthier, "Slow light on Gbit/s differentialphase- shift-keying signals," Opt. Express 15, 1878-1883 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. -S. Yan, I. Fazal, J. -Y. Yang, and A. E. Willner,"Continuously-tunable, bit-rate variable OTDM using broadband SBS slow-light delay line," Opt. Express 15, 8317-8322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, M. Martinelli, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, D. H. Geuzebroek, and A. Borreman, "Box-Shaped Dielectric Waveguides: A New Concept in Integrated Optics?," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2579- 2589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, A. Breda, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, "A reconfigurable architecture for continuously variable optical slow-wave delay lines," Opt. Express 15, 17273-17282 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

L. Yi,W. Hu, Y. Su, M. Gao, and L. Leng, "Design and system demonstration of a tunable slow-light delay line based on fiber parametric process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2575-2577, (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. S. Poon, L. Zhu, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, "Transmission and group delay of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 31, 456-458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ghulinyan, M. Galli, C. Toninelli, J. Bertolotti, S. Gottardo, F. Marabelli, D. Wiersma, L. Pavesi, and L. Andreani, "Wide-band transmission of non-distorted slow waves in one-dimensional optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gauthier, "Slow light brings faster communications," Phys. World, 30December (2005).

J. T. Mok and B. J. Eggleton, "Expect more delays," Nature (London) 433, 811-812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Song, M. G. Herrez, and L. Thevenaz, "Long optically controlled delays in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1782-1784 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, and A. Gaeta, "Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier," Opt. Lett. 13, 6092-6098 (2005).

2004 (1)

B. E. Little,  et al., "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, "Linear and nonlinear pulse propagation in coupled resonator slowwave optical structures," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 365-379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, R. Costa, P. Monguzzi, and M. Martinelli, "Ring-resonator filters in silicon oxynitride technology for dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems," Opt. Lett. 28, 1567-1569 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreani, L.

M. Ghulinyan, M. Galli, C. Toninelli, J. Bertolotti, S. Gottardo, F. Marabelli, D. Wiersma, L. Pavesi, and L. Andreani, "Wide-band transmission of non-distorted slow waves in one-dimensional optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertolotti, J.

M. Ghulinyan, M. Galli, C. Toninelli, J. Bertolotti, S. Gottardo, F. Marabelli, D. Wiersma, L. Pavesi, and L. Andreani, "Wide-band transmission of non-distorted slow waves in one-dimensional optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, M. S.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borreman, A.

Boyd, R. W.

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, J. C. Howell, A. Schweinsberg, and R. W. Boyd, "Wide-bandwidth, tunable, multiple-pulse-width optical delays using slow light in cesium vapour," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breda, A.

Buhl, L.

C.K. Madsen, M. Cappuzzo, E.J. Laskowski, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Stulz, and L. Buhl, "Versatile integrated PMD emulation and compensation elements," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Camacho, R. M.

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, J. C. Howell, A. Schweinsberg, and R. W. Boyd, "Wide-bandwidth, tunable, multiple-pulse-width optical delays using slow light in cesium vapour," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canavesi, C.

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Canavesi, F. Persia, M. Martinelli, and M. Sorel, "Tunable Slow-Wave Optical Delay-Lines," in Slow and Fast Light, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper MB2.

Canciamilla, A.

Cappuzzo, M.

C.K. Madsen, M. Cappuzzo, E.J. Laskowski, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Stulz, and L. Buhl, "Versatile integrated PMD emulation and compensation elements," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

C.K. Madsen, M. Cappuzzo, E.J. Laskowski, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Stulz, and L. Buhl, "Versatile integrated PMD emulation and compensation elements," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Chen, E.

C.K. Madsen, M. Cappuzzo, E.J. Laskowski, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Stulz, and L. Buhl, "Versatile integrated PMD emulation and compensation elements," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Costa, R.

DeRose, G. A.

Eggleton, B. J.

J. T. Mok and B. J. Eggleton, "Expect more delays," Nature (London) 433, 811-812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fazal, I.

Ferrari, C.

Gaeta, A.

J. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, and A. Gaeta, "Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier," Opt. Lett. 13, 6092-6098 (2005).

Gaeta, A. L.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galli, M.

M. Ghulinyan, M. Galli, C. Toninelli, J. Bertolotti, S. Gottardo, F. Marabelli, D. Wiersma, L. Pavesi, and L. Andreani, "Wide-band transmission of non-distorted slow waves in one-dimensional optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, M.

L. Yi,W. Hu, Y. Su, M. Gao, and L. Leng, "Design and system demonstration of a tunable slow-light delay line based on fiber parametric process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2575-2577, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D.

D. Gauthier, "Slow light brings faster communications," Phys. World, 30December (2005).

Gauthier, D. J.

B. Zhang, L. Yan, I. Fazal, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, Z. Zhu, and D. J. Gauthier, "Slow light on Gbit/s differentialphase- shift-keying signals," Opt. Express 15, 1878-1883 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geuzebroek, D. H.

Ghulinyan, M.

M. Ghulinyan, M. Galli, C. Toninelli, J. Bertolotti, S. Gottardo, F. Marabelli, D. Wiersma, L. Pavesi, and L. Andreani, "Wide-band transmission of non-distorted slow waves in one-dimensional optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, L.

C.K. Madsen, M. Cappuzzo, E.J. Laskowski, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Stulz, and L. Buhl, "Versatile integrated PMD emulation and compensation elements," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gottardo, S.

M. Ghulinyan, M. Galli, C. Toninelli, J. Bertolotti, S. Gottardo, F. Marabelli, D. Wiersma, L. Pavesi, and L. Andreani, "Wide-band transmission of non-distorted slow waves in one-dimensional optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, A.

C.K. Madsen, M. Cappuzzo, E.J. Laskowski, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Stulz, and L. Buhl, "Versatile integrated PMD emulation and compensation elements," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heideman, R. G.

Herrez, M. G.

Howell, J. C.

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, J. C. Howell, A. Schweinsberg, and R. W. Boyd, "Wide-bandwidth, tunable, multiple-pulse-width optical delays using slow light in cesium vapour," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

L. Yi,W. Hu, Y. Su, M. Gao, and L. Leng, "Design and system demonstration of a tunable slow-light delay line based on fiber parametric process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2575-2577, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karle, T.

Ko, W. S.

Krauss, T. F.

Kuramochi, E.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nat. Photonics 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E.J.

C.K. Madsen, M. Cappuzzo, E.J. Laskowski, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Stulz, and L. Buhl, "Versatile integrated PMD emulation and compensation elements," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leinse, A.

Leng, L.

L. Yi,W. Hu, Y. Su, M. Gao, and L. Leng, "Design and system demonstration of a tunable slow-light delay line based on fiber parametric process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2575-2577, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little,  et al., "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lowell, J. R.

E. Parra and J. R. Lowell, "Toward applications of slow-light technology," Opt. Photon. News 18, 41-45 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, C.K.

C.K. Madsen, M. Cappuzzo, E.J. Laskowski, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Stulz, and L. Buhl, "Versatile integrated PMD emulation and compensation elements," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marabelli, F.

M. Ghulinyan, M. Galli, C. Toninelli, J. Bertolotti, S. Gottardo, F. Marabelli, D. Wiersma, L. Pavesi, and L. Andreani, "Wide-band transmission of non-distorted slow waves in one-dimensional optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

Melloni, A.

A. Melloni, and F. Morichetti, "Observation of Subluminal and Superluminal Velocity Swinging in Coupled Mode Optical Propagation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 173902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, M. Martinelli, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, D. H. Geuzebroek, and A. Borreman, "Box-Shaped Dielectric Waveguides: A New Concept in Integrated Optics?," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2579- 2589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, A. Breda, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, "A reconfigurable architecture for continuously variable optical slow-wave delay lines," Opt. Express 15, 17273-17282 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, "Linear and nonlinear pulse propagation in coupled resonator slowwave optical structures," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 365-379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, R. Costa, P. Monguzzi, and M. Martinelli, "Ring-resonator filters in silicon oxynitride technology for dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems," Opt. Lett. 28, 1567-1569 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Canavesi, F. Persia, M. Martinelli, and M. Sorel, "Tunable Slow-Wave Optical Delay-Lines," in Slow and Fast Light, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper MB2.

Michaeli, A.

Mok, J. T.

J. T. Mok and B. J. Eggleton, "Expect more delays," Nature (London) 433, 811-812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monguzzi, P.

Morichetti, F.

A. Melloni, and F. Morichetti, "Observation of Subluminal and Superluminal Velocity Swinging in Coupled Mode Optical Propagation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 173902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, A. Breda, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, "A reconfigurable architecture for continuously variable optical slow-wave delay lines," Opt. Express 15, 17273-17282 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, M. Martinelli, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, D. H. Geuzebroek, and A. Borreman, "Box-Shaped Dielectric Waveguides: A New Concept in Integrated Optics?," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2579- 2589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, "Linear and nonlinear pulse propagation in coupled resonator slowwave optical structures," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 365-379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Canavesi, F. Persia, M. Martinelli, and M. Sorel, "Tunable Slow-Wave Optical Delay-Lines," in Slow and Fast Light, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper MB2.

Noda, S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nat. Photonics 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O???Brien, D.

Okawachi, Y.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, and A. Gaeta, "Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier," Opt. Lett. 13, 6092-6098 (2005).

Pack, M. V.

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, J. C. Howell, A. Schweinsberg, and R. W. Boyd, "Wide-bandwidth, tunable, multiple-pulse-width optical delays using slow light in cesium vapour," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parra, E.

E. Parra and J. R. Lowell, "Toward applications of slow-light technology," Opt. Photon. News 18, 41-45 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

M. Ghulinyan, M. Galli, C. Toninelli, J. Bertolotti, S. Gottardo, F. Marabelli, D. Wiersma, L. Pavesi, and L. Andreani, "Wide-band transmission of non-distorted slow waves in one-dimensional optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Persia, F.

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Canavesi, F. Persia, M. Martinelli, and M. Sorel, "Tunable Slow-Wave Optical Delay-Lines," in Slow and Fast Light, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper MB2.

Pesala, B.

Poon, J. K. S.

Rec, ITU-T

ITU-T Rec. G-872, "Architecture of optical transport networks," Gen`eve, (2005).

Salib, M.

Schweinsberg, A.

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, J. C. Howell, A. Schweinsberg, and R. W. Boyd, "Wide-bandwidth, tunable, multiple-pulse-width optical delays using slow light in cesium vapour," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sedgwick, F. G.

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Settle, M. D.

Sharping, J.

J. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, and A. Gaeta, "Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier," Opt. Lett. 13, 6092-6098 (2005).

Sharping, J. E

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinya, A.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nat. Photonics 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, B. S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, K. Y.

Sorel, M.

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Canavesi, F. Persia, M. Martinelli, and M. Sorel, "Tunable Slow-Wave Optical Delay-Lines," in Slow and Fast Light, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper MB2.

Stulz, L.

C.K. Madsen, M. Cappuzzo, E.J. Laskowski, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Stulz, and L. Buhl, "Versatile integrated PMD emulation and compensation elements," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y.

L. Yi,W. Hu, Y. Su, M. Gao, and L. Leng, "Design and system demonstration of a tunable slow-light delay line based on fiber parametric process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2575-2577, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nat. Photonics 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taniyama, H.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nat. Photonics 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Th???evenaz, L.

Toninelli, C.

M. Ghulinyan, M. Galli, C. Toninelli, J. Bertolotti, S. Gottardo, F. Marabelli, D. Wiersma, L. Pavesi, and L. Andreani, "Wide-band transmission of non-distorted slow waves in one-dimensional optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D.

M. Ghulinyan, M. Galli, C. Toninelli, J. Bertolotti, S. Gottardo, F. Marabelli, D. Wiersma, L. Pavesi, and L. Andreani, "Wide-band transmission of non-distorted slow waves in one-dimensional optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Wong-Foy, A.

C.K. Madsen, M. Cappuzzo, E.J. Laskowski, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Stulz, and L. Buhl, "Versatile integrated PMD emulation and compensation elements," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.

Yan, L. -S.

B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. -S. Yan, I. Fazal, J. -Y. Yang, and A. E. Willner,"Continuously-tunable, bit-rate variable OTDM using broadband SBS slow-light delay line," Opt. Express 15, 8317-8322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, L. -S. Yan, J. -Y. Yang, I. Fazal, and A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gb/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081 - 1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. -Y.

B. Zhang, L. -S. Yan, J. -Y. Yang, I. Fazal, and A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gb/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081 - 1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. -S. Yan, I. Fazal, J. -Y. Yang, and A. E. Willner,"Continuously-tunable, bit-rate variable OTDM using broadband SBS slow-light delay line," Opt. Express 15, 8317-8322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

Yi, L.

L. Yi,W. Hu, Y. Su, M. Gao, and L. Leng, "Design and system demonstration of a tunable slow-light delay line based on fiber parametric process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2575-2577, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, L.

Zhao, X.

Zhu, L.

Zhu, Z.

B. Zhang, L. Yan, I. Fazal, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, Z. Zhu, and D. J. Gauthier, "Slow light on Gbit/s differentialphase- shift-keying signals," Opt. Express 15, 1878-1883 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Ghulinyan, M. Galli, C. Toninelli, J. Bertolotti, S. Gottardo, F. Marabelli, D. Wiersma, L. Pavesi, and L. Andreani, "Wide-band transmission of non-distorted slow waves in one-dimensional optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C.K. Madsen, M. Cappuzzo, E.J. Laskowski, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Stulz, and L. Buhl, "Versatile integrated PMD emulation and compensation elements," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

B. Zhang, L. -S. Yan, J. -Y. Yang, I. Fazal, and A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gb/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081 - 1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little,  et al., "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Yi,W. Hu, Y. Su, M. Gao, and L. Leng, "Design and system demonstration of a tunable slow-light delay line based on fiber parametric process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2575-2577, (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (2)

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nat. Photonics 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (2)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Mok and B. J. Eggleton, "Expect more delays," Nature (London) 433, 811-812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

E. Parra and J. R. Lowell, "Toward applications of slow-light technology," Opt. Photon. News 18, 41-45 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, "Linear and nonlinear pulse propagation in coupled resonator slowwave optical structures," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 365-379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Melloni, and F. Morichetti, "Observation of Subluminal and Superluminal Velocity Swinging in Coupled Mode Optical Propagation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 173902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, J. C. Howell, A. Schweinsberg, and R. W. Boyd, "Wide-bandwidth, tunable, multiple-pulse-width optical delays using slow light in cesium vapour," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. World (1)

D. Gauthier, "Slow light brings faster communications," Phys. World, 30December (2005).

Other (5)

F. Morichetti, R. Costa, G. Cusmai, A. Cabas, M. Fer???e, M. C. Ubaldi, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, "Integrated optical receiver for RZ-DQPSK transmission systems," in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2, Los Angeles, CA, Feb. 23-27 (2004).

ITU-T Rec. G-872, "Architecture of optical transport networks," Gen`eve, (2005).

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, and C. Ferrari, "1-byte reconfigurable integrated optic delay-line," in Slow and Fast Light, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008).

B. Little, "VLSI photonics platform," Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2, Atlanta, Georgia, Mar. 23-27, paper ThD1 (2003).

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Canavesi, F. Persia, M. Martinelli, and M. Sorel, "Tunable Slow-Wave Optical Delay-Lines," in Slow and Fast Light, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper MB2.

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MPG (4178 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (3168 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Top view photograph of a CROW in SiON techology. The bus waveguide coupled with the leftmost RR acts as input/output port, whereas the bus waveguide coupled with the rightmost RR enables monitor operations. The different shape of the first (last) rings realizes the impedance-matching condition (apodization) between the bus waveguide and the coupled-resonator structure. Gold striplines connect every resistor to the contact pads, the latter being wire-bonded to the tuning control unit.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Discrete tuning of the delay. (a) Schematic of the CROW reflective operation principle. (b) Measured group delay and insertion loss of the CROW for an increasing number of open rings: M=0 (black line), 2 (red line), 3 (orange line), 4 (green line), 5 (pink line) and 6 (blue line).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time-domain measurements of the digitally tunable delay of the CROW. The probe pulses come from a 10-Gbit/s NRZ optical data-stream with carrier λ s =1550.31 nm. The reference trace (a) refers to propagation in the bus waveguide only, when all the RRs are locked. Fractional delays of 1 bit (b), 2 bits (c) and 3 bits (d) with negligible pulse distortion are obtained when 2, 4 and 6 RRs are opened, respectively. The time traces are reported in the same time (horizontal) and intensity (vertical) scale.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Frequency-domain characterization of the analog tuning of the CROW delay. (a) Measured group delay of the CROW when the first three RRs are opened and the fourth RR is drawn towards λ s : Δλ4=-200 pm (black line), Δλ4=-28 pm (red line), Δλ4=-12 pm (blue line) and Δλ4=0 pm (green line); (b) Measured group delay of the CROW when the first five RRs are opened and the sixth RR is drawn towards λ s : Δλ6=-200 pm (black line) Δλ6=-54 pm (red line), Δλ6=-28 pm (blue line) and Δλ6=0 pm (green line).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Time-domain characterization of the analog tuning of the CROW delay. Measured eye-diagrams of a 10 Gbit/s NRZ optical signal (231-1 PRBS) transmitted through the CROW when the delay configurations of Fig. 4 are assumed. (a) When only the first three RRs are opened, the fine tuning of the fourth RR provides a delay of (a1) 150 ps at Δλ4=-200 pm, (a2) 167 ps at Δλ4=-28 pm, (a3) 186 ps at Δλ4=-12 pm and (a4) 198 ps at Δλ4=0 pm. (b) When the first five RRs are opened, the fine tuning of the fourth RR provides a delay of (b1) 260 ps at Δλ6=-200 pm, (b2) 275 ps at Δλ6=-54 pm, (b3) 290 ps at Δλ6=-28 pm and (b4) 318 ps at Δλ6=0 pm. The simulated delay of the CROW versus the detuning of the fourth (c) and the sixth (d) RR is also reported. The measured delays of (a) and (b) are marked by the squares in (c) and (d), respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Movie of the simulated group delay of the CROW during the analog tuning of the delay. M is the number of RRs set to resonance, while the M +1-th RR is driven from off-resonance (Δλ M+1=FSR/2=0.4 nm) to on-resonance (Δλ M+1=0) condition. The red asterisk indicates the frequency position of the M+1-th RR of the CROW. The vertical dashed lines show the bandwidth of the CROW. Multimedia file (MPEG, 4 MB). [Media 1]

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Movie of the measured eye-diagram of a 10 Gbit/s NRZ optical signal (231-1 PRBS) transmitted through the CROW for several configuration of the delay. M is the number of RRs set to resonance, while the M+1-th RR is driven from off-resonance (Δλ M+1=FSR/2=0.4 nm) to on-resonance (Δλ M+1=0) condition. From M=3 to M=6 shorter delay steps (about 10 ps/frame) are reported, showing in time-domain the analog tuning of the delay. Multimedia file (MPEG, 3 MB) [Media 2]

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Bit error rate measurements versus the OSNR at the receiver of an intensity modulated NRZ 10 Gbit/s signal transmitted through the CROW: back-to-back measurement in pink line, 0 ps delay (M=0) in blue, 150 ps delay (M=3) in green, 200 ps delay (M=4) in red and 300 ps delay (M=6) in yellow. The eye-diagrams acquired at error-free operation for 0, 2 and 3 bit delay are shown in the insets of the figure.

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