Abstract

We have developed an improved adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) system and evaluated its performance for in vivo imaging of normal and pathologic retina. The instrument provides unprecedented image quality at the retina with isotropic 3D resolution of 3.5 x 3.5 x 3.5 μm3. Critical to the instrument's resolution is a customized achromatizing lens that corrects for the eye's longitudinal chromatic aberration and an ultra broadband light source (Δλ=112nm λ0=~836 nm). The eye's transverse chromatic aberrations is modeled and predicted to be sufficiently small for the imaging conditions considered. The achromatizing lens was strategically placed at the light input of the AO-OCT sample arm. This location simplifies use of the achromatizing lens and allows straightforward implementation into existing OCT systems. Lateral resolution was achieved with an AO system that cascades two wavefront correctors, a large stroke bimorph deformable mirror (DM) and a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) DM with a high number of actuators. This combination yielded diffraction-limited imaging in the eyes examined. An added benefit of the broadband light source is the reduction of speckle size in the axial dimension. Additionally, speckle contrast was reduced by averaging multiple B-scans of the same proximal patch of retina. The combination of improved micron-scale 3D resolution, and reduced speckle size and contrast were found to significantly improve visibility of microscopic structures in the retina.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

2007 (7)

C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, B. Bloom, and D. X. Hammer, "Compact multimodal adaptive-optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instrument for retinal imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1327-1336 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-24-5-1327.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, J. S. Werner, "Adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography: optimizing visualization of microscopic retinal structures in three dimensions." J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1373-1383 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benny, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, E. N. Ribak, and P. Artal, "Wide-angle chromatic aberration corrector for the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1538-1544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Truong, S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, D. G. Telander, S. S. Park, J. S. Werner and L. S. Morse, "High-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography of retinal angiomatous proliferation," Retina 27, 915-925 (2007).

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography in ophthalmology" J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, "Combining adaptive optics with optical coherence tomography: Unveiling the cellular structure of the human retina in vivo," Expert Review of Ophthalmology 2, 1019-1035 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, "Enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography by image registration�??method and clinical examples" J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (6)

2004 (4)

2003 (4)

2002 (2)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly III, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).

2001 (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Rynders, B. Lidkea, W. Chisholm, and L. N. Thibos, "Statistical distribution of foveal transverse chromatic aberration, pupil centration, and angle �? in a population of young adult eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2348-2357 (1995).

1993 (1)

1991 (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, A. Bradley, and L. N. Thibos, "Achromatizing the human eye: the problem of chromatic parallax," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 686-691 (1991), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-8-4-686.

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

1982 (1)

A. L. Lewis, M. Katz, and C. Oehrlein, "A modified achromatizing lens," Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 909-911 (1982).

1981 (1)

1957 (1)

1947 (1)

Alam, S.

S. N. Truong, S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, D. G. Telander, S. S. Park, J. S. Werner and L. S. Morse, "High-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography of retinal angiomatous proliferation," Retina 27, 915-925 (2007).

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, "Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging," Ophthalmology 113, 1425-1431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anhelt, P.

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision. Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

Atchison, D. A.

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bedford, R. E.

Benny, Y.

Bescos, J.

Bigelow, C. E.

Bloom, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Bower, B. A.

Bradley, A.

Bradu, A.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. C.

Chisholm, W.

Choi, S.

Choi, S. S.

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, J. S. Werner, "Adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography: optimizing visualization of microscopic retinal structures in three dimensions." J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1373-1383 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Truong, S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, D. G. Telander, S. S. Park, J. S. Werner and L. S. Morse, "High-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography of retinal angiomatous proliferation," Retina 27, 915-925 (2007).

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, "Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging," Ophthalmology 113, 1425-1431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, U.

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, "Enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography by image registration�??method and clinical examples" J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, C.

de Boer, J. F.

Donnelly, W. J.

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography in ophthalmology" J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared," Opt. Express 14, 6213-6225 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision. Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, P. M. Prieto, B. Hermann, W. Drexler, and P. Artal, "Ocular aberrations as a function of wavelength in the near infrared measured with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Express 13, 400-409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhubner, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Duker, J.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology,  112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duker, J. S.

Elzaiat, Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. W.

Fercher, A. F.

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhubner, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, R. D.

Fernandez, E. J.

Fernández, E.

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision. Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, E. J.

Flotte, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology,  112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography in ophthalmology" J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J.G.

Gao, W.

Gerth, C.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, "Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging," Ophthalmology 113, 1425-1431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghanta, R. K.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, D. X.

Hebert, T. J.

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Iftimia, N. V.

Izatt, J. A.

Jones, S.

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R. S.

Jørgensen, T. M.

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, "Enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography by image registration�??method and clinical examples" J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Katz, M.

A. L. Lewis, M. Katz, and C. Oehrlein, "A modified achromatizing lens," Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 909-911 (1982).

Ko, T.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology,  112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. H.

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology,  112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laut, S.

Leitgeb, R.

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision. Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A. L.

A. L. Lewis, M. Katz, and C. Oehrlein, "A modified achromatizing lens," Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 909-911 (1982).

Liang, J.

Lidkea, B.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Manzanera, S.

Merino, D.

Miller, D. T.

Morgner, U.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morse, L.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, "Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging," Ophthalmology 113, 1425-1431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morse, L. S.

S. N. Truong, S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, D. G. Telander, S. S. Park, J. S. Werner and L. S. Morse, "High-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography of retinal angiomatous proliferation," Retina 27, 915-925 (2007).

Nassif, N. A.

Navarro, R.

Oehrlein, C.

A. L. Lewis, M. Katz, and C. Oehrlein, "A modified achromatizing lens," Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 909-911 (1982).

Olivier, S.

Olivier, S. S.

Park, B. H.

Park, S. S.

S. N. Truong, S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, D. G. Telander, S. S. Park, J. S. Werner and L. S. Morse, "High-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography of retinal angiomatous proliferation," Retina 27, 915-925 (2007).

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, "Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging," Ophthalmology 113, 1425-1431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

Podoleanu, A. G.

Povazay, B.

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision. Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Považay, B.

Powell, I.

Prieto, P.

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision. Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, P. M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Qu, J.

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, "Coherence gating and adaptive optics in the eye," Proc. SPIE 4956, 65-72 (2003).

Queener, H.

Rha, J.

Ribak, E. N.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Rynders, M.

Sander, B.

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, "Enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography by image registration�??method and clinical examples" J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Santamaria, J.

Sattman, H.

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision. Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sattmann, H.

Schuman, J.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology,  112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G.

Soliman, W.

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, "Enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography by image registration�??method and clinical examples" J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology,  112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Telander, D. G.

S. N. Truong, S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, D. G. Telander, S. S. Park, J. S. Werner and L. S. Morse, "High-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography of retinal angiomatous proliferation," Retina 27, 915-925 (2007).

Thibos, L. N.

Thomadsen, J.

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, "Enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography by image registration�??method and clinical examples" J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thorn, K.

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, "Coherence gating and adaptive optics in the eye," Proc. SPIE 4956, 65-72 (2003).

Truong, S. N.

S. N. Truong, S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, D. G. Telander, S. S. Park, J. S. Werner and L. S. Morse, "High-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography of retinal angiomatous proliferation," Retina 27, 915-925 (2007).

Unterhuber, A.

Unterhubner, A.

Ustun, T. E.

van Heel, A. C.

Werner, J. S.

M. Pircher, R. J. Zawadzki, J. W. Evans, J. S. Werner and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Simultaneous imaging of human cone mosaic with adaptive optics enhanced scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and high- speed transversal scanning optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 33, 22-24 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-9-405.
[CrossRef]

S. N. Truong, S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, D. G. Telander, S. S. Park, J. S. Werner and L. S. Morse, "High-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography of retinal angiomatous proliferation," Retina 27, 915-925 (2007).

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, J. S. Werner, "Adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography: optimizing visualization of microscopic retinal structures in three dimensions." J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1373-1383 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, "Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging," Ophthalmology 113, 1425-1431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology,  112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wyszecki, G.

Yun, S. H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

M. Pircher, R. J. Zawadzki, J. W. Evans, J. S. Werner and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Simultaneous imaging of human cone mosaic with adaptive optics enhanced scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and high- speed transversal scanning optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 33, 22-24 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-9-405.
[CrossRef]

S. N. Truong, S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, D. G. Telander, S. S. Park, J. S. Werner and L. S. Morse, "High-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography of retinal angiomatous proliferation," Retina 27, 915-925 (2007).

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, "Combining adaptive optics with optical coherence tomography: Unveiling the cellular structure of the human retina in vivo," Expert Review of Ophthalmology 2, 1019-1035 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, J. S. Werner, "Adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography: optimizing visualization of microscopic retinal structures in three dimensions." J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1373-1383 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, "Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging," Ophthalmology 113, 1425-1431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, M.

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

A. L. Lewis, M. Katz, and C. Oehrlein, "A modified achromatizing lens," Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 909-911 (1982).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Expert Review of Ophthalmology (1)

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, "Combining adaptive optics with optical coherence tomography: Unveiling the cellular structure of the human retina in vivo," Expert Review of Ophthalmology 2, 1019-1035 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, "Enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography by image registration�??method and clinical examples" J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography in ophthalmology" J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (11)

R. Navarro, J. Santamaria, and J. Bescos, "Accommodation-dependent model of the human eye with aspherics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1273 - 1281 (1985), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-2-8-1273.

X. Zhang, A. Bradley, and L. N. Thibos, "Achromatizing the human eye: the problem of chromatic parallax," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 686-691 (1991), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-8-4-686.

W. J. Donnelly III and A. Roorda, "Optimal pupil size in the human eye for axial resolution," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2010-2015 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-20-11-2010.
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M. Rynders, B. Lidkea, W. Chisholm, and L. N. Thibos, "Statistical distribution of foveal transverse chromatic aberration, pupil centration, and angle �? in a population of young adult eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2348-2357 (1995).

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, "Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 29-37 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-22-1-29.
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J. Liang, D. R. Williams and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-14-11-2884.
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L. N. Thibos, "Calculation of the influence of lateral chromatic aberration on image quality across the visual field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1673-1680 (1987), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-4-8-1673.

X. Zhang, A. Bradley, and L. N. Thibos, "Experimental determination of the chromatic difference of magnification of the human eye and the location of the anterior nodal point," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 213-220 (1993), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-10-2-213.

C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, B. Bloom, and D. X. Hammer, "Compact multimodal adaptive-optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instrument for retinal imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1327-1336 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-24-5-1327.
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R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, J. S. Werner, "Adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography: optimizing visualization of microscopic retinal structures in three dimensions." J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1373-1383 (2007).
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Y. Benny, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, E. N. Ribak, and P. Artal, "Wide-angle chromatic aberration corrector for the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1538-1544 (2007).
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Nat. Med. (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology (2)

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology,  112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, "Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging," Ophthalmology 113, 1425-1431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (11)

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, P. M. Prieto, B. Hermann, W. Drexler, and P. Artal, "Ocular aberrations as a function of wavelength in the near infrared measured with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Express 13, 400-409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Merino, C. Dainty, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, "Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 14, 3345-3353 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared," Opt. Express 14, 6213-6225 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly III, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, "Coherence gating and adaptive optics in the eye," Proc. SPIE 4956, 65-72 (2003).

Retina (1)

S. N. Truong, S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, D. G. Telander, S. S. Park, J. S. Werner and L. S. Morse, "High-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography of retinal angiomatous proliferation," Retina 27, 915-925 (2007).

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vision. Res. (1)

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision. Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).

Supplementary Material (7)

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