Abstract

The stumbling block of employing Raman imaging in nanoscience and nanotechnology is the diffraction-limited spatial resolution. Several approaches have been employed to improve the spatial resolution, among which aperture and apertureless near-field Raman techniques are the most frequently used. In this letter, we report a new approach in doing near-field Raman imaging with spatial resolution of about 80 nm, by trapping and scanning a polystyrene microsphere over the sample surface in water. We have used this technique to resolve PMOS transistors with SiGe source drain stressors with poly-Si gates, as well as gold nanopatterns with excellent reproducibility.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. E. Bonera, M. Fanciulli, and D. N. Batchelder, "Combining high resolution and tensorial analysis in Raman stress measurements of silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2729 - 2740 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  38. E. Anastassakis and E. Liarokapis, "Polycrystalline Si under strain: Elastic and lattice-dynamical considerations,"J. Appl. Phys. 62, 3346 - 3352 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  40. H. H. Liu, X. F. Duan, X. Y. Qi, Q. X. Xu, H. O. Li, and H. Qian, "Nanoscale strain analysis of strained-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors by large angle convergent-beam electron diffraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 263513 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007

N. Lee, R. D. Hartschuh, D. Mehtani, A. Kisliuk, J. F. Maguire, M. Green, M. D. Foster, and A. P. Sokolov, "High constrast scanning nano-Raman spectroscopy of silicon," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 789 - 796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ossikovski, Q. Nguyen, and G. Picardi, "Simple model for the polarization effects in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 75, 045412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Hayazawa, M. Motohashi, Y. Saito, H. Ishitobi, A. Ono, T. Ichimura, P. Verma, and S. Kawata, "Visualization of localized strain of a crystalline thin layer at the nanoscale by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 684 - 696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Lee, R. D. Hartschuh, D. Mehtani, A. Kisliuk, J. F. Maguire, M. Green, M. D. Foster, and A. P. Sokolov, "High constrast scanning nano-Raman spectroscopy of silicon," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 789 - 796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Christiansen, M. Becker, S. Fahlbusch, J. Michler, V. Sivakov, G. Andra, and R. Geiger, "Signal enhancement in nano-Raman spectroscopy by gold caps on silicon nanowires obtained by vapour-liquid-solid growth," Nanotechnology 18, 035503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Becker, V. Sivakov, G. Andra, R. Geiger, J. Schreiber, S. Hoffmann, J. Michler, A. P. Milenin, P. Werner, and S. H. Christiansen, "The SERS and TERS effects obtained by gold droplets on top of Si nanowires," Nano Lett. 7, 75 - 80 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Yi, H. Wang, Y. F. Lu, and Z. Y. Yang, "Enhanced Raman scattering by self-assembled silica spherical microparticles," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Mitani, S. Nakashima, H. Okumura, and A. Ogura, "Depth profiling of strain and defects in Si/Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures by micro-Raman imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Saito, M. Motohashi, N. Hayazawa, M. Iyoki, and S. Kawata, "Nanoscale characterization of strained silicon by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscope in reflection mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 143109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, "Near-field photonics: tip-enhanced microscopy and spectroscopy on the nanoscale," J. Opt. A 8, S227 - S233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Chidambaram, C. Bowen, S. Chakravarthi, C. Machala, and R. Wise, "Fundamentals of silicon material properties for successful exploitation of strain engineering in modern CMOS manufacturing," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 53, 944 - 964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Wu, Y. M. Lin, S. J. Chang, S. C. Lu, P. S. Chen, and C. W. Liu, "Enhanced CMOS performances using substrate strained-SiGe and mechanical strained-Si technology," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 46 - 48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Pan, N. Klymyshyn, D. H. Hu, and H. P. Lu, "Tip-enhanced near-field Raman spectroscopy probing single dye-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Frey, C. Bolwien, A. Brandenburg, R. Ros, and D. Anselmetti, "Optimized apertureless optical near-field probes with 15 nm optical resolution," Nanotechnology 17, 3105 - 3110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Liu, X. F. Duan, X. Y. Qi, Q. X. Xu, H. O. Li, and H. Qian, "Nanoscale strain analysis of strained-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors by large angle convergent-beam electron diffraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 263513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Veshapidze, M. L. Trachy, M. H. Shah, and B. D. DePaola, "Reducing the uncertainty in laser beam size measurement with a scanning edge method," Appl. Opt. 45, 8197 - 8199 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

S. Nakashima, T. Yamamoto, A. Ogura, K. Uejima, and T. Yamamoto, "Characterization of Si/GexSi1-x structures by micro-Raman imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2533 - 2535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Paul, "Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, R75 - R108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Richards, R. G. Milner, F. Huang, and F. Festy, "Tip-enhanced Raman microscopy: practicalities and limitations," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 663 - 667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Bonera, M. Fanciulli, and D. N. Batchelder, "Combining high resolution and tensorial analysis in Raman stress measurements of silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2729 - 2740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Sun and Z. X. Shen, "Near-field scanning Raman microscopy using apertureless probes," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 668 - 676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. H. Kim, K. B. Song, S. Q. Lee, E. K. Kim, S. E. Choi, Y. Lee, and K. H. Park, "Near-field imaging of surface plasmon on Au nano-dots fabricated by scanning probe lithography," J. Microsc. 209, 236 - 239 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Senez, A. Armigliato, I. D. Wolf, G. Carnevale, R. Balboni, S. Frabboni, and A. Benedetti, "Strain determination in silicon microstructures by combined convergent beam electron diffraction, process simulation, and micro-Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5574 - 5583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

E. Bonera, M. Fanciulli, and D. N. Batchelder, "Raman spectroscopy for a micrometric and tensorial analysis of stress in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3377 - 3379 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 - 7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Anderson, "Locally enhanced Raman spectroscopy with an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3130 - 3132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Grausem, B. Humbert, M. Spajer, D. Courjon, A. Burneau, and J. Oswalt, "Near-field Raman spectroscopy," J. Raman Specstrosc. 30, 833 - 840 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Ashkin, "Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4853 - 4860 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

I. D. Wolf, H. E. Maes, and S. K. Jones, "Stress measurements in silicon devices through Raman spectroscopy: Bridging the gap between theory and experiment," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7148 - 7156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. L. Jahncke, M. A. Paesler, and H. D. Hallen, "Raman imaging with near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2483 - 2485 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Scanning interferometric apertureless microscopy: Optical imaging at 10 Angstrom resolution," Science 269, 1083 - 1085 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hecht, H. Heinzelmann, and D. W. Pohl, "Combined aperture SNOM/PSTM: best of both worlds?," Ultramicroscopy 57, 228 - 234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. P. Tsai, A. Othonos, M. Moskovits, and D. Uttamchandani, "Raman spectroscopy using a fiber optic probe with subwavelength aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1768 - 1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987

E. Anastassakis and E. Liarokapis, "Polycrystalline Si under strain: Elastic and lattice-dynamical considerations,"J. Appl. Phys. 62, 3346 - 3352 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution l/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 - 653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980

A. Ashkin, "Applications of laser radiation pressure," Science 210, 1081 - 1088 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anastassakis, E.

E. Anastassakis and E. Liarokapis, "Polycrystalline Si under strain: Elastic and lattice-dynamical considerations,"J. Appl. Phys. 62, 3346 - 3352 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. S.

M. S. Anderson, "Locally enhanced Raman spectroscopy with an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3130 - 3132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, N.

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, "Near-field photonics: tip-enhanced microscopy and spectroscopy on the nanoscale," J. Opt. A 8, S227 - S233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Anderson, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, "Near-field Raman microscopy," Materials Today 8, 50 - 54 (2005).

Andra, G.

S. H. Christiansen, M. Becker, S. Fahlbusch, J. Michler, V. Sivakov, G. Andra, and R. Geiger, "Signal enhancement in nano-Raman spectroscopy by gold caps on silicon nanowires obtained by vapour-liquid-solid growth," Nanotechnology 18, 035503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Becker, V. Sivakov, G. Andra, R. Geiger, J. Schreiber, S. Hoffmann, J. Michler, A. P. Milenin, P. Werner, and S. H. Christiansen, "The SERS and TERS effects obtained by gold droplets on top of Si nanowires," Nano Lett. 7, 75 - 80 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anselmetti, D.

H. G. Frey, C. Bolwien, A. Brandenburg, R. Ros, and D. Anselmetti, "Optimized apertureless optical near-field probes with 15 nm optical resolution," Nanotechnology 17, 3105 - 3110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Armigliato, A.

V. Senez, A. Armigliato, I. D. Wolf, G. Carnevale, R. Balboni, S. Frabboni, and A. Benedetti, "Strain determination in silicon microstructures by combined convergent beam electron diffraction, process simulation, and micro-Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5574 - 5583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, "Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4853 - 4860 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, "Applications of laser radiation pressure," Science 210, 1081 - 1088 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

Balboni, R.

V. Senez, A. Armigliato, I. D. Wolf, G. Carnevale, R. Balboni, S. Frabboni, and A. Benedetti, "Strain determination in silicon microstructures by combined convergent beam electron diffraction, process simulation, and micro-Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5574 - 5583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Batchelder, D. N.

E. Bonera, M. Fanciulli, and D. N. Batchelder, "Combining high resolution and tensorial analysis in Raman stress measurements of silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2729 - 2740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Bonera, M. Fanciulli, and D. N. Batchelder, "Raman spectroscopy for a micrometric and tensorial analysis of stress in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3377 - 3379 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M.

S. H. Christiansen, M. Becker, S. Fahlbusch, J. Michler, V. Sivakov, G. Andra, and R. Geiger, "Signal enhancement in nano-Raman spectroscopy by gold caps on silicon nanowires obtained by vapour-liquid-solid growth," Nanotechnology 18, 035503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Becker, V. Sivakov, G. Andra, R. Geiger, J. Schreiber, S. Hoffmann, J. Michler, A. P. Milenin, P. Werner, and S. H. Christiansen, "The SERS and TERS effects obtained by gold droplets on top of Si nanowires," Nano Lett. 7, 75 - 80 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, A.

V. Senez, A. Armigliato, I. D. Wolf, G. Carnevale, R. Balboni, S. Frabboni, and A. Benedetti, "Strain determination in silicon microstructures by combined convergent beam electron diffraction, process simulation, and micro-Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5574 - 5583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Birkbeck, A. L.

Bolwien, C.

H. G. Frey, C. Bolwien, A. Brandenburg, R. Ros, and D. Anselmetti, "Optimized apertureless optical near-field probes with 15 nm optical resolution," Nanotechnology 17, 3105 - 3110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bonera, E.

E. Bonera, M. Fanciulli, and D. N. Batchelder, "Combining high resolution and tensorial analysis in Raman stress measurements of silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2729 - 2740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Bonera, M. Fanciulli, and D. N. Batchelder, "Raman spectroscopy for a micrometric and tensorial analysis of stress in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3377 - 3379 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, "Near-field photonics: tip-enhanced microscopy and spectroscopy on the nanoscale," J. Opt. A 8, S227 - S233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, C.

P. R. Chidambaram, C. Bowen, S. Chakravarthi, C. Machala, and R. Wise, "Fundamentals of silicon material properties for successful exploitation of strain engineering in modern CMOS manufacturing," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 53, 944 - 964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brandenburg, A.

H. G. Frey, C. Bolwien, A. Brandenburg, R. Ros, and D. Anselmetti, "Optimized apertureless optical near-field probes with 15 nm optical resolution," Nanotechnology 17, 3105 - 3110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burneau, A.

J. Grausem, B. Humbert, M. Spajer, D. Courjon, A. Burneau, and J. Oswalt, "Near-field Raman spectroscopy," J. Raman Specstrosc. 30, 833 - 840 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carnevale, G.

V. Senez, A. Armigliato, I. D. Wolf, G. Carnevale, R. Balboni, S. Frabboni, and A. Benedetti, "Strain determination in silicon microstructures by combined convergent beam electron diffraction, process simulation, and micro-Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5574 - 5583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chakravarthi, S.

P. R. Chidambaram, C. Bowen, S. Chakravarthi, C. Machala, and R. Wise, "Fundamentals of silicon material properties for successful exploitation of strain engineering in modern CMOS manufacturing," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 53, 944 - 964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

S. L. Wu, Y. M. Lin, S. J. Chang, S. C. Lu, P. S. Chen, and C. W. Liu, "Enhanced CMOS performances using substrate strained-SiGe and mechanical strained-Si technology," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 46 - 48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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J. Kim, J. H. Kim, K. B. Song, S. Q. Lee, E. K. Kim, S. E. Choi, Y. Lee, and K. H. Park, "Near-field imaging of surface plasmon on Au nano-dots fabricated by scanning probe lithography," J. Microsc. 209, 236 - 239 (2003).
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N. Lee, R. D. Hartschuh, D. Mehtani, A. Kisliuk, J. F. Maguire, M. Green, M. D. Foster, and A. P. Sokolov, "High constrast scanning nano-Raman spectroscopy of silicon," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 789 - 796 (2007).
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N. Lee, R. D. Hartschuh, D. Mehtani, A. Kisliuk, J. F. Maguire, M. Green, M. D. Foster, and A. P. Sokolov, "High constrast scanning nano-Raman spectroscopy of silicon," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 789 - 796 (2007).
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D. H. Pan, N. Klymyshyn, D. H. Hu, and H. P. Lu, "Tip-enhanced near-field Raman spectroscopy probing single dye-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093121 (2006).
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N. Lee, R. D. Hartschuh, D. Mehtani, A. Kisliuk, J. F. Maguire, M. Green, M. D. Foster, and A. P. Sokolov, "High constrast scanning nano-Raman spectroscopy of silicon," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 789 - 796 (2007).
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J. Kim, J. H. Kim, K. B. Song, S. Q. Lee, E. K. Kim, S. E. Choi, Y. Lee, and K. H. Park, "Near-field imaging of surface plasmon on Au nano-dots fabricated by scanning probe lithography," J. Microsc. 209, 236 - 239 (2003).
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J. Kim, J. H. Kim, K. B. Song, S. Q. Lee, E. K. Kim, S. E. Choi, Y. Lee, and K. H. Park, "Near-field imaging of surface plasmon on Au nano-dots fabricated by scanning probe lithography," J. Microsc. 209, 236 - 239 (2003).
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S. L. Wu, Y. M. Lin, S. J. Chang, S. C. Lu, P. S. Chen, and C. W. Liu, "Enhanced CMOS performances using substrate strained-SiGe and mechanical strained-Si technology," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 46 - 48 (2006).
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D. H. Pan, N. Klymyshyn, D. H. Hu, and H. P. Lu, "Tip-enhanced near-field Raman spectroscopy probing single dye-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093121 (2006).
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S. L. Wu, Y. M. Lin, S. J. Chang, S. C. Lu, P. S. Chen, and C. W. Liu, "Enhanced CMOS performances using substrate strained-SiGe and mechanical strained-Si technology," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 46 - 48 (2006).
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I. D. Wolf, H. E. Maes, and S. K. Jones, "Stress measurements in silicon devices through Raman spectroscopy: Bridging the gap between theory and experiment," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7148 - 7156 (1996).
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N. Lee, R. D. Hartschuh, D. Mehtani, A. Kisliuk, J. F. Maguire, M. Green, M. D. Foster, and A. P. Sokolov, "High constrast scanning nano-Raman spectroscopy of silicon," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 789 - 796 (2007).
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N. Lee, R. D. Hartschuh, D. Mehtani, A. Kisliuk, J. F. Maguire, M. Green, M. D. Foster, and A. P. Sokolov, "High constrast scanning nano-Raman spectroscopy of silicon," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 789 - 796 (2007).
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B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 - 7774 (2000).
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N. Lee, R. D. Hartschuh, D. Mehtani, A. Kisliuk, J. F. Maguire, M. Green, M. D. Foster, and A. P. Sokolov, "High constrast scanning nano-Raman spectroscopy of silicon," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 789 - 796 (2007).
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N. Lee, R. D. Hartschuh, D. Mehtani, A. Kisliuk, J. F. Maguire, M. Green, M. D. Foster, and A. P. Sokolov, "High constrast scanning nano-Raman spectroscopy of silicon," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 789 - 796 (2007).
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M. Becker, V. Sivakov, G. Andra, R. Geiger, J. Schreiber, S. Hoffmann, J. Michler, A. P. Milenin, P. Werner, and S. H. Christiansen, "The SERS and TERS effects obtained by gold droplets on top of Si nanowires," Nano Lett. 7, 75 - 80 (2007).
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M. Becker, V. Sivakov, G. Andra, R. Geiger, J. Schreiber, S. Hoffmann, J. Michler, A. P. Milenin, P. Werner, and S. H. Christiansen, "The SERS and TERS effects obtained by gold droplets on top of Si nanowires," Nano Lett. 7, 75 - 80 (2007).
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T. Mitani, S. Nakashima, H. Okumura, and A. Ogura, "Depth profiling of strain and defects in Si/Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures by micro-Raman imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073511 (2006).
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T. Mitani, S. Nakashima, H. Okumura, and A. Ogura, "Depth profiling of strain and defects in Si/Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures by micro-Raman imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073511 (2006).
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T. Mitani, S. Nakashima, H. Okumura, and A. Ogura, "Depth profiling of strain and defects in Si/Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures by micro-Raman imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073511 (2006).
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N. Hayazawa, M. Motohashi, Y. Saito, H. Ishitobi, A. Ono, T. Ichimura, P. Verma, and S. Kawata, "Visualization of localized strain of a crystalline thin layer at the nanoscale by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 684 - 696 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

Oswalt, J.

J. Grausem, B. Humbert, M. Spajer, D. Courjon, A. Burneau, and J. Oswalt, "Near-field Raman spectroscopy," J. Raman Specstrosc. 30, 833 - 840 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Othonos, A.

D. P. Tsai, A. Othonos, M. Moskovits, and D. Uttamchandani, "Raman spectroscopy using a fiber optic probe with subwavelength aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1768 - 1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ozkan, M.

Paesler, M. A.

C. L. Jahncke, M. A. Paesler, and H. D. Hallen, "Raman imaging with near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2483 - 2485 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pan, D. H.

D. H. Pan, N. Klymyshyn, D. H. Hu, and H. P. Lu, "Tip-enhanced near-field Raman spectroscopy probing single dye-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. H.

J. Kim, J. H. Kim, K. B. Song, S. Q. Lee, E. K. Kim, S. E. Choi, Y. Lee, and K. H. Park, "Near-field imaging of surface plasmon on Au nano-dots fabricated by scanning probe lithography," J. Microsc. 209, 236 - 239 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, D. J.

D. J. Paul, "Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, R75 - R108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Picardi, G.

R. Ossikovski, Q. Nguyen, and G. Picardi, "Simple model for the polarization effects in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 75, 045412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 - 7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Heinzelmann, and D. W. Pohl, "Combined aperture SNOM/PSTM: best of both worlds?," Ultramicroscopy 57, 228 - 234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution l/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 - 653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Qi, X. Y.

H. H. Liu, X. F. Duan, X. Y. Qi, Q. X. Xu, H. O. Li, and H. Qian, "Nanoscale strain analysis of strained-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors by large angle convergent-beam electron diffraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 263513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qian, H.

H. H. Liu, X. F. Duan, X. Y. Qi, Q. X. Xu, H. O. Li, and H. Qian, "Nanoscale strain analysis of strained-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors by large angle convergent-beam electron diffraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 263513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richards, D.

D. Richards, R. G. Milner, F. Huang, and F. Festy, "Tip-enhanced Raman microscopy: practicalities and limitations," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 663 - 667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ros, R.

H. G. Frey, C. Bolwien, A. Brandenburg, R. Ros, and D. Anselmetti, "Optimized apertureless optical near-field probes with 15 nm optical resolution," Nanotechnology 17, 3105 - 3110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saito, Y.

N. Hayazawa, M. Motohashi, Y. Saito, H. Ishitobi, A. Ono, T. Ichimura, P. Verma, and S. Kawata, "Visualization of localized strain of a crystalline thin layer at the nanoscale by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 684 - 696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Saito, M. Motohashi, N. Hayazawa, M. Iyoki, and S. Kawata, "Nanoscale characterization of strained silicon by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscope in reflection mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 143109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, J.

M. Becker, V. Sivakov, G. Andra, R. Geiger, J. Schreiber, S. Hoffmann, J. Michler, A. P. Milenin, P. Werner, and S. H. Christiansen, "The SERS and TERS effects obtained by gold droplets on top of Si nanowires," Nano Lett. 7, 75 - 80 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senez, V.

V. Senez, A. Armigliato, I. D. Wolf, G. Carnevale, R. Balboni, S. Frabboni, and A. Benedetti, "Strain determination in silicon microstructures by combined convergent beam electron diffraction, process simulation, and micro-Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5574 - 5583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shah, M. H.

Shen, Z. X.

W. X. Sun and Z. X. Shen, "Near-field scanning Raman microscopy using apertureless probes," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 668 - 676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sick, B.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 - 7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sivakov, V.

M. Becker, V. Sivakov, G. Andra, R. Geiger, J. Schreiber, S. Hoffmann, J. Michler, A. P. Milenin, P. Werner, and S. H. Christiansen, "The SERS and TERS effects obtained by gold droplets on top of Si nanowires," Nano Lett. 7, 75 - 80 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Christiansen, M. Becker, S. Fahlbusch, J. Michler, V. Sivakov, G. Andra, and R. Geiger, "Signal enhancement in nano-Raman spectroscopy by gold caps on silicon nanowires obtained by vapour-liquid-solid growth," Nanotechnology 18, 035503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, A. P.

N. Lee, R. D. Hartschuh, D. Mehtani, A. Kisliuk, J. F. Maguire, M. Green, M. D. Foster, and A. P. Sokolov, "High constrast scanning nano-Raman spectroscopy of silicon," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 789 - 796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Lee, R. D. Hartschuh, D. Mehtani, A. Kisliuk, J. F. Maguire, M. Green, M. D. Foster, and A. P. Sokolov, "High constrast scanning nano-Raman spectroscopy of silicon," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 789 - 796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, K. B.

J. Kim, J. H. Kim, K. B. Song, S. Q. Lee, E. K. Kim, S. E. Choi, Y. Lee, and K. H. Park, "Near-field imaging of surface plasmon on Au nano-dots fabricated by scanning probe lithography," J. Microsc. 209, 236 - 239 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spajer, M.

J. Grausem, B. Humbert, M. Spajer, D. Courjon, A. Burneau, and J. Oswalt, "Near-field Raman spectroscopy," J. Raman Specstrosc. 30, 833 - 840 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W. X.

W. X. Sun and Z. X. Shen, "Near-field scanning Raman microscopy using apertureless probes," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 668 - 676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taflove, A.

Takakura, Y.

Trachy, M. L.

Tsai, D. P.

D. P. Tsai, A. Othonos, M. Moskovits, and D. Uttamchandani, "Raman spectroscopy using a fiber optic probe with subwavelength aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1768 - 1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Uejima, K.

S. Nakashima, T. Yamamoto, A. Ogura, K. Uejima, and T. Yamamoto, "Characterization of Si/GexSi1-x structures by micro-Raman imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2533 - 2535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uttamchandani, D.

D. P. Tsai, A. Othonos, M. Moskovits, and D. Uttamchandani, "Raman spectroscopy using a fiber optic probe with subwavelength aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1768 - 1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Verma, P.

N. Hayazawa, M. Motohashi, Y. Saito, H. Ishitobi, A. Ono, T. Ichimura, P. Verma, and S. Kawata, "Visualization of localized strain of a crystalline thin layer at the nanoscale by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 684 - 696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Veshapidze, G.

Wang, H.

K. J. Yi, H. Wang, Y. F. Lu, and Z. Y. Yang, "Enhanced Raman scattering by self-assembled silica spherical microparticles," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Werner, P.

M. Becker, V. Sivakov, G. Andra, R. Geiger, J. Schreiber, S. Hoffmann, J. Michler, A. P. Milenin, P. Werner, and S. H. Christiansen, "The SERS and TERS effects obtained by gold droplets on top of Si nanowires," Nano Lett. 7, 75 - 80 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Scanning interferometric apertureless microscopy: Optical imaging at 10 Angstrom resolution," Science 269, 1083 - 1085 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wild, U. P.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 - 7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wise, R.

P. R. Chidambaram, C. Bowen, S. Chakravarthi, C. Machala, and R. Wise, "Fundamentals of silicon material properties for successful exploitation of strain engineering in modern CMOS manufacturing," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 53, 944 - 964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, I. D.

V. Senez, A. Armigliato, I. D. Wolf, G. Carnevale, R. Balboni, S. Frabboni, and A. Benedetti, "Strain determination in silicon microstructures by combined convergent beam electron diffraction, process simulation, and micro-Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5574 - 5583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Wolf, H. E. Maes, and S. K. Jones, "Stress measurements in silicon devices through Raman spectroscopy: Bridging the gap between theory and experiment," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7148 - 7156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. L.

S. L. Wu, Y. M. Lin, S. J. Chang, S. C. Lu, P. S. Chen, and C. W. Liu, "Enhanced CMOS performances using substrate strained-SiGe and mechanical strained-Si technology," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 46 - 48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. X.

H. H. Liu, X. F. Duan, X. Y. Qi, Q. X. Xu, H. O. Li, and H. Qian, "Nanoscale strain analysis of strained-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors by large angle convergent-beam electron diffraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 263513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

S. Nakashima, T. Yamamoto, A. Ogura, K. Uejima, and T. Yamamoto, "Characterization of Si/GexSi1-x structures by micro-Raman imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2533 - 2535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakashima, T. Yamamoto, A. Ogura, K. Uejima, and T. Yamamoto, "Characterization of Si/GexSi1-x structures by micro-Raman imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2533 - 2535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. Y.

K. J. Yi, H. Wang, Y. F. Lu, and Z. Y. Yang, "Enhanced Raman scattering by self-assembled silica spherical microparticles," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yi, K. J.

K. J. Yi, H. Wang, Y. F. Lu, and Z. Y. Yang, "Enhanced Raman scattering by self-assembled silica spherical microparticles," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zenhausern, F.

F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Scanning interferometric apertureless microscopy: Optical imaging at 10 Angstrom resolution," Science 269, 1083 - 1085 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zenobi, R.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 - 7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zlatanovic, S.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution l/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 - 653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Pan, N. Klymyshyn, D. H. Hu, and H. P. Lu, "Tip-enhanced near-field Raman spectroscopy probing single dye-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Tsai, A. Othonos, M. Moskovits, and D. Uttamchandani, "Raman spectroscopy using a fiber optic probe with subwavelength aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1768 - 1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Jahncke, M. A. Paesler, and H. D. Hallen, "Raman imaging with near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2483 - 2485 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Saito, M. Motohashi, N. Hayazawa, M. Iyoki, and S. Kawata, "Nanoscale characterization of strained silicon by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscope in reflection mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 143109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Anderson, "Locally enhanced Raman spectroscopy with an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3130 - 3132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Bonera, M. Fanciulli, and D. N. Batchelder, "Raman spectroscopy for a micrometric and tensorial analysis of stress in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3377 - 3379 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakashima, T. Yamamoto, A. Ogura, K. Uejima, and T. Yamamoto, "Characterization of Si/GexSi1-x structures by micro-Raman imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2533 - 2535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Liu, X. F. Duan, X. Y. Qi, Q. X. Xu, H. O. Li, and H. Qian, "Nanoscale strain analysis of strained-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors by large angle convergent-beam electron diffraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 263513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

S. L. Wu, Y. M. Lin, S. J. Chang, S. C. Lu, P. S. Chen, and C. W. Liu, "Enhanced CMOS performances using substrate strained-SiGe and mechanical strained-Si technology," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 46 - 48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev.

P. R. Chidambaram, C. Bowen, S. Chakravarthi, C. Machala, and R. Wise, "Fundamentals of silicon material properties for successful exploitation of strain engineering in modern CMOS manufacturing," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 53, 944 - 964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

E. Bonera, M. Fanciulli, and D. N. Batchelder, "Combining high resolution and tensorial analysis in Raman stress measurements of silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2729 - 2740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Yi, H. Wang, Y. F. Lu, and Z. Y. Yang, "Enhanced Raman scattering by self-assembled silica spherical microparticles," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Mitani, S. Nakashima, H. Okumura, and A. Ogura, "Depth profiling of strain and defects in Si/Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures by micro-Raman imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Anastassakis and E. Liarokapis, "Polycrystalline Si under strain: Elastic and lattice-dynamical considerations,"J. Appl. Phys. 62, 3346 - 3352 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. Senez, A. Armigliato, I. D. Wolf, G. Carnevale, R. Balboni, S. Frabboni, and A. Benedetti, "Strain determination in silicon microstructures by combined convergent beam electron diffraction, process simulation, and micro-Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5574 - 5583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Wolf, H. E. Maes, and S. K. Jones, "Stress measurements in silicon devices through Raman spectroscopy: Bridging the gap between theory and experiment," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7148 - 7156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 - 7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

J. Kim, J. H. Kim, K. B. Song, S. Q. Lee, E. K. Kim, S. E. Choi, Y. Lee, and K. H. Park, "Near-field imaging of surface plasmon on Au nano-dots fabricated by scanning probe lithography," J. Microsc. 209, 236 - 239 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, "Near-field photonics: tip-enhanced microscopy and spectroscopy on the nanoscale," J. Opt. A 8, S227 - S233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Specstrosc.

J. Grausem, B. Humbert, M. Spajer, D. Courjon, A. Burneau, and J. Oswalt, "Near-field Raman spectroscopy," J. Raman Specstrosc. 30, 833 - 840 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc.

D. Richards, R. G. Milner, F. Huang, and F. Festy, "Tip-enhanced Raman microscopy: practicalities and limitations," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 663 - 667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Lee, R. D. Hartschuh, D. Mehtani, A. Kisliuk, J. F. Maguire, M. Green, M. D. Foster, and A. P. Sokolov, "High constrast scanning nano-Raman spectroscopy of silicon," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 789 - 796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Sun and Z. X. Shen, "Near-field scanning Raman microscopy using apertureless probes," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 668 - 676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Hayazawa, M. Motohashi, Y. Saito, H. Ishitobi, A. Ono, T. Ichimura, P. Verma, and S. Kawata, "Visualization of localized strain of a crystalline thin layer at the nanoscale by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 684 - 696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Lee, R. D. Hartschuh, D. Mehtani, A. Kisliuk, J. F. Maguire, M. Green, M. D. Foster, and A. P. Sokolov, "High constrast scanning nano-Raman spectroscopy of silicon," J. Raman Spectrosc. 38, 789 - 796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Materials Today

N. Anderson, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, "Near-field Raman microscopy," Materials Today 8, 50 - 54 (2005).

Nano Lett.

M. Becker, V. Sivakov, G. Andra, R. Geiger, J. Schreiber, S. Hoffmann, J. Michler, A. P. Milenin, P. Werner, and S. H. Christiansen, "The SERS and TERS effects obtained by gold droplets on top of Si nanowires," Nano Lett. 7, 75 - 80 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology

S. H. Christiansen, M. Becker, S. Fahlbusch, J. Michler, V. Sivakov, G. Andra, and R. Geiger, "Signal enhancement in nano-Raman spectroscopy by gold caps on silicon nanowires obtained by vapour-liquid-solid growth," Nanotechnology 18, 035503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Frey, C. Bolwien, A. Brandenburg, R. Ros, and D. Anselmetti, "Optimized apertureless optical near-field probes with 15 nm optical resolution," Nanotechnology 17, 3105 - 3110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

R. Ossikovski, Q. Nguyen, and G. Picardi, "Simple model for the polarization effects in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 75, 045412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

A. Ashkin, "Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4853 - 4860 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

A. Ashkin, "Applications of laser radiation pressure," Science 210, 1081 - 1088 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Scanning interferometric apertureless microscopy: Optical imaging at 10 Angstrom resolution," Science 269, 1083 - 1085 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

D. J. Paul, "Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, R75 - R108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy

B. Hecht, H. Heinzelmann, and D. W. Pohl, "Combined aperture SNOM/PSTM: best of both worlds?," Ultramicroscopy 57, 228 - 234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Schematic diagram of the near-field Raman microscope with microsphere. (b) Detailed description of the sample cell: (1) water immersion lens (60X NA=1.2 WATER IMMERSION), (2) water, (3) focused laser, (4) cover glass, (5) polystyrene microsphere (3 mm), (6) sample, and (7) sample cell. (c) Typical Si-Si Raman intensity vs position with the best fit to equation 1 to determine the laser spot size. The spot size of the beam - the full width at half maximum (FWHM), was calculated to be 78 nm. Inset shows the integrated G-band intensity vs position of a 2-layer graphene sheet. The calculated spot size is 84 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The Raman spectra from (a) SiGe and (b) poly-Si lines with fitted peaks using Lorentzian function. In spectrum a, the Raman peak at 510.4 cm-1 corresponds to Si-Si phonon vibrations from SiGe, while the peaks at 518.9 and 520.6 cm-1 belong to tensile-strained Si just below the SiGe and the bulk Si substrate, respectively. In spectrum b, the Raman peaks at 516.3, 520.6 and 522.1 cm-1 correspond to Si-Si phonon vibrations of poly-Si, bulk Si substrate and compressively strained Si in the channel region, respectively. (c) Scanning Electron micrograph with cross-section view diagram of periodic poly-Si lines and SiGe stressors. Line-scan of Raman Si-Si intensity from SiGe is shown in yellow color, and the Si-Si peak position from the bulk Si is in purple color. The line scans show excellent correspondence with the structure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) and (b) are 4.0×1.3 µm2 near-field and confocal Raman images of the periodic poly-Si lines and SiGe stressors obtained in about six minutes, respectively, generated from the Si-Si peak intensity from SiGe. (c) 3D near-field Raman image from Si-Si peak position showing the relative strain at different regions.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) and (b) are 5.0×5.0 µm2 near-field and confocal Raman images of the gold nanopatterns, respectively, generated using Si Raman peak intensity from the substrate. The white dots illustrate the gold nanopatterns on the substrate. Inset shows the SEM image of the gold nanopatterns with the size of the nanopatterns is ~100 nm.

Equations (1)

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I ( x ) = P 2 { 1 erf ( 2 ( x x o ) w ) }

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