Abstract

This work demonstrates that arbitrary types of spatially modulated second-order susceptibility (χ(2)) structures such as 1D and 2D, periodic and quasi-periodic structures can be obtained by using the combination of corona poling and direct laser writing (DLW) techniques. The fabrication technique is based on the photodepoling of azo-dye molecules caused by one-photon or two-photon absorption during the DLW process. Polarization and second harmonic generation (SHG) images of the fabricated structures were measured by electrostatic force microscope and SHG mapping techniques, respectively. Furthermore, quasi-phase-matched (QPM) enhanced SHG from a 1D periodically poled azo-copolymer planar waveguide is demonstrated using an optical parametric oscillator laser by scanning wavelength from 1500 to 1600 nm. The resonant wavelength of the QPM enhanced SHG is peaked at 1537 nm with FWHM≅2.5nm.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007

2006

2005

2004

M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, J. Kim, J. Y. Do, M.-S. Kim, S. K. Park, S. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled nonlinear polymer waveguides," Opt. Lett. 29, 89-91 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

G. Martin, S. Ducci, R. Hierle, D. Josse, and J. Zyss, "Quasiphase matched second-harmonic generation from periodic optical randomization of poled polymer channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1086-1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Dianoux, F. Martins, F. Marchi, C. Alandi, F. Comin, and J. Chevrier, "Detection of electrostatic forces with an atomic force microscope: Analytical and experimental dynamic force curves in the nonlinear regime," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Void channel microstructures in resin solids as an efficient way to infrared photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1649 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

N.G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, "Hexagonal poled lithium niobate: a two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345-4347 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Saltiel and Y. Kivshar, "Phase matching in nonlinear ?(2) photonic crystals," Opt. Lett. 25, 1204-1206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Sugihara, M. Nakanishi, Y. Che, C. Egami, Y. Kawata, and N. Okamoto, "Single-pulse ultraviolet laser recording of periodically poled structures in polymer thin films," Appl. Opt. 39, 5632-5637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Churikov and C. C. Hsu, "Optical control of third-harmonic generation in azo-doped polymethylmethacrylate thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2095-2097 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. Kim, Y.-K. Choi, and M.-H. Lee, "Photoinduced refractive index change of a photochromic diarylethene polymer," Macromolecules,  32, 4855-4860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

V. Berger, "Nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4136-4139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, "Single laser beam-induced surface deformation on azobenzene polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817-1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamato, "Fabrication of ?(2) grating in poled polymer waveguide based on direct laser beam writing," Opt. Rev. 5, 9-11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Sugihara, Y. Che, N. Okamoto, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and S. Umegaki, "High-resolution periodically poled structure in diazo-dye-substituted polymer film based on direct electron-beam writing technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3028-3030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. Shuto, T. Watanabe, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, M. Hikita, and M. Amano, "Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 349-357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, "Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183-1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, and M. Asobe, "Quasi-phase-mateched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760-1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, E. F. Aust, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, "Light induced orientation in a high glass transition temperature polyimide with polar azo dyes in the side chain," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1713-1724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, "Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse one-doped and functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films," Chem. Mater. 5, 229-236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and Tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, and E. W. Meijer, "Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435-437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

G. Kanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, "Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977-979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1962

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Alandi, C.

R. Dianoux, F. Martins, F. Marchi, C. Alandi, F. Comin, and J. Chevrier, "Detection of electrostatic forces with an atomic force microscope: Analytical and experimental dynamic force curves in the nonlinear regime," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Amano, M.

Y. Shuto, T. Watanabe, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, M. Hikita, and M. Amano, "Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 349-357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, and M. Asobe, "Quasi-phase-mateched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760-1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, and M. Asobe, "Quasi-phase-mateched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760-1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aust, E. F.

Bauer, S.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, "Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183-1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berger, V.

V. Berger, "Nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4136-4139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bian, S.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, "Single laser beam-induced surface deformation on azobenzene polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817-1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Boeglin, A.

Bratfalean, R. J.

Brinker, W.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, "Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183-1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, N. G. R.

Broderick, N.G. R.

N.G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, "Hexagonal poled lithium niobate: a two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345-4347 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and Tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Che, Y.

O. Sugihara, M. Nakanishi, Y. Che, C. Egami, Y. Kawata, and N. Okamoto, "Single-pulse ultraviolet laser recording of periodically poled structures in polymer thin films," Appl. Opt. 39, 5632-5637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Sugihara, Y. Che, N. Okamoto, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and S. Umegaki, "High-resolution periodically poled structure in diazo-dye-substituted polymer film based on direct electron-beam writing technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3028-3030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chevrier, J.

R. Dianoux, F. Martins, F. Marchi, C. Alandi, F. Comin, and J. Chevrier, "Detection of electrostatic forces with an atomic force microscope: Analytical and experimental dynamic force curves in the nonlinear regime," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.-K.

E. Kim, Y.-K. Choi, and M.-H. Lee, "Photoinduced refractive index change of a photochromic diarylethene polymer," Macromolecules,  32, 4855-4860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Churikov, V. M.

V. M. Churikov and C. C. Hsu, "Optical control of third-harmonic generation in azo-doped polymethylmethacrylate thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2095-2097 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Comin, F.

R. Dianoux, F. Martins, F. Marchi, C. Alandi, F. Comin, and J. Chevrier, "Detection of electrostatic forces with an atomic force microscope: Analytical and experimental dynamic force curves in the nonlinear regime," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delaire, J. A.

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, "Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse one-doped and functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films," Chem. Mater. 5, 229-236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dianoux, R.

R. Dianoux, F. Martins, F. Marchi, C. Alandi, F. Comin, and J. Chevrier, "Detection of electrostatic forces with an atomic force microscope: Analytical and experimental dynamic force curves in the nonlinear regime," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Do, J. Y.

Dorkenoo, K. D.

Ducci, S.

G. Martin, S. Ducci, R. Hierle, D. Josse, and J. Zyss, "Quasiphase matched second-harmonic generation from periodic optical randomization of poled polymer channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1086-1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, M.

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, "Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse one-doped and functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films," Chem. Mater. 5, 229-236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Egami, C.

O. Sugihara, M. Nakanishi, Y. Che, C. Egami, Y. Kawata, and N. Okamoto, "Single-pulse ultraviolet laser recording of periodically poled structures in polymer thin films," Appl. Opt. 39, 5632-5637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Sugihara, Y. Che, N. Okamoto, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and S. Umegaki, "High-resolution periodically poled structure in diazo-dye-substituted polymer film based on direct electron-beam writing technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3028-3030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and Tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feuer, B.

G. Kanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, "Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977-979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fort, A.

Fujimura, H.

O. Sugihara, Y. Che, N. Okamoto, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and S. Umegaki, "High-resolution periodically poled structure in diazo-dye-substituted polymer film based on direct electron-beam writing technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3028-3030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gindre, D.

Gu, M.

M. J. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Void channel microstructures in resin solids as an efficient way to infrared photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1649 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haas, D.

G. Kanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, "Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977-979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

N.G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, "Hexagonal poled lithium niobate: a two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345-4347 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hierle, R.

G. Martin, S. Ducci, R. Hierle, D. Josse, and J. Zyss, "Quasiphase matched second-harmonic generation from periodic optical randomization of poled polymer channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1086-1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hikita, M.

Y. Shuto, T. Watanabe, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, M. Hikita, and M. Amano, "Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 349-357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, and M. Asobe, "Quasi-phase-mateched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760-1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Horsthuis, W. H. G.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, "Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183-1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. C.

N. D. Lai, J. H. Lin, W. P. Liang, and C. C. Hsu, "Precisely introducing defects into periodic structures by using a double-step laser scanning technique," Appl. Opt. 45, 5777-5782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Churikov and C. C. Hsu, "Optical control of third-harmonic generation in azo-doped polymethylmethacrylate thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2095-2097 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ishitobi, H.

Jager, M.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, "Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183-1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Josse, D.

G. Martin, S. Ducci, R. Hierle, D. Josse, and J. Zyss, "Quasiphase matched second-harmonic generation from periodic optical randomization of poled polymer channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1086-1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J. J.

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and Tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, and M. Asobe, "Quasi-phase-mateched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760-1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kanarian, G.

G. Kanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, "Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977-979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Karim, D.

G. Kanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, "Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977-979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Kawata, Y.

Kim, D. Y.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, "Single laser beam-induced surface deformation on azobenzene polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817-1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.

E. Kim, Y.-K. Choi, and M.-H. Lee, "Photoinduced refractive index change of a photochromic diarylethene polymer," Macromolecules,  32, 4855-4860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, M.-S.

Kivshar, Y.

Knoll, W.

Kumar, J.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, "Single laser beam-induced surface deformation on azobenzene polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817-1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lai, N. D.

Lee, M.-H.

J. J. Ju, J. Kim, J. Y. Do, M.-S. Kim, S. K. Park, S. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled nonlinear polymer waveguides," Opt. Lett. 29, 89-91 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kim, Y.-K. Choi, and M.-H. Lee, "Photoinduced refractive index change of a photochromic diarylethene polymer," Macromolecules,  32, 4855-4860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, "Single laser beam-induced surface deformation on azobenzene polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817-1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W. P.

Lin, J. H.

Loucif-Saibi, R.

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, "Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse one-doped and functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films," Chem. Mater. 5, 229-236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M.

M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and Tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marchi, F.

R. Dianoux, F. Martins, F. Marchi, C. Alandi, F. Comin, and J. Chevrier, "Detection of electrostatic forces with an atomic force microscope: Analytical and experimental dynamic force curves in the nonlinear regime," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marger, L.

Martin, G.

G. Martin, S. Ducci, R. Hierle, D. Josse, and J. Zyss, "Quasiphase matched second-harmonic generation from periodic optical randomization of poled polymer channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1086-1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martins, F.

R. Dianoux, F. Martins, F. Marchi, C. Alandi, F. Comin, and J. Chevrier, "Detection of electrostatic forces with an atomic force microscope: Analytical and experimental dynamic force curves in the nonlinear regime," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, E. W.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, and E. W. Meijer, "Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435-437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. D.

Mohlmann, G. R.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, "Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183-1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, M.

O. Sugihara, M. Nakanishi, Y. Che, C. Egami, Y. Kawata, and N. Okamoto, "Single-pulse ultraviolet laser recording of periodically poled structures in polymer thin films," Appl. Opt. 39, 5632-5637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamato, "Fabrication of ?(2) grating in poled polymer waveguide based on direct laser beam writing," Opt. Rev. 5, 9-11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakatani, K.

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, "Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse one-doped and functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films," Chem. Mater. 5, 229-236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamato, "Fabrication of ?(2) grating in poled polymer waveguide based on direct laser beam writing," Opt. Rev. 5, 9-11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nijhuis, S.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, and E. W. Meijer, "Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435-437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

G. Kanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, "Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977-979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Offerhaus, H. L.

N.G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, "Hexagonal poled lithium niobate: a two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345-4347 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamato, N.

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamato, "Fabrication of ?(2) grating in poled polymer waveguide based on direct laser beam writing," Opt. Rev. 5, 9-11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, N.

O. Sugihara, M. Nakanishi, Y. Che, C. Egami, Y. Kawata, and N. Okamoto, "Single-pulse ultraviolet laser recording of periodically poled structures in polymer thin films," Appl. Opt. 39, 5632-5637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Sugihara, Y. Che, N. Okamoto, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and S. Umegaki, "High-resolution periodically poled structure in diazo-dye-substituted polymer film based on direct electron-beam writing technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3028-3030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

Park, S. K.

Peacock, A. C.

Pershan, P. S.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

N.G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, "Hexagonal poled lithium niobate: a two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345-4347 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rikken, G. L. J. A.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, and E. W. Meijer, "Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435-437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ross, G. W.

N.G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, "Hexagonal poled lithium niobate: a two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345-4347 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saltiel, S.

Sekkat, Z.

H. Ishitobi, M. Tanabe, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "The anisotropic nanomovement of azo-polymers," Opt. Express 15, 652-659 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Photo-orientation by multiphoton photonselection," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 868-872 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, E. F. Aust, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, "Light induced orientation in a high glass transition temperature polyimide with polar azo dyes in the side chain," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1713-1724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, "Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse one-doped and functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films," Chem. Mater. 5, 229-236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Seppen, C. J. E.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, and E. W. Meijer, "Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435-437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shuto, Y.

Y. Shuto, T. Watanabe, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, M. Hikita, and M. Amano, "Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 349-357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, and M. Asobe, "Quasi-phase-mateched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760-1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, "Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183-1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Straub, M.

M. J. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Void channel microstructures in resin solids as an efficient way to infrared photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1649 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, O.

O. Sugihara, M. Nakanishi, Y. Che, C. Egami, Y. Kawata, and N. Okamoto, "Single-pulse ultraviolet laser recording of periodically poled structures in polymer thin films," Appl. Opt. 39, 5632-5637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Sugihara, Y. Che, N. Okamoto, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and S. Umegaki, "High-resolution periodically poled structure in diazo-dye-substituted polymer film based on direct electron-beam writing technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3028-3030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamato, "Fabrication of ?(2) grating in poled polymer waveguide based on direct laser beam writing," Opt. Rev. 5, 9-11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, M.

Tomaru, S.

Y. Shuto, T. Watanabe, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, M. Hikita, and M. Amano, "Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 349-357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, and M. Asobe, "Quasi-phase-mateched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760-1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, "Single laser beam-induced surface deformation on azobenzene polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817-1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Umegaki, S.

O. Sugihara, Y. Che, N. Okamoto, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and S. Umegaki, "High-resolution periodically poled structure in diazo-dye-substituted polymer film based on direct electron-beam writing technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3028-3030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ventura, M. J.

M. J. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Void channel microstructures in resin solids as an efficient way to infrared photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1649 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Volksen, W.

Watanabe, T.

Y. Shuto, T. Watanabe, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, M. Hikita, and M. Amano, "Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 349-357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, and M. Asobe, "Quasi-phase-mateched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760-1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, "Single laser beam-induced surface deformation on azobenzene polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817-1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wood, J.

Yilmaz, S.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, "Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183-1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yokohama, I.

Y. Shuto, T. Watanabe, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, M. Hikita, and M. Amano, "Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 349-357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yokohoma, I.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, and M. Asobe, "Quasi-phase-mateched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760-1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

G. Martin, S. Ducci, R. Hierle, D. Josse, and J. Zyss, "Quasiphase matched second-harmonic generation from periodic optical randomization of poled polymer channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1086-1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Churikov and C. C. Hsu, "Optical control of third-harmonic generation in azo-doped polymethylmethacrylate thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2095-2097 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, "Single laser beam-induced surface deformation on azobenzene polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817-1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Void channel microstructures in resin solids as an efficient way to infrared photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1649 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Kanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, "Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977-979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, and E. W. Meijer, "Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435-437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

O. Sugihara, Y. Che, N. Okamoto, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and S. Umegaki, "High-resolution periodically poled structure in diazo-dye-substituted polymer film based on direct electron-beam writing technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3028-3030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, "Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183-1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohoma, T. Kaino, and M. Asobe, "Quasi-phase-mateched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760-1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Martin, S. Ducci, R. Hierle, D. Josse, and J. Zyss, "Quasiphase matched second-harmonic generation from periodic optical randomization of poled polymer channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1086-1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, "Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse one-doped and functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films," Chem. Mater. 5, 229-236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and Tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, T. Watanabe, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, M. Hikita, and M. Amano, "Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 349-357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Macromolecules

E. Kim, Y.-K. Choi, and M.-H. Lee, "Photoinduced refractive index change of a photochromic diarylethene polymer," Macromolecules,  32, 4855-4860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Rev.

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamato, "Fabrication of ?(2) grating in poled polymer waveguide based on direct laser beam writing," Opt. Rev. 5, 9-11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

R. Dianoux, F. Martins, F. Marchi, C. Alandi, F. Comin, and J. Chevrier, "Detection of electrostatic forces with an atomic force microscope: Analytical and experimental dynamic force curves in the nonlinear regime," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

V. Berger, "Nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4136-4139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N.G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, "Hexagonal poled lithium niobate: a two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345-4347 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. Lifshitz, A. Arie, and A. Bahabad, "Photonic quasicrystals for nonlinear optical frequency conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 133901-133901-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, J. W. M. Chon, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, "Two photon energy transfer enhanced three-dimensional optical memory in quantum-dot and azo-dye doped polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 063309-063309-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Ordering of azobenzens by two-photon isomerization," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164718-164718-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Sekkat and W. Knoll, Photoreactive Organic Thin Films (Academic Press, USA, 2002).

P. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (John Wiley & Sons, USA, 1991).

D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic Press, USA, 1987).

J. Zyss, Molecular Nonlinear Optics Materials, Physics, and Devices (Academic Press, USA, 1994).

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frederick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, "Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221110(1-3) (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Absorption spectrum and molecular structure of the DR1-PMMA copolymer. (b) Direct laser writing setup for fabricating χ(2) spatial modulated structures. L: lens; OL: objective lens; Mj (j=1,2,3): mirrors; λ/2: half-wave plate; λ/4: quarter-wave plate; PBS: polarized beam splitter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) 40×40 µm2 SHG image,and (b)-(c) 30×30 µm2 AFM image and EFM image (with line profiles along the horizontal line at each top) of a 1D χ(2) grating in a poled azo-copolymer thin film fabricated by DLW technique. The dashed lines in (a) and (c) indicate the line centers of the poled regions

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The SHG mapping images in poled azo-copolymer thin films measured by the SHG mapping technique. (a) 2D hexagonal χ(2) structure and (b) 2D circular χ(2) structure with period=4 µm, both fabricated by two-photon absorption DLW technique.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The TM mode (p-polarized) bulk refractive index of a corona poled azo-copolymer thin film as a function of wavelength. The dots are the experimental data measured by prism coupler technique and the red-solid line is the fit to the Sellmeier equation. A, B, and C in the inset are the fitting parameters. (b) The calculated QPM period value as a function of the fundamental wavelength for a 1D+/0 χ(2) grating, assuming a TM-in TM-out geometry, and ignoring waveguide dispersion effects

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Experimental set up for measuring QPM SHG output spectra from a 1D periodic poled azo-copolymer planar waveguide. L1: focusing lens (f=1cm); L2: collecting lens (f=3cm); P1 and P2: polarizer; λ/2: half-wave plate. (b) SHG output spectra obtained by scanning fundamental wavelength from 1500 nm to 1565nm. Inset: close-up of the QPM SHG resonance mode peak at 768.5 nm. The FWHM of the resonant mode is 2.5 nm.

Equations (2)

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n 2 ( λ ) = A + ( B × λ 2 λ 2 C ) ,
Λ q = q Λ = q λ F 2 ( n 2 ω n ω )

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