Abstract

A fiber Bragg grating was written in a side-hole fiber with internal metal alloy electrodes. The initial geometrical birefringence of this fiber gives rise to two Bragg resonances separated by 43 pm. Nanosecond risetime current pulses of up to 23 A were applied to the metal electrode, which heated and expanded rapidly. This caused mechanical stress in the fiber on a nanosecond scale, resulting in a negative shift of the Bragg wavelength peak for the fast axis mode, and positive but smaller shift for the slow axis mode. The fast change increased the peak separation to ~ 143 pm, corresponding to an increase in birefringence from 4.0×10-5 to 1.3×10-4. Both peaks subsequently experienced a red-shift due to the relaxation of mechanical stress and the increasing core temperature transferred from the metal in many microseconds. Simulations give accurate description of the experimental results.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

J. A. Viator, S. Kreger, M. W. Winz, and E. Udd, "Modeling and experimental strain measurements on a non-homogeneous cylinder under transverse load," Proc. SPIE 5384, 199-205 (2004).

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

W. J. Bock, M. S. Nawrocka, and W. Urban´ czyk, "Highly sensitive fiber-optic sensor for dynamic pressure measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1085-1088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. Yamate, R. T. Ramos, R. J. Schroeder, and E. Udd, "Thermally insensitive pressure measurements up to 300 degrees C using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side-hole single mode fiber," Proc. SPIE 4185, 628-631 (2000).

R. Gafsi and M. A. El-Sherif, "Analysis of Induced-Birefringence Effects on Fiber Bragg Gratings," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 299-323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. J. Schroeder, T. Yamate, and E. Udd, "High pressure and temperature sensing for the oil industry using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side hole single mode fiber," Proc. SPIE 3746, 72-74 (1999).

1986 (1)

1968 (1)

Avdeev, I. V.

Bails, M. M.

Berlemont, D.

Bock, W. J.

E. Chmielewska, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, "Measurement of pressure and temperature sensitivities of a Bragg grating imprinted in a highly birefrigent side-hole fiber," Appl. Opt. 42, 6284-6291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Bock, M. S. Nawrocka, and W. Urban´ czyk, "Highly sensitive fiber-optic sensor for dynamic pressure measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1085-1088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F

Canning, J.

Chen, K. P.

Chmielewska, E.

Claesson, ?.

Dabkiewicz, Ph.

El-Sherif, M. A.

R. Gafsi and M. A. El-Sherif, "Analysis of Induced-Birefringence Effects on Fiber Bragg Gratings," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 299-323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fokine, M.

Fonjallaz, P. -Y.

Gafsi, R.

R. Gafsi and M. A. El-Sherif, "Analysis of Induced-Birefringence Effects on Fiber Bragg Gratings," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 299-323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jewart, C.

Kjellberg, L.

Knape, H.

Kreger, S.

J. A. Viator, S. Kreger, M. W. Winz, and E. Udd, "Modeling and experimental strain measurements on a non-homogeneous cylinder under transverse load," Proc. SPIE 5384, 199-205 (2004).

Krummenacher, L.

Levitan, S. P.

Margulis, W.

McMillen, B.

Miller, R. A.

Nawrocka, M. S.

W. J. Bock, M. S. Nawrocka, and W. Urban´ czyk, "Highly sensitive fiber-optic sensor for dynamic pressure measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1085-1088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, L. E.

Okamoto, K.

Ramos, R. T.

T. Yamate, R. T. Ramos, R. J. Schroeder, and E. Udd, "Thermally insensitive pressure measurements up to 300 degrees C using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side-hole single mode fiber," Proc. SPIE 4185, 628-631 (2000).

Schroeder, R. J.

T. Yamate, R. T. Ramos, R. J. Schroeder, and E. Udd, "Thermally insensitive pressure measurements up to 300 degrees C using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side-hole single mode fiber," Proc. SPIE 4185, 628-631 (2000).

R. J. Schroeder, T. Yamate, and E. Udd, "High pressure and temperature sensing for the oil industry using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side hole single mode fiber," Proc. SPIE 3746, 72-74 (1999).

Tarasenko, O.

Udd, E.

J. A. Viator, S. Kreger, M. W. Winz, and E. Udd, "Modeling and experimental strain measurements on a non-homogeneous cylinder under transverse load," Proc. SPIE 5384, 199-205 (2004).

T. Yamate, R. T. Ramos, R. J. Schroeder, and E. Udd, "Thermally insensitive pressure measurements up to 300 degrees C using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side-hole single mode fiber," Proc. SPIE 4185, 628-631 (2000).

R. J. Schroeder, T. Yamate, and E. Udd, "High pressure and temperature sensing for the oil industry using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side hole single mode fiber," Proc. SPIE 3746, 72-74 (1999).

Ulrich, R.

Urban´ czyk, W.

W. J. Bock, M. S. Nawrocka, and W. Urban´ czyk, "Highly sensitive fiber-optic sensor for dynamic pressure measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1085-1088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Urbanczyk, W.

Viator, J. A.

J. A. Viator, S. Kreger, M. W. Winz, and E. Udd, "Modeling and experimental strain measurements on a non-homogeneous cylinder under transverse load," Proc. SPIE 5384, 199-205 (2004).

Winz, M. W.

J. A. Viator, S. Kreger, M. W. Winz, and E. Udd, "Modeling and experimental strain measurements on a non-homogeneous cylinder under transverse load," Proc. SPIE 5384, 199-205 (2004).

Xie, H. M.

Yamate, T.

T. Yamate, R. T. Ramos, R. J. Schroeder, and E. Udd, "Thermally insensitive pressure measurements up to 300 degrees C using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side-hole single mode fiber," Proc. SPIE 4185, 628-631 (2000).

R. J. Schroeder, T. Yamate, and E. Udd, "High pressure and temperature sensing for the oil industry using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side hole single mode fiber," Proc. SPIE 3746, 72-74 (1999).

Yu, Z.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

W. J. Bock, M. S. Nawrocka, and W. Urban´ czyk, "Highly sensitive fiber-optic sensor for dynamic pressure measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 1085-1088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

R. Gafsi and M. A. El-Sherif, "Analysis of Induced-Birefringence Effects on Fiber Bragg Gratings," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 299-323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (3)

J. A. Viator, S. Kreger, M. W. Winz, and E. Udd, "Modeling and experimental strain measurements on a non-homogeneous cylinder under transverse load," Proc. SPIE 5384, 199-205 (2004).

R. J. Schroeder, T. Yamate, and E. Udd, "High pressure and temperature sensing for the oil industry using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side hole single mode fiber," Proc. SPIE 3746, 72-74 (1999).

T. Yamate, R. T. Ramos, R. J. Schroeder, and E. Udd, "Thermally insensitive pressure measurements up to 300 degrees C using fiber Bragg gratings written onto side-hole single mode fiber," Proc. SPIE 4185, 628-631 (2000).

Other (5)

Z. Yu, W. Margulis, P.-Y. Fonjallaz, and O. Tarasenko, "Physics of electrically switched fiber Bragg gratings," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMK1.

L. -E. Nilsson, Z. Yu, O. Tarasenko, H. Knape, P. -Y. Fonjallaz, and W. Margulis, "High-speed switching in fibres with electrodes," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Rome, 2007), pp. 232-233.

Z. Yu, W. Margulis, O. Tarasenko, H. Knape, and P.-Y. Fonjallaz, "High-speed control of fiber Bragg gratings," in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JWA44.

M. Turpin, M. Brevignon, J. P. Le. Pesant, and O. Gaouditz, "Interfero-polarimetric fiber optic sensor for both pressure and temperature measurement," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 362-365.

S. Kreger, S. Calvert, and E. Udd, "High pressure sensing using fiber Bragg grating written in birefringent side hole fiber," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, (Portland, 2002), pp. 355-358.

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