Abstract

The influence of air turbulence on the long-range filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses has been numerically investigated. Simulations are performed for different parameters of air turbulence and laser pulses. Simulation results indicate that the diameter of filaments formed by free propagated fs laser pulse can be widened to mm level under air turbulence. However, the widening effect can be suppressed if the propagating distance before the on-set position of filamentation becomes shorter. The reduction of non-linear focal length can be realized by pre-focusing of the laser pulse or increasing of the laser intensity. The effect of the inner scale of air turbulence on the filamentation has also been studied.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Self-channeling of high-peak-power femotosecond laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 20, 73-75 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Skupin, L. Berg???e, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G.M???ejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. -P.Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L.W¨oste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, "Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters," Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air," Phy. Rev. Lett. 83, 2939-2941 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Berg???e, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. M???ejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. -P.Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L.W¨oste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, "Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air," Phy. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q1. P. B???ejot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salam???e, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Berg???e, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, "32 TW atmospheric white-light laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106-3 (2007).
  7. Q2. S. Eisenmann, E. Louzon, Y. Katzir, T. Palchan, and A. Zigler, Y. Sivan, and G. Fibich, "Control of the filamentation distance and pattern in long-range atmospheric propagation," Opt. Express 16, 2279-2784 (2007).
  8. J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, "Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation," Opt. Express 16, 466-493 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Supercontinuum and third-harmonic generation accompanying optical filamentation as first-order scattering processes," Opt. Lett. 32, 2816-2818 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Q3Q4. T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and Koshichi Nemoto, "Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges", Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107-5 (2008)
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lighting discharges in gases," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 31, 599-612 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Q5. B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. P. Mecure, H. Pein, and F. A. M. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sic. 27, 688-700 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L.Woste, and J. -P.Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
  14. V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva,I. S. Golubstov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. M???ejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. -P. Wolf, "Remote detection and identification of biological aerosols using a femtosecond terawatt lidar system," Appl. Phys. B 78, 535-537 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. M???ejean, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Ackermann, G. M???ejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, and J. -P. Wolf, "Laser filaments generated and transmitted in highly turbulent air," Opt. Lett. 31, 86-88 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamarov, A. Brodeur, and S. L. Chin, "Nucleation and random movement of filaments in the propagation of high-power laser radiation in a turbulent atmospher," Quantum. Electron. 29, 911-915 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. L. Chin, A. Talebpour, J. Yang, S. Petit, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and M. P. Tamarov, "Filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in turbulent air," Appl. Phys. B 74, 67-76 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Random deflection of the white light beam during self-focusing and filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in water," Appl. Phys. B 75, 595-599 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. M???ejean, A. Couairon, Y. -B. Andr???e, C. D. Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, "Long range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air a new propagation regime without ionization," Appl. Phys. B 79,379-382 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. M???ejean, C. D. Amico, Y. -B. Andr???e, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, "Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser," Opt. Commun. 247, 171-180 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, "Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air prefocused versus free propagation," Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. T. Xi, X. Lu and J. Zhang, "Interaction of Light Filaments Generated by Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96,025003 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. Couairon, S. Tzortzakis, L. Berg???e, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Infrared femtosecond light filaments in air: simulations and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  19, 1117-1131 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. M. Johanson, and D. T. Gavel, "Simulation of stellar speckle imaging," Proc. SPIE 2200, 372 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  27. V. I. Tatarski: The Effects of the Turbulence Atmosphere on the Wave Propagation (Natinoal Technical Information Services, US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 1971).
  28. W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, F. Th???eberge, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Background reservoir its crucial role for longdistance propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in air," Appl. Phys. B 80, 857-860 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, "Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 773-778 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Zheng, H. Ten, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  31. F. Theberge, W. W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air Strong dependence on external focusing," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Q3Q4. T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and Koshichi Nemoto, "Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges", Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107-5 (2008)
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

Q1. P. B???ejot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salam???e, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Berg???e, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, "32 TW atmospheric white-light laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106-3 (2007).

Q2. S. Eisenmann, E. Louzon, Y. Katzir, T. Palchan, and A. Zigler, Y. Sivan, and G. Fibich, "Control of the filamentation distance and pattern in long-range atmospheric propagation," Opt. Express 16, 2279-2784 (2007).

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, "Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation," Opt. Express 16, 466-493 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Supercontinuum and third-harmonic generation accompanying optical filamentation as first-order scattering processes," Opt. Lett. 32, 2816-2818 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

R. Ackermann, G. M???ejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, and J. -P. Wolf, "Laser filaments generated and transmitted in highly turbulent air," Opt. Lett. 31, 86-88 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, "Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air prefocused versus free propagation," Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Xi, X. Lu and J. Zhang, "Interaction of Light Filaments Generated by Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96,025003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, "Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 773-778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Theberge, W. W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air Strong dependence on external focusing," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, F. Th???eberge, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Background reservoir its crucial role for longdistance propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in air," Appl. Phys. B 80, 857-860 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. M???ejean, C. D. Amico, Y. -B. Andr???e, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, "Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser," Opt. Commun. 247, 171-180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (6)

G. M???ejean, A. Couairon, Y. -B. Andr???e, C. D. Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, "Long range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air a new propagation regime without ionization," Appl. Phys. B 79,379-382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupin, L. Berg???e, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G.M???ejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. -P.Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L.W¨oste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, "Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters," Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Berg???e, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. M???ejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. -P.Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L.W¨oste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, "Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air," Phy. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L.Woste, and J. -P.Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).

G. M???ejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. -P. Wolf, "Remote detection and identification of biological aerosols using a femtosecond terawatt lidar system," Appl. Phys. B 78, 535-537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. M???ejean, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva,I. S. Golubstov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Zheng, H. Ten, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, S. Tzortzakis, L. Berg???e, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Infrared femtosecond light filaments in air: simulations and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  19, 1117-1131 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, A. Talebpour, J. Yang, S. Petit, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and M. P. Tamarov, "Filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in turbulent air," Appl. Phys. B 74, 67-76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Random deflection of the white light beam during self-focusing and filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in water," Appl. Phys. B 75, 595-599 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air," Phy. Rev. Lett. 83, 2939-2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q5. B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. P. Mecure, H. Pein, and F. A. M. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sic. 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamarov, A. Brodeur, and S. L. Chin, "Nucleation and random movement of filaments in the propagation of high-power laser radiation in a turbulent atmospher," Quantum. Electron. 29, 911-915 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lighting discharges in gases," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 31, 599-612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Self-channeling of high-peak-power femotosecond laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 20, 73-75 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

E. M. Johanson, and D. T. Gavel, "Simulation of stellar speckle imaging," Proc. SPIE 2200, 372 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, R.

Akozbek, N.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva,I. S. Golubstov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

F. Theberge, W. W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air Strong dependence on external focusing," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, F. Th???eberge, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Background reservoir its crucial role for longdistance propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in air," Appl. Phys. B 80, 857-860 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva,I. S. Golubstov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Random deflection of the white light beam during self-focusing and filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in water," Appl. Phys. B 75, 595-599 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bourayou, R.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L.Woste, and J. -P.Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).

Bowden, C. M.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva,I. S. Golubstov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Brodeur, A.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamarov, A. Brodeur, and S. L. Chin, "Nucleation and random movement of filaments in the propagation of high-power laser radiation in a turbulent atmospher," Quantum. Electron. 29, 911-915 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. Y.

Q5. B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. P. Mecure, H. Pein, and F. A. M. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sic. 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

F. Theberge, W. W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air Strong dependence on external focusing," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, F. Th???eberge, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Background reservoir its crucial role for longdistance propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in air," Appl. Phys. B 80, 857-860 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva,I. S. Golubstov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, A. Talebpour, J. Yang, S. Petit, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and M. P. Tamarov, "Filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in turbulent air," Appl. Phys. B 74, 67-76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Random deflection of the white light beam during self-focusing and filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in water," Appl. Phys. B 75, 595-599 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamarov, A. Brodeur, and S. L. Chin, "Nucleation and random movement of filaments in the propagation of high-power laser radiation in a turbulent atmospher," Quantum. Electron. 29, 911-915 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Comtois, D.

Q5. B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. P. Mecure, H. Pein, and F. A. M. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sic. 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

Desparois, A.

Q5. B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. P. Mecure, H. Pein, and F. A. M. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sic. 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Diels, J. C.

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lighting discharges in gases," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 31, 599-612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

Eisenmann, S.

Q2. S. Eisenmann, E. Louzon, Y. Katzir, T. Palchan, and A. Zigler, Y. Sivan, and G. Fibich, "Control of the filamentation distance and pattern in long-range atmospheric propagation," Opt. Express 16, 2279-2784 (2007).

Elizondo, J. M.

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lighting discharges in gases," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 31, 599-612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fibich, G.

Q2. S. Eisenmann, E. Louzon, Y. Katzir, T. Palchan, and A. Zigler, Y. Sivan, and G. Fibich, "Control of the filamentation distance and pattern in long-range atmospheric propagation," Opt. Express 16, 2279-2784 (2007).

Fujii, T.

Q3Q4. T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and Koshichi Nemoto, "Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges", Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107-5 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Fukuchi, T.

Q3Q4. T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and Koshichi Nemoto, "Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges", Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107-5 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D. T.

E. M. Johanson, and D. T. Gavel, "Simulation of stellar speckle imaging," Proc. SPIE 2200, 372 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Golubstov, I. S.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva,I. S. Golubstov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Golubtsov, I. S.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Random deflection of the white light beam during self-focusing and filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in water," Appl. Phys. B 75, 595-599 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goto, N.

Q3Q4. T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and Koshichi Nemoto, "Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges", Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107-5 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Gravel, J. -F.

W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, F. Th???eberge, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Background reservoir its crucial role for longdistance propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in air," Appl. Phys. B 80, 857-860 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, "Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 773-778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, "Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air prefocused versus free propagation," Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, A.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Random deflection of the white light beam during self-focusing and filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in water," Appl. Phys. B 75, 595-599 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johanson, E. M.

E. M. Johanson, and D. T. Gavel, "Simulation of stellar speckle imaging," Proc. SPIE 2200, 372 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, T. W.

Q5. B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. P. Mecure, H. Pein, and F. A. M. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sic. 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva,I. S. Golubstov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, A. Talebpour, J. Yang, S. Petit, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and M. P. Tamarov, "Filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in turbulent air," Appl. Phys. B 74, 67-76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Random deflection of the white light beam during self-focusing and filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in water," Appl. Phys. B 75, 595-599 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamarov, A. Brodeur, and S. L. Chin, "Nucleation and random movement of filaments in the propagation of high-power laser radiation in a turbulent atmospher," Quantum. Electron. 29, 911-915 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, "Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation," Opt. Express 16, 466-493 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Katzir, Y.

Q2. S. Eisenmann, E. Louzon, Y. Katzir, T. Palchan, and A. Zigler, Y. Sivan, and G. Fibich, "Control of the filamentation distance and pattern in long-range atmospheric propagation," Opt. Express 16, 2279-2784 (2007).

Kieffer, J. C.

Q5. B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. P. Mecure, H. Pein, and F. A. M. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sic. 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kolesik, M.

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Supercontinuum and third-harmonic generation accompanying optical filamentation as first-order scattering processes," Opt. Lett. 32, 2816-2818 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air," Phy. Rev. Lett. 83, 2939-2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Kosareva, O.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Random deflection of the white light beam during self-focusing and filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in water," Appl. Phys. B 75, 595-599 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva,I. S. Golubstov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, A. Talebpour, J. Yang, S. Petit, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and M. P. Tamarov, "Filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in turbulent air," Appl. Phys. B 74, 67-76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamarov, A. Brodeur, and S. L. Chin, "Nucleation and random movement of filaments in the propagation of high-power laser radiation in a turbulent atmospher," Quantum. Electron. 29, 911-915 (1999).
[CrossRef]

La Fontaine, B.

Q5. B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. P. Mecure, H. Pein, and F. A. M. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sic. 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. J.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Zheng, H. Ten, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. T.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, "Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 773-778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Zheng, H. Ten, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ling, W. J.

Liu, W.

W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, F. Th???eberge, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Background reservoir its crucial role for longdistance propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in air," Appl. Phys. B 80, 857-860 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva,I. S. Golubstov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Random deflection of the white light beam during self-focusing and filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in water," Appl. Phys. B 75, 595-599 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. W.

F. Theberge, W. W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air Strong dependence on external focusing," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Liu, Y. Q.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, "Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air prefocused versus free propagation," Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Louzon, E.

Q2. S. Eisenmann, E. Louzon, Y. Katzir, T. Palchan, and A. Zigler, Y. Sivan, and G. Fibich, "Control of the filamentation distance and pattern in long-range atmospheric propagation," Opt. Express 16, 2279-2784 (2007).

Lu, X.

T. T. Xi, X. Lu and J. Zhang, "Interaction of Light Filaments Generated by Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96,025003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, "Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air prefocused versus free propagation," Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, "Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 773-778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mecure, H. P.

Q5. B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. P. Mecure, H. Pein, and F. A. M. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sic. 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miki, M.

Q3Q4. T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and Koshichi Nemoto, "Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges", Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107-5 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Mlejnek, M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air," Phy. Rev. Lett. 83, 2939-2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Supercontinuum and third-harmonic generation accompanying optical filamentation as first-order scattering processes," Opt. Lett. 32, 2816-2818 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air," Phy. Rev. Lett. 83, 2939-2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Oishi, Y.

Q3Q4. T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and Koshichi Nemoto, "Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges", Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107-5 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Palchan, T.

Q2. S. Eisenmann, E. Louzon, Y. Katzir, T. Palchan, and A. Zigler, Y. Sivan, and G. Fibich, "Control of the filamentation distance and pattern in long-range atmospheric propagation," Opt. Express 16, 2279-2784 (2007).

Pein, H.

Q5. B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. P. Mecure, H. Pein, and F. A. M. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sic. 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petit, S.

S. L. Chin, A. Talebpour, J. Yang, S. Petit, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and M. P. Tamarov, "Filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in turbulent air," Appl. Phys. B 74, 67-76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rizk, F. A. M.

Q5. B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. P. Mecure, H. Pein, and F. A. M. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sic. 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L.Woste, and J. -P.Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).

Rohwetter, P.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. M???ejean, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Z. M.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Zheng, H. Ten, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simard, P. T.

F. Theberge, W. W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air Strong dependence on external focusing," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sivan, Y.

Q2. S. Eisenmann, E. Louzon, Y. Katzir, T. Palchan, and A. Zigler, Y. Sivan, and G. Fibich, "Control of the filamentation distance and pattern in long-range atmospheric propagation," Opt. Express 16, 2279-2784 (2007).

Skupin, S.

S. Skupin, L. Berg???e, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G.M???ejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. -P.Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L.W¨oste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, "Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters," Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Stelmaszczyk, K.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. M???ejean, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Talebpour, A.

S. L. Chin, A. Talebpour, J. Yang, S. Petit, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and M. P. Tamarov, "Filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in turbulent air," Appl. Phys. B 74, 67-76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tamarov, M. P.

S. L. Chin, A. Talebpour, J. Yang, S. Petit, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and M. P. Tamarov, "Filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in turbulent air," Appl. Phys. B 74, 67-76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamarov, A. Brodeur, and S. L. Chin, "Nucleation and random movement of filaments in the propagation of high-power laser radiation in a turbulent atmospher," Quantum. Electron. 29, 911-915 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ten, H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Zheng, H. Ten, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Th???eberge, F.

W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, F. Th???eberge, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Background reservoir its crucial role for longdistance propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in air," Appl. Phys. B 80, 857-860 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Theberge, F.

F. Theberge, W. W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air Strong dependence on external focusing," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

Vidal, F.

Q5. B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. P. Mecure, H. Pein, and F. A. M. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sic. 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Y.

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lighting discharges in gases," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 31, 599-612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. H.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, "Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 773-778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, "Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air prefocused versus free propagation," Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Z. Y.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, "Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 773-778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Zheng, H. Ten, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

Wright, E. M.

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Supercontinuum and third-harmonic generation accompanying optical filamentation as first-order scattering processes," Opt. Lett. 32, 2816-2818 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air," Phy. Rev. Lett. 83, 2939-2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xi, T. T.

Yang, H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Zheng, H. Ten, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

S. L. Chin, A. Talebpour, J. Yang, S. Petit, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and M. P. Tamarov, "Filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in turbulent air," Appl. Phys. B 74, 67-76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X. H.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, "Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 773-778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, "Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air prefocused versus free propagation," Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

T. T. Xi, X. Lu and J. Zhang, "Interaction of Light Filaments Generated by Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96,025003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, "Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air prefocused versus free propagation," Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, "Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 773-778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Zheng, H. Ten, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Zheng, H. Ten, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, "Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air prefocused versus free propagation," Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X. M.

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lighting discharges in gases," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 31, 599-612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z. L.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Zheng, H. Ten, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z. Y.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, "Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air prefocused versus free propagation," Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, "Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 773-778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhidkov, A.

Q3Q4. T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and Koshichi Nemoto, "Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges", Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107-5 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Zhong, J. Y.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, "Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air prefocused versus free propagation," Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zigler, A.

Q2. S. Eisenmann, E. Louzon, Y. Katzir, T. Palchan, and A. Zigler, Y. Sivan, and G. Fibich, "Control of the filamentation distance and pattern in long-range atmospheric propagation," Opt. Express 16, 2279-2784 (2007).

Appl. Phys. B (7)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva,I. S. Golubstov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. M???ejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. -P. Wolf, "Remote detection and identification of biological aerosols using a femtosecond terawatt lidar system," Appl. Phys. B 78, 535-537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, A. Talebpour, J. Yang, S. Petit, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and M. P. Tamarov, "Filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in turbulent air," Appl. Phys. B 74, 67-76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Random deflection of the white light beam during self-focusing and filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in water," Appl. Phys. B 75, 595-599 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. M???ejean, A. Couairon, Y. -B. Andr???e, C. D. Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, "Long range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air a new propagation regime without ionization," Appl. Phys. B 79,379-382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, F. Th???eberge, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Background reservoir its crucial role for longdistance propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in air," Appl. Phys. B 80, 857-860 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. M???ejean, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q1. P. B???ejot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salam???e, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Berg???e, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, "32 TW atmospheric white-light laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106-3 (2007).

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lighting discharges in gases," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 31, 599-612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sic. (1)

Q5. B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. P. Mecure, H. Pein, and F. A. M. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sic. 27, 688-700 (1999).
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G. M???ejean, C. D. Amico, Y. -B. Andr???e, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, "Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser," Opt. Commun. 247, 171-180 (2005).
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Phy. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air," Phy. Rev. Lett. 83, 2939-2941 (1999).
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Q3Q4. T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and Koshichi Nemoto, "Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges", Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107-5 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (5)

S. Skupin, L. Berg???e, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G.M???ejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. -P.Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L.W¨oste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, "Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters," Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, "Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air prefocused versus free propagation," Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Zheng, H. Ten, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamarov, A. Brodeur, and S. L. Chin, "Nucleation and random movement of filaments in the propagation of high-power laser radiation in a turbulent atmospher," Quantum. Electron. 29, 911-915 (1999).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A sample phase screen. The size of the screen is 30 mm by 30 mm, 256 by 256 sample points, lm =1 mm, L 0=1 m and C 2 n =2.75×10-16 m-2/3.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)The energy fluence distribution in unperturbed air. Energy fluence distribution in weak turbulent air with the structure constant C 2 n =2.0×10-17 m-2/3 (b) and in moderate turbulent air with the structure constant C 2 n =2.75×10-16 m-2/3 (c).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The transverse intensity distribution of filament in unperturbed air (a) and in turbulent air (b) for different propagation distances. The structure constant of the turbulence air is C 2 n =2.75×10-16 m-2/3 and the inner scale lm is 1 mm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The full-width-half-maximum of the beam size in unperturbed air (solid line) and in moderate turbulent air (dashed line). The structure constant C 2 n is 2.75×10-16 m-2/3 and the inner scale of the turbulence lm is 1 mm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Peak electron densities for the femtosecond laser pulse in unperturbed air (a) and in moderate turbulent air (b) as a function of propagation distance z. The structure constant of the turbulence air is C 2 n =2.75×10-16 m-2/3 and the inner scale lm is 1 mm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectral broadening of the femtosecond laser pulse in unperturbed air (a) and in moderate turbulent air (b). The structure constant of the turbulence air is C 2 n =2.75×10-16 m-2/3 and the inner scale lm is 1 mm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The energy fluence distribution of the prefocused laser pulse propagating through turbulent atmosphere. The focal lengths of the convex lenses are (a) 4m, (b) 6m and (c) 8m. The structure constant of the turbulence air C 2 n is 2.75×10-16 m-2/3 and the inner scale lm is 1.0 mm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The energy fluence distribution of the laser pulse with different pulse duration in turbulent atmosphere. The pulse duration of unchirped pulse is 50fs (a) and 100fs pulse (b) is negative chirped. The structure constant of the turbulence air C 2 n is 2.75×10-16 m-2/3 and the inner scale lm is 1.0 mm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The energy fluence distribution of the laser pulse propagating through atmosphere with different lm : (a) 0.7 mm, (b) 1.5 mm. The structure constant of the turbulence air C 2 n is 2.75×10-16 m-2/3.

Equations (11)

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E z = i 2 k Δ E i k 2 2 E τ 2 + i k n 2 | E | 2 E + i k n E i k ω p e 2 ( ρ ) ω 0 2 E β ( K ) 2 | E | 2 K 2 E
ρ t = β ( K ) K h ¯ ω 0 E 2 K ( 1 ρ ρ a t )
Φ n k z = 0.033 C n 2 ( k 2 + k 0 2 ) 11 6 exp ( k 2 k m 2 )
θ x y = k 2 πΔ z + + d k x d k y exp [ i ( k x x + k y y ) ] Φ n 1 2 ( k x , k y ) a ( k x , k y )
θ ( j Δ x , l Δ y ) = n = 0 N x m = 0 N y [ a n m + i b n m ] exp [ 2 π ( j n N x + l m N y ) ]
a 2 ( n , m ) = b 2 ( n , m ) = Δ k x Δ k y Φ θ ( n Δ k x , m Δ k y )
Φ θ ( Δ k x , Δ k y ) = 2 π k 2 Δ z Φ n ( k x , k y , k z = 0 )
θ S H ( j Δ x , l Δ y ) = p = 1 N p n = 1 1 m = 1 1 [ a ( n , m , p ) + i b ( n , m , p ) ] exp [ 2 π i ( j n 3 p N x + l m 3 p N y ) ]
a 2 ( n , m , p ) = b 2 ( n , m , p ) = Δ k x p Δ k y p Φ θ ( n Δ k x p , m Δ k y p )
θ ( j Δ x , l Δ y ) = θ ( j Δ x , l Δ y ) + θ S H ( j Δ x , y )
n = θ ( j Δ x , l Δ y ) k z

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