Abstract

The aim of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive analysis of coupling losses in perfluorinated (PF) multi-core polymer optical fibers (MC-POFs), which consist of groups of 127 graded-index cores. In our analysis we take into account geometrical, longitudinal, transverse, and angular misalignments. We perform several experimental measurements and computer simulations in order to calculate the coupling losses for a PF MC-POF prototype. Based on these results, we propose several hints of practical interest to the manufacturer which would allow an appropriate connector design in order to handle conveniently the coupling losses incurred when connectorizing two PF MC-POFs.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Munekuni, S. Katsuta, and S. Teshima, "Plastic Optical Fiber for High-Speed Transmisssion," in Proceedings of the third international conference on plastic optical fibers and applications-POF’94, pp. 148-151 (Yokohama (Japan), 1994).
  2. Asahi Glass Product Informatio, URL http://www.agc.co.jp/english/chemicals/shinsei/cytop/cytop.htm.
  3. C. Tanaka, K. Kogenazawa, T. Ohnishi, K. Kurashima, G. Ogawa, M. Sato, N. Ota, and M. Naritomi, "Development of multi-core perfluorinated POF," in Proceedings of the fifteenth international conference on plastic optical fibers and applications-POF’06, pp. 152-156 (Seoul (Corea), 2006).
  4. D. Gloge, "Offset and tilt loss in optical fiber splices," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 905-916 (1976).
  5. T. C. Chu and A. R. McCormick, "Measurements of loss due to offset, end separation, and angular misalignment in graded index fibers excited by an incoherent source," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 595-602 (1978).
  6. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical waveguide theory (Chapman and Hall, London, 1983).
  7. Asahi Glass Co., Ltd. URL http://www.agc.co.jp.
  8. B. Lohmüller, A. Bachmann, O. Ziemann, A. Sawaki, H. Shirai, and K. Suzuki, "The use of LEPAS System for POF characterization," in 11th international POF conference 2002: Proceedings, pp. 263-266 (Tokyo (Japan), 2002).
  9. Hamamatsu Photonics, URL http://sales.hamamatsu.com/en/products.php.
  10. R. W. Waynant and M. N. Ediger, eds., Electro-optics handbook, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2000).
  11. G. E. Agrawal, Fiber-optic communication systems, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Marcuse, Theory of dielectric waveguides (Academic Press, San Diego, 1974).
  13. D. Gloge, "Weakly guiding fibers," Appl. Opt. 10, 2252-2258 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Gloge and E. A. J. Marcatili, "Multimode theory of graded-core fibers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563-1578 (1973).
  15. J. Arrue, G. Aldabaldetreku, G. Durana, J. Zubia, and F. Jiménez, "Computational research on the behaviour of bent plastic optical fibres in communications links and sensing applications," in Recent research developments in optics, S. G. Pandalai, ed., vol. 5, chap. 5 (Research Signpost, Kerala (India), 2005).
  16. T. Ishigure, "WKB Method for POF Modelling," in POF Modelling: Theory, Measurement and Application, C.-A. Bunge and H. Poisel, ed., (Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt (Germany), 2008).
  17. J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena: Theory and Applications, 1st ed. (Roberts & Company, 2006).

1978

T. C. Chu and A. R. McCormick, "Measurements of loss due to offset, end separation, and angular misalignment in graded index fibers excited by an incoherent source," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 595-602 (1978).

1976

D. Gloge, "Offset and tilt loss in optical fiber splices," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 905-916 (1976).

1973

D. Gloge and E. A. J. Marcatili, "Multimode theory of graded-core fibers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563-1578 (1973).

1971

Chu, T. C.

T. C. Chu and A. R. McCormick, "Measurements of loss due to offset, end separation, and angular misalignment in graded index fibers excited by an incoherent source," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 595-602 (1978).

Gloge, D.

D. Gloge, "Offset and tilt loss in optical fiber splices," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 905-916 (1976).

D. Gloge and E. A. J. Marcatili, "Multimode theory of graded-core fibers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563-1578 (1973).

D. Gloge, "Weakly guiding fibers," Appl. Opt. 10, 2252-2258 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

D. Gloge and E. A. J. Marcatili, "Multimode theory of graded-core fibers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563-1578 (1973).

McCormick, A. R.

T. C. Chu and A. R. McCormick, "Measurements of loss due to offset, end separation, and angular misalignment in graded index fibers excited by an incoherent source," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 595-602 (1978).

Appl. Opt.

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

D. Gloge and E. A. J. Marcatili, "Multimode theory of graded-core fibers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563-1578 (1973).

D. Gloge, "Offset and tilt loss in optical fiber splices," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 905-916 (1976).

T. C. Chu and A. R. McCormick, "Measurements of loss due to offset, end separation, and angular misalignment in graded index fibers excited by an incoherent source," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 595-602 (1978).

Other

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical waveguide theory (Chapman and Hall, London, 1983).

Asahi Glass Co., Ltd. URL http://www.agc.co.jp.

B. Lohmüller, A. Bachmann, O. Ziemann, A. Sawaki, H. Shirai, and K. Suzuki, "The use of LEPAS System for POF characterization," in 11th international POF conference 2002: Proceedings, pp. 263-266 (Tokyo (Japan), 2002).

Hamamatsu Photonics, URL http://sales.hamamatsu.com/en/products.php.

R. W. Waynant and M. N. Ediger, eds., Electro-optics handbook, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2000).

G. E. Agrawal, Fiber-optic communication systems, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Marcuse, Theory of dielectric waveguides (Academic Press, San Diego, 1974).

J. Arrue, G. Aldabaldetreku, G. Durana, J. Zubia, and F. Jiménez, "Computational research on the behaviour of bent plastic optical fibres in communications links and sensing applications," in Recent research developments in optics, S. G. Pandalai, ed., vol. 5, chap. 5 (Research Signpost, Kerala (India), 2005).

T. Ishigure, "WKB Method for POF Modelling," in POF Modelling: Theory, Measurement and Application, C.-A. Bunge and H. Poisel, ed., (Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt (Germany), 2008).

J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena: Theory and Applications, 1st ed. (Roberts & Company, 2006).

H. Munekuni, S. Katsuta, and S. Teshima, "Plastic Optical Fiber for High-Speed Transmisssion," in Proceedings of the third international conference on plastic optical fibers and applications-POF’94, pp. 148-151 (Yokohama (Japan), 1994).

Asahi Glass Product Informatio, URL http://www.agc.co.jp/english/chemicals/shinsei/cytop/cytop.htm.

C. Tanaka, K. Kogenazawa, T. Ohnishi, K. Kurashima, G. Ogawa, M. Sato, N. Ota, and M. Naritomi, "Development of multi-core perfluorinated POF," in Proceedings of the fifteenth international conference on plastic optical fibers and applications-POF’06, pp. 152-156 (Seoul (Corea), 2006).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross-section photograph of the investigated PF MC-POF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental set-up used to measure coupling losses of PF MC-POFs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Definition of the polar-angle misalignment.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental near- and far-fields of the investigated PF MC-POF for a green LED. Both power distributions have been measured at the exit of the transmitting fiber.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental near- and far-fields of the transmitting fiber for the sources of different numerical aperture.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Near- and far-fields of the transmitting fiber for the green LED used in the numerical computer simulations.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Dependence of coupling losses on the polar angle misalignment of the investigated PF MC-POF for a green LED. θ 0 denotes an arbitrary polar angle of the transmitting fiber.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Coupling loss against polar angle misalignment in the absence of any other mechanical misalignment for the green LED. The value in degrees indicate the polar-angle where the coupling loss is maximum.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Coupling loss against normalized longitudinal separation s/a for various transverse offsets and for a green LED. Experimental and numerical results.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Coupling loss against normalized longitudinal separation s/a for various transverse offsets and for sources of different numerical aperture.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Coupling loss against normalized transverse offset d/a for various longitudinal separations and for a green LED. Experimental and numerical results.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Coupling loss against normalized transverse offset d/a for various longitudinal separations and for sources of different numerical aperture.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Coupling loss against angular misalignment α (in degrees) for a green LED. Experimental and numerical results.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Specifications of the investigated MC-POF.

Equations (2)

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V = 2 π ρ λ N A ,
M g g + 2 V 2 2 ,

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