Abstract

In vivo retinal images of transgenic mice, expressing GFP under the control of the GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) promoter, have very poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and cellular resolution such that the analysis of GFAP–GFP expressing retinal cells from these images can be a very challenging task. We report an image averaging method based on a pixel rank matching criterion which significantly enhances both these image attributes. We also show that it compares favorably against direct image averaging and a commercial averaging routine available from the Heidelberg Retinal Angiograph 2 software.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
Related Articles
Estimating displacement vectors from an image sequence

C. Henry Chu and Edward J. Delp
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6(6) 871-878 (1989)

Reconstruction of deforming aortas in two-photon autofluorescence image sequences

Jue Wang, Liang Ji, and Hui Ma
Appl. Opt. 42(5) 834-844 (2003)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Zhuo, B. Sun, C. L. Zhang, A. Fine, S. Y. Chiu, and A. Messing, “Live astrocytes visualized by green fluorescent protein in transgenic mice.” Dev. Biol. 187(1), 36–42 (1997). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/dbio.1997.8601.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. P. Biss, D. Sumorok, S. A. Burns, R. H. Webb, Y. Zhou, T. G. Bifano, D. Ct, I. Veilleux, P. Zamiri, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo fluorescent imaging of the mouse retina using adaptive optics.” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 659–661 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.32.000659.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Blind deconvolution for high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Opt. A 7, 585–592 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. W. Leszczynski, S. Shalev, and N. S. Cosby, “An adaptive technique for digital noise suppression in on-line portal imaging.” Phys. Med. Biol. 35(3), 429–439 (1990). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/35/3/011.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Yu and S. T. Acton, “Speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11(11), 1260–1270 (2002). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2002.804276.
    [Crossref]
  6. L. Yin, R. Yang, M. Gabbouj, and Y. Neuvo, “Weighted median filters: a tutorial,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 43(3), 157–192 (1996). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/82.486465.
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Xu, J. B Weaver, D. M. Healy, and J. Lu, “Wavelet transform domain filters: a spatially selective noise filtration technique,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 3(6), 747–758 (1994). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/83.336245.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. W. Swindell and M. A. Mosleh-Shirazi, “Noise reduction by frame averaging: a numerical simulation for portal imaging systems.” Med. Phys. 22(9), 1405–1411 (1995). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.597618.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. C. Ercole, C. Giuseppe, M. Alessandro, M. Carlo, and V. Marco, “Compensation of random eye motion in television ophthalmoscopy: preliminary results,” IEEE Trans. Med. Img. 6(1), 74–81 (1987). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.1987.4307800.
    [Crossref]
  10. D. U. Bartsch, M. H. El-Bradey, A. El-Musharaf, and W. R. Freeman, “Improved visualisation of choroidal neovascularisation by scanning laser ophthalmoscope using image averaging.” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 89(8), 1026–1030 (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjo.2004.057364.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. K. A. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, “Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images,” in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (2001).
  12. B. M. Ege, T. Dahl, T. Søndergaard, and O. V. Larsen, “Automatic registration of ocular fundus images,” in 1st International Workshop on Computer Assisted Fundus Image Analysis (2000).
  13. S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, “Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5688A, 145–151 (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.591190.
    [Crossref]
  14. J. B. Mulligan, “Recovery of motion parameters from distortions in scanned images,” in Proceedings of the NASA Image Registration Workshop (1997).
  15. A. V. Cideciyan, “Registration of ocular fundus images: an algorithm using cross-correlation of triple invariant image descriptors,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 14(1), 52–58 (1995). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/51.340749.
    [Crossref]
  16. C. R. Vogel, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and A. Parker, “Retinal motion estimation in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 14, 487–497 (2006). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.14.000487.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. A. Wade and F. Fitzke, “A fast, robust pattern recognition system for low light level image registration and its application to retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 3, 190–197 (1998). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-3-5-190.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. I. Graesslin, M. Mittlebach, H. Eggers, T. Schaeffter, P. Bornert, and O. Lange, “MR real-time coronary imaging using the normalized cross-correlation,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2002).
  19. I. Graesslin, M. Mittelbach, T. Schaeffter, P. Bornert, H. Eggers, and O. Lange, “Adaptive weighted averaging for real-time MR imaging,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2002).
  20. C. J. Hardy, M. Saranathan, Y. Zhu, and R. D. Darrow, “Coronary angiography by real-time MRI with adaptive averaging.” Magn. Reson. Med. 44(6), 940–946 (2000). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1522-2594(200012)44:6¡940::AID-MRM16¿3.0.CO;2-F.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. M. S. Sussman, N. Robert, and G. A. Wright, “Adaptive averaging for improved SNR in real-time coronary artery MRI.” IEEE Trans. Med. Img. 23(8), 1034–1045 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2004.828677.
    [Crossref]
  22. M. S. Sussman, A. B. Kerr, J. M. Pauly, N. Merchant, and G. A. Wright, “Tracking the motion of the coronary arteries with the correlation coefficient,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (1999).
  23. J. P. Lewis, “Fast normalized cross-correlation,” in Vision Interface (1995). URL http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/lewis95fast.html.
  24. H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jhrling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgnsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain.” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth1036.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. A. Maass, P. L. von Leithner, V. Luong, L. Guo, T. E. Salt, F. W. Fitzke, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Assessment of rat and mouse RGC apoptosis imaging in vivo with different scanning laser ophthalmoscopes.” Curr. Eye Res. 32(10), 851–861 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713680701585872.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. P. Soille, Morphological Image Analysis (Springer-Verlag, 1999). URL http://web.ukonline.co.uk/soille/book1st.

2007 (3)

D. P. Biss, D. Sumorok, S. A. Burns, R. H. Webb, Y. Zhou, T. G. Bifano, D. Ct, I. Veilleux, P. Zamiri, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo fluorescent imaging of the mouse retina using adaptive optics.” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 659–661 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.32.000659.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jhrling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgnsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain.” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth1036.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Maass, P. L. von Leithner, V. Luong, L. Guo, T. E. Salt, F. W. Fitzke, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Assessment of rat and mouse RGC apoptosis imaging in vivo with different scanning laser ophthalmoscopes.” Curr. Eye Res. 32(10), 851–861 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713680701585872.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Blind deconvolution for high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Opt. A 7, 585–592 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. U. Bartsch, M. H. El-Bradey, A. El-Musharaf, and W. R. Freeman, “Improved visualisation of choroidal neovascularisation by scanning laser ophthalmoscope using image averaging.” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 89(8), 1026–1030 (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjo.2004.057364.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, “Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5688A, 145–151 (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.591190.
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. S. Sussman, N. Robert, and G. A. Wright, “Adaptive averaging for improved SNR in real-time coronary artery MRI.” IEEE Trans. Med. Img. 23(8), 1034–1045 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2004.828677.
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Y. Yu and S. T. Acton, “Speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11(11), 1260–1270 (2002). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2002.804276.
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. J. Hardy, M. Saranathan, Y. Zhu, and R. D. Darrow, “Coronary angiography by real-time MRI with adaptive averaging.” Magn. Reson. Med. 44(6), 940–946 (2000). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1522-2594(200012)44:6¡940::AID-MRM16¿3.0.CO;2-F.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

L. Zhuo, B. Sun, C. L. Zhang, A. Fine, S. Y. Chiu, and A. Messing, “Live astrocytes visualized by green fluorescent protein in transgenic mice.” Dev. Biol. 187(1), 36–42 (1997). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/dbio.1997.8601.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

L. Yin, R. Yang, M. Gabbouj, and Y. Neuvo, “Weighted median filters: a tutorial,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 43(3), 157–192 (1996). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/82.486465.
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

A. V. Cideciyan, “Registration of ocular fundus images: an algorithm using cross-correlation of triple invariant image descriptors,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 14(1), 52–58 (1995). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/51.340749.
[Crossref]

W. Swindell and M. A. Mosleh-Shirazi, “Noise reduction by frame averaging: a numerical simulation for portal imaging systems.” Med. Phys. 22(9), 1405–1411 (1995). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.597618.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

Y. Xu, J. B Weaver, D. M. Healy, and J. Lu, “Wavelet transform domain filters: a spatially selective noise filtration technique,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 3(6), 747–758 (1994). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/83.336245.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

K. W. Leszczynski, S. Shalev, and N. S. Cosby, “An adaptive technique for digital noise suppression in on-line portal imaging.” Phys. Med. Biol. 35(3), 429–439 (1990). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/35/3/011.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

D. C. Ercole, C. Giuseppe, M. Alessandro, M. Carlo, and V. Marco, “Compensation of random eye motion in television ophthalmoscopy: preliminary results,” IEEE Trans. Med. Img. 6(1), 74–81 (1987). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.1987.4307800.
[Crossref]

Acton, S. T.

Y. Yu and S. T. Acton, “Speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11(11), 1260–1270 (2002). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2002.804276.
[Crossref]

Alessandro, M.

D. C. Ercole, C. Giuseppe, M. Alessandro, M. Carlo, and V. Marco, “Compensation of random eye motion in television ophthalmoscopy: preliminary results,” IEEE Trans. Med. Img. 6(1), 74–81 (1987). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.1987.4307800.
[Crossref]

Arathorn, D. W.

Artal, P.

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Blind deconvolution for high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Opt. A 7, 585–592 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bartsch, D. U.

D. U. Bartsch, M. H. El-Bradey, A. El-Musharaf, and W. R. Freeman, “Improved visualisation of choroidal neovascularisation by scanning laser ophthalmoscope using image averaging.” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 89(8), 1026–1030 (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjo.2004.057364.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, K.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jhrling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgnsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain.” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth1036.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bifano, T. G.

Biss, D. P.

Bornert, P.

I. Graesslin, M. Mittlebach, H. Eggers, T. Schaeffter, P. Bornert, and O. Lange, “MR real-time coronary imaging using the normalized cross-correlation,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2002).

I. Graesslin, M. Mittelbach, T. Schaeffter, P. Bornert, H. Eggers, and O. Lange, “Adaptive weighted averaging for real-time MR imaging,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2002).

Burns, S. A.

Carlo, M.

D. C. Ercole, C. Giuseppe, M. Alessandro, M. Carlo, and V. Marco, “Compensation of random eye motion in television ophthalmoscopy: preliminary results,” IEEE Trans. Med. Img. 6(1), 74–81 (1987). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.1987.4307800.
[Crossref]

Chiu, S. Y.

L. Zhuo, B. Sun, C. L. Zhang, A. Fine, S. Y. Chiu, and A. Messing, “Live astrocytes visualized by green fluorescent protein in transgenic mice.” Dev. Biol. 187(1), 36–42 (1997). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/dbio.1997.8601.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cideciyan, A. V.

A. V. Cideciyan, “Registration of ocular fundus images: an algorithm using cross-correlation of triple invariant image descriptors,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 14(1), 52–58 (1995). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/51.340749.
[Crossref]

Cordeiro, M. F.

A. Maass, P. L. von Leithner, V. Luong, L. Guo, T. E. Salt, F. W. Fitzke, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Assessment of rat and mouse RGC apoptosis imaging in vivo with different scanning laser ophthalmoscopes.” Curr. Eye Res. 32(10), 851–861 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713680701585872.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cosby, N. S.

K. W. Leszczynski, S. Shalev, and N. S. Cosby, “An adaptive technique for digital noise suppression in on-line portal imaging.” Phys. Med. Biol. 35(3), 429–439 (1990). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/35/3/011.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ct, D.

Dahl, T.

B. M. Ege, T. Dahl, T. Søndergaard, and O. V. Larsen, “Automatic registration of ocular fundus images,” in 1st International Workshop on Computer Assisted Fundus Image Analysis (2000).

Darrow, R. D.

C. J. Hardy, M. Saranathan, Y. Zhu, and R. D. Darrow, “Coronary angiography by real-time MRI with adaptive averaging.” Magn. Reson. Med. 44(6), 940–946 (2000). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1522-2594(200012)44:6¡940::AID-MRM16¿3.0.CO;2-F.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deininger, K.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jhrling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgnsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain.” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth1036.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deussing, J. M.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jhrling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgnsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain.” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth1036.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dodt, H.-U.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jhrling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgnsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain.” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth1036.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eder, M.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jhrling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgnsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain.” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth1036.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ege, B. M.

B. M. Ege, T. Dahl, T. Søndergaard, and O. V. Larsen, “Automatic registration of ocular fundus images,” in 1st International Workshop on Computer Assisted Fundus Image Analysis (2000).

Eggers, H.

I. Graesslin, M. Mittelbach, T. Schaeffter, P. Bornert, H. Eggers, and O. Lange, “Adaptive weighted averaging for real-time MR imaging,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2002).

I. Graesslin, M. Mittlebach, H. Eggers, T. Schaeffter, P. Bornert, and O. Lange, “MR real-time coronary imaging using the normalized cross-correlation,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2002).

El-Bradey, M. H.

D. U. Bartsch, M. H. El-Bradey, A. El-Musharaf, and W. R. Freeman, “Improved visualisation of choroidal neovascularisation by scanning laser ophthalmoscope using image averaging.” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 89(8), 1026–1030 (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjo.2004.057364.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Musharaf, A.

D. U. Bartsch, M. H. El-Bradey, A. El-Musharaf, and W. R. Freeman, “Improved visualisation of choroidal neovascularisation by scanning laser ophthalmoscope using image averaging.” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 89(8), 1026–1030 (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjo.2004.057364.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ercole, D. C.

D. C. Ercole, C. Giuseppe, M. Alessandro, M. Carlo, and V. Marco, “Compensation of random eye motion in television ophthalmoscopy: preliminary results,” IEEE Trans. Med. Img. 6(1), 74–81 (1987). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.1987.4307800.
[Crossref]

Fine, A.

L. Zhuo, B. Sun, C. L. Zhang, A. Fine, S. Y. Chiu, and A. Messing, “Live astrocytes visualized by green fluorescent protein in transgenic mice.” Dev. Biol. 187(1), 36–42 (1997). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/dbio.1997.8601.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzke, F.

Fitzke, F. W.

A. Maass, P. L. von Leithner, V. Luong, L. Guo, T. E. Salt, F. W. Fitzke, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Assessment of rat and mouse RGC apoptosis imaging in vivo with different scanning laser ophthalmoscopes.” Curr. Eye Res. 32(10), 851–861 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713680701585872.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forrester, J. V.

K. A. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, “Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images,” in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (2001).

Freeman, W. R.

D. U. Bartsch, M. H. El-Bradey, A. El-Musharaf, and W. R. Freeman, “Improved visualisation of choroidal neovascularisation by scanning laser ophthalmoscope using image averaging.” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 89(8), 1026–1030 (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjo.2004.057364.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gabbouj, M.

L. Yin, R. Yang, M. Gabbouj, and Y. Neuvo, “Weighted median filters: a tutorial,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 43(3), 157–192 (1996). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/82.486465.
[Crossref]

Giuseppe, C.

D. C. Ercole, C. Giuseppe, M. Alessandro, M. Carlo, and V. Marco, “Compensation of random eye motion in television ophthalmoscopy: preliminary results,” IEEE Trans. Med. Img. 6(1), 74–81 (1987). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.1987.4307800.
[Crossref]

Goatman, K. A.

K. A. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, “Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images,” in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (2001).

Graesslin, I.

I. Graesslin, M. Mittlebach, H. Eggers, T. Schaeffter, P. Bornert, and O. Lange, “MR real-time coronary imaging using the normalized cross-correlation,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2002).

I. Graesslin, M. Mittelbach, T. Schaeffter, P. Bornert, H. Eggers, and O. Lange, “Adaptive weighted averaging for real-time MR imaging,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2002).

Guo, L.

A. Maass, P. L. von Leithner, V. Luong, L. Guo, T. E. Salt, F. W. Fitzke, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Assessment of rat and mouse RGC apoptosis imaging in vivo with different scanning laser ophthalmoscopes.” Curr. Eye Res. 32(10), 851–861 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713680701585872.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hardy, C. J.

C. J. Hardy, M. Saranathan, Y. Zhu, and R. D. Darrow, “Coronary angiography by real-time MRI with adaptive averaging.” Magn. Reson. Med. 44(6), 940–946 (2000). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1522-2594(200012)44:6¡940::AID-MRM16¿3.0.CO;2-F.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Healy, D. M.

Y. Xu, J. B Weaver, D. M. Healy, and J. Lu, “Wavelet transform domain filters: a spatially selective noise filtration technique,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 3(6), 747–758 (1994). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/83.336245.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hipwell, J. H.

K. A. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, “Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images,” in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (2001).

Jhrling, N.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jhrling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgnsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain.” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth1036.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kerr, A. B.

M. S. Sussman, A. B. Kerr, J. M. Pauly, N. Merchant, and G. A. Wright, “Tracking the motion of the coronary arteries with the correlation coefficient,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (1999).

Lange, O.

I. Graesslin, M. Mittelbach, T. Schaeffter, P. Bornert, H. Eggers, and O. Lange, “Adaptive weighted averaging for real-time MR imaging,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2002).

I. Graesslin, M. Mittlebach, H. Eggers, T. Schaeffter, P. Bornert, and O. Lange, “MR real-time coronary imaging using the normalized cross-correlation,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2002).

Larsen, O. V.

B. M. Ege, T. Dahl, T. Søndergaard, and O. V. Larsen, “Automatic registration of ocular fundus images,” in 1st International Workshop on Computer Assisted Fundus Image Analysis (2000).

Leischner, U.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jhrling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgnsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain.” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth1036.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leszczynski, K. W.

K. W. Leszczynski, S. Shalev, and N. S. Cosby, “An adaptive technique for digital noise suppression in on-line portal imaging.” Phys. Med. Biol. 35(3), 429–439 (1990). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/35/3/011.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewis, J. P.

J. P. Lewis, “Fast normalized cross-correlation,” in Vision Interface (1995). URL http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/lewis95fast.html.

Lin, C. P.

Lois, N.

K. A. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, “Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images,” in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (2001).

Lu, J.

Y. Xu, J. B Weaver, D. M. Healy, and J. Lu, “Wavelet transform domain filters: a spatially selective noise filtration technique,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 3(6), 747–758 (1994). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/83.336245.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luong, V.

A. Maass, P. L. von Leithner, V. Luong, L. Guo, T. E. Salt, F. W. Fitzke, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Assessment of rat and mouse RGC apoptosis imaging in vivo with different scanning laser ophthalmoscopes.” Curr. Eye Res. 32(10), 851–861 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713680701585872.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maass, A.

A. Maass, P. L. von Leithner, V. Luong, L. Guo, T. E. Salt, F. W. Fitzke, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Assessment of rat and mouse RGC apoptosis imaging in vivo with different scanning laser ophthalmoscopes.” Curr. Eye Res. 32(10), 851–861 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713680701585872.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manivannan, A.

K. A. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, “Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images,” in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (2001).

Marco, V.

D. C. Ercole, C. Giuseppe, M. Alessandro, M. Carlo, and V. Marco, “Compensation of random eye motion in television ophthalmoscopy: preliminary results,” IEEE Trans. Med. Img. 6(1), 74–81 (1987). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.1987.4307800.
[Crossref]

Mauch, C. P.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jhrling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgnsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain.” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth1036.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merchant, N.

M. S. Sussman, A. B. Kerr, J. M. Pauly, N. Merchant, and G. A. Wright, “Tracking the motion of the coronary arteries with the correlation coefficient,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (1999).

Messing, A.

L. Zhuo, B. Sun, C. L. Zhang, A. Fine, S. Y. Chiu, and A. Messing, “Live astrocytes visualized by green fluorescent protein in transgenic mice.” Dev. Biol. 187(1), 36–42 (1997). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/dbio.1997.8601.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mittelbach, M.

I. Graesslin, M. Mittelbach, T. Schaeffter, P. Bornert, H. Eggers, and O. Lange, “Adaptive weighted averaging for real-time MR imaging,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2002).

Mittlebach, M.

I. Graesslin, M. Mittlebach, H. Eggers, T. Schaeffter, P. Bornert, and O. Lange, “MR real-time coronary imaging using the normalized cross-correlation,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2002).

Mosleh-Shirazi, M. A.

W. Swindell and M. A. Mosleh-Shirazi, “Noise reduction by frame averaging: a numerical simulation for portal imaging systems.” Med. Phys. 22(9), 1405–1411 (1995). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.597618.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mulligan, J. B.

J. B. Mulligan, “Recovery of motion parameters from distortions in scanned images,” in Proceedings of the NASA Image Registration Workshop (1997).

Neuvo, Y.

L. Yin, R. Yang, M. Gabbouj, and Y. Neuvo, “Weighted median filters: a tutorial,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 43(3), 157–192 (1996). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/82.486465.
[Crossref]

Nourrit, V.

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Blind deconvolution for high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Opt. A 7, 585–592 (2005).
[Crossref]

Parker, A.

Pauly, J. M.

M. S. Sussman, A. B. Kerr, J. M. Pauly, N. Merchant, and G. A. Wright, “Tracking the motion of the coronary arteries with the correlation coefficient,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (1999).

Robert, N.

M. S. Sussman, N. Robert, and G. A. Wright, “Adaptive averaging for improved SNR in real-time coronary artery MRI.” IEEE Trans. Med. Img. 23(8), 1034–1045 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2004.828677.
[Crossref]

Roorda, A.

C. R. Vogel, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and A. Parker, “Retinal motion estimation in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 14, 487–497 (2006). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.14.000487.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, “Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5688A, 145–151 (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.591190.
[Crossref]

Salt, T. E.

A. Maass, P. L. von Leithner, V. Luong, L. Guo, T. E. Salt, F. W. Fitzke, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Assessment of rat and mouse RGC apoptosis imaging in vivo with different scanning laser ophthalmoscopes.” Curr. Eye Res. 32(10), 851–861 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713680701585872.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saranathan, M.

C. J. Hardy, M. Saranathan, Y. Zhu, and R. D. Darrow, “Coronary angiography by real-time MRI with adaptive averaging.” Magn. Reson. Med. 44(6), 940–946 (2000). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1522-2594(200012)44:6¡940::AID-MRM16¿3.0.CO;2-F.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaeffter, T.

I. Graesslin, M. Mittelbach, T. Schaeffter, P. Bornert, H. Eggers, and O. Lange, “Adaptive weighted averaging for real-time MR imaging,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2002).

I. Graesslin, M. Mittlebach, H. Eggers, T. Schaeffter, P. Bornert, and O. Lange, “MR real-time coronary imaging using the normalized cross-correlation,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2002).

Schierloh, A.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jhrling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgnsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain.” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth1036.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalev, S.

K. W. Leszczynski, S. Shalev, and N. S. Cosby, “An adaptive technique for digital noise suppression in on-line portal imaging.” Phys. Med. Biol. 35(3), 429–439 (1990). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/35/3/011.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharp, P. F.

K. A. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, “Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images,” in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (2001).

Soille, P.

P. Soille, Morphological Image Analysis (Springer-Verlag, 1999). URL http://web.ukonline.co.uk/soille/book1st.

Søndergaard, T.

B. M. Ege, T. Dahl, T. Søndergaard, and O. V. Larsen, “Automatic registration of ocular fundus images,” in 1st International Workshop on Computer Assisted Fundus Image Analysis (2000).

Stevenson, S. B.

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, “Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5688A, 145–151 (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.591190.
[Crossref]

Sumorok, D.

Sun, B.

L. Zhuo, B. Sun, C. L. Zhang, A. Fine, S. Y. Chiu, and A. Messing, “Live astrocytes visualized by green fluorescent protein in transgenic mice.” Dev. Biol. 187(1), 36–42 (1997). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/dbio.1997.8601.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sussman, M. S.

M. S. Sussman, N. Robert, and G. A. Wright, “Adaptive averaging for improved SNR in real-time coronary artery MRI.” IEEE Trans. Med. Img. 23(8), 1034–1045 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2004.828677.
[Crossref]

M. S. Sussman, A. B. Kerr, J. M. Pauly, N. Merchant, and G. A. Wright, “Tracking the motion of the coronary arteries with the correlation coefficient,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (1999).

Swindell, W.

W. Swindell and M. A. Mosleh-Shirazi, “Noise reduction by frame averaging: a numerical simulation for portal imaging systems.” Med. Phys. 22(9), 1405–1411 (1995). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.597618.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veilleux, I.

Vogel, C. R.

Vohnsen, B.

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Blind deconvolution for high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Opt. A 7, 585–592 (2005).
[Crossref]

von Leithner, P. L.

A. Maass, P. L. von Leithner, V. Luong, L. Guo, T. E. Salt, F. W. Fitzke, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Assessment of rat and mouse RGC apoptosis imaging in vivo with different scanning laser ophthalmoscopes.” Curr. Eye Res. 32(10), 851–861 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713680701585872.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wade, A.

Weaver, J. B

Y. Xu, J. B Weaver, D. M. Healy, and J. Lu, “Wavelet transform domain filters: a spatially selective noise filtration technique,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 3(6), 747–758 (1994). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/83.336245.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Wright, G. A.

M. S. Sussman, N. Robert, and G. A. Wright, “Adaptive averaging for improved SNR in real-time coronary artery MRI.” IEEE Trans. Med. Img. 23(8), 1034–1045 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2004.828677.
[Crossref]

M. S. Sussman, A. B. Kerr, J. M. Pauly, N. Merchant, and G. A. Wright, “Tracking the motion of the coronary arteries with the correlation coefficient,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (1999).

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, J. B Weaver, D. M. Healy, and J. Lu, “Wavelet transform domain filters: a spatially selective noise filtration technique,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 3(6), 747–758 (1994). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/83.336245.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, R.

L. Yin, R. Yang, M. Gabbouj, and Y. Neuvo, “Weighted median filters: a tutorial,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 43(3), 157–192 (1996). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/82.486465.
[Crossref]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, R. Yang, M. Gabbouj, and Y. Neuvo, “Weighted median filters: a tutorial,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 43(3), 157–192 (1996). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/82.486465.
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu and S. T. Acton, “Speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11(11), 1260–1270 (2002). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2002.804276.
[Crossref]

Zamiri, P.

Zhang, C. L.

L. Zhuo, B. Sun, C. L. Zhang, A. Fine, S. Y. Chiu, and A. Messing, “Live astrocytes visualized by green fluorescent protein in transgenic mice.” Dev. Biol. 187(1), 36–42 (1997). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/dbio.1997.8601.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, Y.

C. J. Hardy, M. Saranathan, Y. Zhu, and R. D. Darrow, “Coronary angiography by real-time MRI with adaptive averaging.” Magn. Reson. Med. 44(6), 940–946 (2000). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1522-2594(200012)44:6¡940::AID-MRM16¿3.0.CO;2-F.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuo, L.

L. Zhuo, B. Sun, C. L. Zhang, A. Fine, S. Y. Chiu, and A. Messing, “Live astrocytes visualized by green fluorescent protein in transgenic mice.” Dev. Biol. 187(1), 36–42 (1997). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/dbio.1997.8601.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zieglgnsberger, W.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jhrling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgnsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain.” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth1036.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. U. Bartsch, M. H. El-Bradey, A. El-Musharaf, and W. R. Freeman, “Improved visualisation of choroidal neovascularisation by scanning laser ophthalmoscope using image averaging.” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 89(8), 1026–1030 (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjo.2004.057364.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

A. Maass, P. L. von Leithner, V. Luong, L. Guo, T. E. Salt, F. W. Fitzke, and M. F. Cordeiro, “Assessment of rat and mouse RGC apoptosis imaging in vivo with different scanning laser ophthalmoscopes.” Curr. Eye Res. 32(10), 851–861 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713680701585872.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dev. Biol. (1)

L. Zhuo, B. Sun, C. L. Zhang, A. Fine, S. Y. Chiu, and A. Messing, “Live astrocytes visualized by green fluorescent protein in transgenic mice.” Dev. Biol. 187(1), 36–42 (1997). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/dbio.1997.8601.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. (1)

A. V. Cideciyan, “Registration of ocular fundus images: an algorithm using cross-correlation of triple invariant image descriptors,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 14(1), 52–58 (1995). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/51.340749.
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. (1)

L. Yin, R. Yang, M. Gabbouj, and Y. Neuvo, “Weighted median filters: a tutorial,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 43(3), 157–192 (1996). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/82.486465.
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (2)

Y. Xu, J. B Weaver, D. M. Healy, and J. Lu, “Wavelet transform domain filters: a spatially selective noise filtration technique,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 3(6), 747–758 (1994). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/83.336245.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu and S. T. Acton, “Speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11(11), 1260–1270 (2002). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2002.804276.
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Med. Img. (2)

D. C. Ercole, C. Giuseppe, M. Alessandro, M. Carlo, and V. Marco, “Compensation of random eye motion in television ophthalmoscopy: preliminary results,” IEEE Trans. Med. Img. 6(1), 74–81 (1987). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.1987.4307800.
[Crossref]

M. S. Sussman, N. Robert, and G. A. Wright, “Adaptive averaging for improved SNR in real-time coronary artery MRI.” IEEE Trans. Med. Img. 23(8), 1034–1045 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2004.828677.
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A (1)

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Blind deconvolution for high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Opt. A 7, 585–592 (2005).
[Crossref]

Magn. Reson. Med. (1)

C. J. Hardy, M. Saranathan, Y. Zhu, and R. D. Darrow, “Coronary angiography by real-time MRI with adaptive averaging.” Magn. Reson. Med. 44(6), 940–946 (2000). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1522-2594(200012)44:6¡940::AID-MRM16¿3.0.CO;2-F.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

W. Swindell and M. A. Mosleh-Shirazi, “Noise reduction by frame averaging: a numerical simulation for portal imaging systems.” Med. Phys. 22(9), 1405–1411 (1995). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.597618.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jhrling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgnsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain.” Nat. Methods 4(4), 331–336 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth1036.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

K. W. Leszczynski, S. Shalev, and N. S. Cosby, “An adaptive technique for digital noise suppression in on-line portal imaging.” Phys. Med. Biol. 35(3), 429–439 (1990). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/35/3/011.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, “Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5688A, 145–151 (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.591190.
[Crossref]

Other (8)

J. B. Mulligan, “Recovery of motion parameters from distortions in scanned images,” in Proceedings of the NASA Image Registration Workshop (1997).

K. A. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, “Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images,” in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (2001).

B. M. Ege, T. Dahl, T. Søndergaard, and O. V. Larsen, “Automatic registration of ocular fundus images,” in 1st International Workshop on Computer Assisted Fundus Image Analysis (2000).

I. Graesslin, M. Mittlebach, H. Eggers, T. Schaeffter, P. Bornert, and O. Lange, “MR real-time coronary imaging using the normalized cross-correlation,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2002).

I. Graesslin, M. Mittelbach, T. Schaeffter, P. Bornert, H. Eggers, and O. Lange, “Adaptive weighted averaging for real-time MR imaging,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2002).

M. S. Sussman, A. B. Kerr, J. M. Pauly, N. Merchant, and G. A. Wright, “Tracking the motion of the coronary arteries with the correlation coefficient,” in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (1999).

J. P. Lewis, “Fast normalized cross-correlation,” in Vision Interface (1995). URL http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/lewis95fast.html.

P. Soille, Morphological Image Analysis (Springer-Verlag, 1999). URL http://web.ukonline.co.uk/soille/book1st.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Input image, Ii , of the GFP signal from the optic disc of the transgenic mouse (b)–(d) Ji obtained after subjecting Ii to (b) Huygens deconvolution (c) 9×9 median filtering and (d) speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Point-to-point correspondence between: First row-(a) J 1 and (b) J 2, Second row-(c) J 2 and (d) J 3, Corresponding points in the adjacent images carry the same number.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Influence of Wr on the alignment accuracy: (a) Reference image, (b)–(f) Final averaged images corresponding to (b) Wr =4, (c) Wr =9, (d) Wr =14, (e) Wr =19, (f) Direct averaging and (g) Corresponding drop in mean absolute error (MAE) error values from (b) to (e).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Influence of Wr on the alignment accuracy: (a) Reference image, (b)–(f) Final averaged images corresponding to (b) Wr =4, (c) Wr =9, (d) Wr =14, (e) Wr =19, (f) Direct averaging and (g) Corresponding drop in mean absolute error (MAE) error values from (b) to (e).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Final averaged image Iref N of a transgenic mouse retina from the ARM method (a) Wr =2, (b) Wr =7, (c) Wr =12 (d) Wr =17 and (e) Wr =22.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Qualitative comparison of the composite GFAP–GFP transgenic mouse retina images, from the same sequence of noisy images, processed using (a) the proposed ARM method, (b) Direct frame averaging and (c) HRA 2’s averaging module.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of imaginary confocal microscope for the Huygens deconvolution method

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

NCC J i , u , v , J i 1 , u , v = J i , u , v J ¯ i , u , v , J i 1 , u , v J ¯ i 1 , u , v J i , u , v J ¯ i , u , v J i 1 , u , v J ¯ i 1 , u , v
I i a = f i f i 1 . . . f 2 ( I i )
I i a , r ( x , y ) = I i a ( x o , y o ) RANK I i a ( x o , y o ) = RANK J i 1 ref ( x , y )
J i ref = ( i 1 ) J i 1 ref + J i a , r i
J i a , r ( x , y ) = J i a ( x o , y o ) RANK J i a ( x o , y o ) = RANK J i 1 ref ( x , y )
I i ref = ( i 1 ) I i 1 ref + I i a , r i

Metrics