Abstract

In vivo retinal images of transgenic mice, expressing GFP under the control of the GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) promoter, have very poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and cellular resolution such that the analysis of GFAP–GFP expressing retinal cells from these images can be a very challenging task. We report an image averaging method based on a pixel rank matching criterion which significantly enhances both these image attributes. We also show that it compares favorably against direct image averaging and a commercial averaging routine available from the Heidelberg Retinal Angiograph 2 software.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, "Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885-1886 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. F. Chen, "Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234-239 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Y. Yao, W. Hou, Y. P. Kong, L. Guo, L. A. Wu, R. N. Li, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, Y. Bi, and Y. Zhou, " Double-end-pumped 11-W Nd:YVO4 cw laser at 1342 nm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2129-2133 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  6. H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, "Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal," Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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  12. J. L He, Y. X. Fan, J. Du, Y. G. Wang, S. Liu, H. T. Wang, L. H. Zhang, and Y. Hang, "4-ps passively mode-locked Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror," Opt. Lett. 29, 2803-2805 (2004).
  13. S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, A. Q. Liu, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, "Short pulse passively Q-switched NdGdYVO4 laser using a GaAs mirror, " Opt. Commun. 259, 256-260 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. F. Chen, "Stimulated Raman scattering in a potassium titanyl phosphate crystal: simultaneous self-sum frequency mixing and self-frequency doubling," Opt. Lett. 30, 400-402 (2005).
  19. S. Pearce, C. L. M. Ireland, and P. E. Dyer, "Solid-state Raman laser generating <1ns, multi-kilohertz pulses at 1096 nm," Opt. Commun. 260, 680-686 (2006).
  20. V. Pasiskevicius, C. Canalias, and F. Laurell, "Highly efficient stimulated Raman scattering of picosecond pulses in KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041110 (2006).
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  23. K. Kawase, T. Hatanaka, H. Takahashi, K. Nakamura, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, "Tunable terahertz-wave generation from DAST crystal by dual signal-wave parametric oscillation of periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 25, 1714-1716 (2000).
  24. K. Suizu, K. Miyamoto, T. Yamashita, and H. Ito, "High-power terahertz-wave generation using DAST crystal and detection using mid-infrared powermeter," Opt. Lett. 32, 2885-2887 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. J. Zayhowski and A. Mooradian, "Single-frequency microchip Nd lasers," Opt. Lett. 14, 24-26 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. J. Dixon, L. S. Lingvay, and R. H. Jarman, "Properties of close coupled monolithic, lithium neodymium, tetraphosphate lasers," Proc. SPIE 1104, 107 (1989).
  27. Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Huang, "Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424-1429 (1997).
  28. Y. F. Chen, "High-power diode-pumped Q-switched intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YVO4 laser with a sandwich-type resonator," Opt. Lett. 24, 1032-1034 (1999).

2007 (2)

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, "Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231110 (2007).

K. Suizu, K. Miyamoto, T. Yamashita, and H. Ito, "High-power terahertz-wave generation using DAST crystal and detection using mid-infrared powermeter," Opt. Lett. 32, 2885-2887 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

S. Pearce, C. L. M. Ireland, and P. E. Dyer, "Solid-state Raman laser generating <1ns, multi-kilohertz pulses at 1096 nm," Opt. Commun. 260, 680-686 (2006).

V. Pasiskevicius, C. Canalias, and F. Laurell, "Highly efficient stimulated Raman scattering of picosecond pulses in KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041110 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, A. Q. Liu, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, "Short pulse passively Q-switched NdGdYVO4 laser using a GaAs mirror, " Opt. Commun. 259, 256-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2003 (6)

H. M. Pask, "The design and operation of solid-state Raman lasers," Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 3-56 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kaminskii, "Modern developments in the physics of crystalline laser materials," Phys. Status Solidi (A) 200, 215-296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, K. Onodera, H. Machida, H. Sagae, M. Higuchi, and K. Kodaira, "Efficient laser performance of Nd:GdVO4 crystals grown by the floating zone method," Opt. Lett. 28, 2333-2335 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Lupei, N. Pavel, Y. Sato, and T. Taira, "Highly efficient 1063-nm continuous-wave laser emission in Nd:GdVO4," Opt. Lett. 28, 2366-2368 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, "Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 mixed crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (5)

K. Kawase, M. Mizuno, S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, Y. Urata, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and H. Ito, "Difference-frequency terahertz-wave generation from 4-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate by use of an electronically tuned Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 1065-1067 (1999).

Y. F. Chen, "High-power diode-pumped Q-switched intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YVO4 laser with a sandwich-type resonator," Opt. Lett. 24, 1032-1034 (1999).

A. Sennaroglu, "Efficient continuous-wave operation of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm," Opt. Commun. 164, 191-197 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, "Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Basiev and R. C. Powell, "Special issue on solid state Raman lasers-Introduction," Opt. Mater. 11, 301-306 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, "Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal," Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Huang, "Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424-1429 (1997).

1994 (1)

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbarkov, "Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4," Appl. Phys. B 58, 373-379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

J. J. Zayhowski and A. Mooradian, "Single-frequency microchip Nd lasers," Opt. Lett. 14, 24-26 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Dixon, L. S. Lingvay, and R. H. Jarman, "Properties of close coupled monolithic, lithium neodymium, tetraphosphate lasers," Proc. SPIE 1104, 107 (1989).

1987 (1)

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, "Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885-1886 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

Basiev, T. T.

T. T. Basiev and R. C. Powell, "Special issue on solid state Raman lasers-Introduction," Opt. Mater. 11, 301-306 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bi, Y.

Birnbaum, M.

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, "Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885-1886 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canalias, C.

V. Pasiskevicius, C. Canalias, and F. Laurell, "Highly efficient stimulated Raman scattering of picosecond pulses in KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041110 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. C.

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, "Stimulated Raman scattering in a potassium titanyl phosphate crystal: simultaneous self-sum frequency mixing and self-frequency doubling," Opt. Lett. 30, 400-402 (2005).

Y. F. Chen, M. L. Ku, L. Y. Tsai, and Y. C. Chen, "Diode-pumped passively Q-switched picosecond Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 self-stimulated Raman laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 2279-2281 (2004).

Y. F. Chen, "Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, "High-power diode-pumped Q-switched intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YVO4 laser with a sandwich-type resonator," Opt. Lett. 24, 1032-1034 (1999).

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Huang, "Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424-1429 (1997).

Chow, Y. T.

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, "Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal," Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cui, D. F.

Dawes, J.

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, "Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal," Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ding, A.

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dixon, G. J.

G. J. Dixon, L. S. Lingvay, and R. H. Jarman, "Properties of close coupled monolithic, lithium neodymium, tetraphosphate lasers," Proc. SPIE 1104, 107 (1989).

Du, C. L.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, "Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 mixed crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Du, J.

Dyer, P. E.

S. Pearce, C. L. M. Ireland, and P. E. Dyer, "Solid-state Raman laser generating <1ns, multi-kilohertz pulses at 1096 nm," Opt. Commun. 260, 680-686 (2006).

Fan, Y. X.

Fields, R. A.

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, "Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885-1886 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fincher, C. L.

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, "Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885-1886 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L.

Hang, Y.

Hatanaka, T.

He, J. L

Higuchi, M.

Hou, W.

Huang, S. C.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Huang, "Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424-1429 (1997).

Huang, T. M.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Huang, "Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424-1429 (1997).

Huber, G.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbarkov, "Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4," Appl. Phys. B 58, 373-379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ireland, C. L. M.

S. Pearce, C. L. M. Ireland, and P. E. Dyer, "Solid-state Raman laser generating <1ns, multi-kilohertz pulses at 1096 nm," Opt. Commun. 260, 680-686 (2006).

Ito, H.

Jarman, R. H.

G. J. Dixon, L. S. Lingvay, and R. H. Jarman, "Properties of close coupled monolithic, lithium neodymium, tetraphosphate lasers," Proc. SPIE 1104, 107 (1989).

Jensen, T.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbarkov, "Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4," Appl. Phys. B 58, 373-379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, F. Y.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, "Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 mixed crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, M. H.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, "Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231110 (2007).

Johnson, J. C.

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, "Modern developments in the physics of crystalline laser materials," Phys. Status Solidi (A) 200, 215-296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. F.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Huang, "Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424-1429 (1997).

Kawase, K.

Kodaira, K.

Kong, Y. P.

Ku, M. L.

Laurell, F.

V. Pasiskevicius, C. Canalias, and F. Laurell, "Highly efficient stimulated Raman scattering of picosecond pulses in KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041110 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, R. N.

Lingvay, L. S.

G. J. Dixon, L. S. Lingvay, and R. H. Jarman, "Properties of close coupled monolithic, lithium neodymium, tetraphosphate lasers," Proc. SPIE 1104, 107 (1989).

Liu, A. Q.

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, A. Q. Liu, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, "Short pulse passively Q-switched NdGdYVO4 laser using a GaAs mirror, " Opt. Commun. 259, 256-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. H.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, "Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 mixed crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Loehr, T. M.

Lupei, V.

Machida, H.

Massey, G. A.

Meng, X.

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meng, X. L.

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, A. Q. Liu, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, "Short pulse passively Q-switched NdGdYVO4 laser using a GaAs mirror, " Opt. Commun. 259, 256-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, "Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 mixed crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, "Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal," Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meyn, J. P.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbarkov, "Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4," Appl. Phys. B 58, 373-379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, K.

Mizuno, M.

Mooradian, A.

Nakamura, K.

Ng, S. P.

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, A. Q. Liu, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, "Short pulse passively Q-switched NdGdYVO4 laser using a GaAs mirror, " Opt. Commun. 259, 256-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

Onodera, K.

Ostroumov, V. G.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbarkov, "Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4," Appl. Phys. B 58, 373-379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ozygus, B.

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasiskevicius, V.

V. Pasiskevicius, C. Canalias, and F. Laurell, "Highly efficient stimulated Raman scattering of picosecond pulses in KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041110 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pask, H. M.

H. M. Pask, "The design and operation of solid-state Raman lasers," Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 3-56 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavel, N.

Pearce, S.

S. Pearce, C. L. M. Ireland, and P. E. Dyer, "Solid-state Raman laser generating <1ns, multi-kilohertz pulses at 1096 nm," Opt. Commun. 260, 680-686 (2006).

Powell, R. C.

T. T. Basiev and R. C. Powell, "Special issue on solid state Raman lasers-Introduction," Opt. Mater. 11, 301-306 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, L. J.

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, A. Q. Liu, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, "Short pulse passively Q-switched NdGdYVO4 laser using a GaAs mirror, " Opt. Commun. 259, 256-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, "Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 mixed crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sagae, H.

Sato, Y.

Sennaroglu, A.

A. Sennaroglu, "Efficient continuous-wave operation of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm," Opt. Commun. 164, 191-197 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, Z.

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, Z. S.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, "Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231110 (2007).

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, "Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 mixed crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbarkov, I. A.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbarkov, "Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4," Appl. Phys. B 58, 373-379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sohma, S.

Suizu, K.

Taira, T.

Takahashi, H.

Tang, D. Y.

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, A. Q. Liu, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, "Short pulse passively Q-switched NdGdYVO4 laser using a GaAs mirror, " Opt. Commun. 259, 256-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taniuchi, T.

Tashiro, H.

Tsai, L. Y.

Urata, Y.

Wada, S.

Wang, C. L.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Huang, "Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424-1429 (1997).

Wang, C. Q.

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, "Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal," Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. T.

Wang, J. Y.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, "Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231110 (2007).

Wang, P.

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, "Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal," Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. Q.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, "Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 mixed crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. G.

Wang, Z. P.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, "Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231110 (2007).

Weber, H.

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willis, L. J.

Wu, L. A.

Xu, B. C.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, "Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 mixed crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. Z.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, "Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 mixed crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Y.

Yamashita, T.

Yao, A. Y.

Yu, H. H.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, "Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231110 (2007).

Yu, Y. G.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, "Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231110 (2007).

Zagumennyi, A. I.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbarkov, "Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4," Appl. Phys. B 58, 373-379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zayhowski, J. J.

Zhang, H. J.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, "Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231110 (2007).

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, "Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal," Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. Z.

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, "Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal," Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. H.

Zhang, X. Y.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, "Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231110 (2007).

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, L.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, "Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 mixed crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, "Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal," Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbarkov, "Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4," Appl. Phys. B 58, 373-379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, "Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885-1886 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, and X. Y. Zhang, "Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231110 (2007).

V. Pasiskevicius, C. Canalias, and F. Laurell, "Highly efficient stimulated Raman scattering of picosecond pulses in KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041110 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, "Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 mixed crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Res. Technol. (1)

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, and Y. T. Chow, "Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal," Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801-806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. F. Chen, "Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Huang, "Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424-1429 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (3)

A. Sennaroglu, "Efficient continuous-wave operation of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm," Opt. Commun. 164, 191-197 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, A. Q. Liu, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, "Short pulse passively Q-switched NdGdYVO4 laser using a GaAs mirror, " Opt. Commun. 259, 256-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pearce, C. L. M. Ireland, and P. E. Dyer, "Solid-state Raman laser generating <1ns, multi-kilohertz pulses at 1096 nm," Opt. Commun. 260, 680-686 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (10)

Y. F. Chen, "Stimulated Raman scattering in a potassium titanyl phosphate crystal: simultaneous self-sum frequency mixing and self-frequency doubling," Opt. Lett. 30, 400-402 (2005).

Y. F. Chen, "High-power diode-pumped Q-switched intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YVO4 laser with a sandwich-type resonator," Opt. Lett. 24, 1032-1034 (1999).

K. Kawase, M. Mizuno, S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, Y. Urata, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and H. Ito, "Difference-frequency terahertz-wave generation from 4-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate by use of an electronically tuned Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 1065-1067 (1999).

K. Kawase, T. Hatanaka, H. Takahashi, K. Nakamura, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, "Tunable terahertz-wave generation from DAST crystal by dual signal-wave parametric oscillation of periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 25, 1714-1716 (2000).

K. Suizu, K. Miyamoto, T. Yamashita, and H. Ito, "High-power terahertz-wave generation using DAST crystal and detection using mid-infrared powermeter," Opt. Lett. 32, 2885-2887 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Zayhowski and A. Mooradian, "Single-frequency microchip Nd lasers," Opt. Lett. 14, 24-26 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, M. L. Ku, L. Y. Tsai, and Y. C. Chen, "Diode-pumped passively Q-switched picosecond Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 self-stimulated Raman laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 2279-2281 (2004).

J. L He, Y. X. Fan, J. Du, Y. G. Wang, S. Liu, H. T. Wang, L. H. Zhang, and Y. Hang, "4-ps passively mode-locked Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror," Opt. Lett. 29, 2803-2805 (2004).

T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, K. Onodera, H. Machida, H. Sagae, M. Higuchi, and K. Kodaira, "Efficient laser performance of Nd:GdVO4 crystals grown by the floating zone method," Opt. Lett. 28, 2333-2335 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Lupei, N. Pavel, Y. Sato, and T. Taira, "Highly efficient 1063-nm continuous-wave laser emission in Nd:GdVO4," Opt. Lett. 28, 2366-2368 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. (1)

T. T. Basiev and R. C. Powell, "Special issue on solid state Raman lasers-Introduction," Opt. Mater. 11, 301-306 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi (A) (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, "Modern developments in the physics of crystalline laser materials," Phys. Status Solidi (A) 200, 215-296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. J. Dixon, L. S. Lingvay, and R. H. Jarman, "Properties of close coupled monolithic, lithium neodymium, tetraphosphate lasers," Proc. SPIE 1104, 107 (1989).

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. M. Pask, "The design and operation of solid-state Raman lasers," Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 3-56 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Input image, Ii , of the GFP signal from the optic disc of the transgenic mouse (b)–(d) Ji obtained after subjecting Ii to (b) Huygens deconvolution (c) 9×9 median filtering and (d) speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Point-to-point correspondence between: First row-(a) J 1 and (b) J 2, Second row-(c) J 2 and (d) J 3, Corresponding points in the adjacent images carry the same number.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Influence of Wr on the alignment accuracy: (a) Reference image, (b)–(f) Final averaged images corresponding to (b) Wr =4, (c) Wr =9, (d) Wr =14, (e) Wr =19, (f) Direct averaging and (g) Corresponding drop in mean absolute error (MAE) error values from (b) to (e).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Influence of Wr on the alignment accuracy: (a) Reference image, (b)–(f) Final averaged images corresponding to (b) Wr =4, (c) Wr =9, (d) Wr =14, (e) Wr =19, (f) Direct averaging and (g) Corresponding drop in mean absolute error (MAE) error values from (b) to (e).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Final averaged image Iref N of a transgenic mouse retina from the ARM method (a) Wr =2, (b) Wr =7, (c) Wr =12 (d) Wr =17 and (e) Wr =22.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Qualitative comparison of the composite GFAP–GFP transgenic mouse retina images, from the same sequence of noisy images, processed using (a) the proposed ARM method, (b) Direct frame averaging and (c) HRA 2’s averaging module.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of imaginary confocal microscope for the Huygens deconvolution method

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

NCC J i , u , v , J i 1 , u , v = J i , u , v J ¯ i , u , v , J i 1 , u , v J ¯ i 1 , u , v J i , u , v J ¯ i , u , v J i 1 , u , v J ¯ i 1 , u , v
I i a = f i f i 1 . . . f 2 ( I i )
I i a , r ( x , y ) = I i a ( x o , y o ) RANK I i a ( x o , y o ) = RANK J i 1 ref ( x , y )
J i ref = ( i 1 ) J i 1 ref + J i a , r i
J i a , r ( x , y ) = J i a ( x o , y o ) RANK J i a ( x o , y o ) = RANK J i 1 ref ( x , y )
I i ref = ( i 1 ) I i 1 ref + I i a , r i

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