Abstract

We describe the electronic control of extraordinary terahertz transmission through subwavelength metal hole arrays fabricated on doped semiconductor substrates. The hybrid metal-semiconductor forms a Schottky diode structure, where the active depletion region modifies the substrate conductivity in real-time by applying an external voltage bias. This enables effective control of the resonance enhanced terahertz transmission. Our proof of principle device achieves an intensity modulation depth of 52% by changing the voltage bias between 0 and 16 volts. Further optimization may result in improvement of device performance and practical applications. This approach can be also translated to the other optical frequency ranges.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, "Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381-1383 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nature Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H.-T. Chen, J. F. O??Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, "Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials," Opt. Express 15, 1084-1095 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Opt. Lett. 32, 1620-1622 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. N?mec, P. Kužel, F. Garet, and L. Duvillaret, "Time-domain terahertz study of defect formation in onedimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Opt. 43, 1965-1970 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. N?mec, P. Kužel, L. Duvillaret, A. Pashkin, M. Dressel, and M. T. Sebastian, "Highly tunable photonic crystal filter for the terahertz range," Opt. Lett. 30, 549-551 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Fekete, F. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and H. N?mec, "Ultrafast opto-terahertz photonic crystal modulator," Opt. Lett. 32, 680-682 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Savel??ev, A. L. Rakhmanov, and F. Nori, "Using Josephson vortex lattices to control terahertz radiation: tunable transparency and terahertz photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 157004 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Savel??ev, A. L. Rakhmanov, and F. Nori, "Josephson vortex lattices as scatterers of terahertz radiation: Giant magneto-optical effect and Doppler effect using terahertz tunable photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 74, 184512 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. G. Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 201306(R) (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, "Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength metallic hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 29, 896-898 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Cao and A. Nahata, "Resonantly enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures," Opt. Express 12, 1004-1010 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Tanaka, F. Miyamaru, M. Hangyo, T. Tanaka, M. Akazawa, and E. Sano, "Effect of a thin dielectric layer on terahertz transmission characteristics for metal hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 30, 1210-1212 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures," Nature 446, 517-521 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. W. Zhang, A. K. Azad, J. Han, J. Xu, J. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Direct observation of a transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 183901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T.W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. K. Azad and W. Zhang, "Resonant terahertz transmission in subwavelength metallic hole arrays of sub-skindepth thickness," Opt. Lett. 30, 2945-2947 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, D. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, Ch. Lienau, Q.-H. Park, and P. C. M. Planken, "Shape resonance omni-directional terahertz filters with near-unity transmittance," Opt. Express 14, 1253-1259 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. Wasserman, E. A. Shaner, and J. G. Cederberg, "Midinfrared doping-tunable extraordinary transmission from sub-wavelength gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, "High-contrast modulation of light with light by control of surface plasmon polariton wave coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3369-3371 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. C. Janke, J. G. Rivas, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "All-optical switching of the transmission of electromagnetic radiation through subwavelength apertures," Opt. Lett. 30, 2357-2359 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. Dintinger, I. Robel, P. V. Kamat, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Terahertz all-optical molecule-plasmon modulation," Adv. Mater. 18, 1645-1648 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, "Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 24, 256-258 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  31. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833-5835 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Park and S. H. Song, "Polymeric variable optical attenuator based on long range surface plasmon polaritons," Electron. Lett. 42402-403 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 20062015 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2007

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O??Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, "Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials," Opt. Express 15, 1084-1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Opt. Lett. 32, 1620-1622 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fekete, F. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and H. N?mec, "Ultrafast opto-terahertz photonic crystal modulator," Opt. Lett. 32, 680-682 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures," Nature 446, 517-521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, A. K. Azad, J. Han, J. Xu, J. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Direct observation of a transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wasserman, E. A. Shaner, and J. G. Cederberg, "Midinfrared doping-tunable extraordinary transmission from sub-wavelength gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, D. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, Ch. Lienau, Q.-H. Park, and P. C. M. Planken, "Shape resonance omni-directional terahertz filters with near-unity transmittance," Opt. Express 14, 1253-1259 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dintinger, I. Robel, P. V. Kamat, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Terahertz all-optical molecule-plasmon modulation," Adv. Mater. 18, 1645-1648 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Park and S. H. Song, "Polymeric variable optical attenuator based on long range surface plasmon polaritons," Electron. Lett. 42402-403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Savel??ev, A. L. Rakhmanov, and F. Nori, "Josephson vortex lattices as scatterers of terahertz radiation: Giant magneto-optical effect and Doppler effect using terahertz tunable photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 74, 184512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, "High-contrast modulation of light with light by control of surface plasmon polariton wave coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3369-3371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833-5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, "Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength metallic hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 29, 896-898 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao and A. Nahata, "Resonantly enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures," Opt. Express 12, 1004-1010 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N?mec, P. Kužel, F. Garet, and L. Duvillaret, "Time-domain terahertz study of defect formation in onedimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Opt. 43, 1965-1970 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 201306(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nature Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, "Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381-1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T.W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 20062015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1944

H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures," Nature 446, 517-521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ajili, L.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, "Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381-1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Akazawa, M.

Averitt, R. D.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O??Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, "Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials," Opt. Express 15, 1084-1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Opt. Lett. 32, 1620-1622 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

W. Zhang, A. K. Azad, J. Han, J. Xu, J. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Direct observation of a transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Azad and W. Zhang, "Resonant terahertz transmission in subwavelength metallic hole arrays of sub-skindepth thickness," Opt. Lett. 30, 2945-2947 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bank, S. R.

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beere, H.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, "Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381-1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P. H.

C. Janke, J. G. Rivas, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "All-optical switching of the transmission of electromagnetic radiation through subwavelength apertures," Opt. Lett. 30, 2357-2359 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 201306(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833-5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Callebaut, H.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

Cederberg, J. G.

D. Wasserman, E. A. Shaner, and J. G. Cederberg, "Midinfrared doping-tunable extraordinary transmission from sub-wavelength gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-T.

Chen, J.

W. Zhang, A. K. Azad, J. Han, J. Xu, J. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Direct observation of a transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, G.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, "Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381-1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dintinger, J.

J. Dintinger, I. Robel, P. V. Kamat, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Terahertz all-optical molecule-plasmon modulation," Adv. Mater. 18, 1645-1648 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dressel, M.

Duvillaret, L.

Ebbesen, T. W.

J. Dintinger, I. Robel, P. V. Kamat, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Terahertz all-optical molecule-plasmon modulation," Adv. Mater. 18, 1645-1648 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, "Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 24, 256-258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T.W.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T.W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, "Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381-1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fattinger, Ch.

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 20062015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fekete, L.

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nature Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Garet, F.

Genet, C.

J. Dintinger, I. Robel, P. V. Kamat, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Terahertz all-optical molecule-plasmon modulation," Adv. Mater. 18, 1645-1648 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T.W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

Grischkowsky, D.

D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, "Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength metallic hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 29, 896-898 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 20062015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Grupp, D. E.

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, "Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 24, 256-258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T.W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

W. Zhang, A. K. Azad, J. Han, J. Xu, J. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Direct observation of a transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hangyo, M.

Highstrete, C.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O??Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, "Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials," Opt. Express 15, 1084-1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Q.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janke, C.

Jeoung, S. C.

Kadlec, F.

Kamat, P. V.

J. Dintinger, I. Robel, P. V. Kamat, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Terahertz all-optical molecule-plasmon modulation," Adv. Mater. 18, 1645-1648 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 20062015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

Kim, T. J.

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krasavin, A. V.

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, "High-contrast modulation of light with light by control of surface plasmon polariton wave coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3369-3371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

C. Janke, J. G. Rivas, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "All-optical switching of the transmission of electromagnetic radiation through subwavelength apertures," Opt. Lett. 30, 2357-2359 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 201306(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kužel, P.

Lee, J. W.

Lee, M.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O??Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, "Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials," Opt. Express 15, 1084-1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leosson, K.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833-5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, "Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 24, 256-258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T.W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lienau, Ch.

Linfield, E.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, "Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381-1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacDonald, K. F.

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, "High-contrast modulation of light with light by control of surface plasmon polariton wave coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3369-3371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, T.

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures," Nature 446, 517-521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyamaru, F.

N?mec, H.

Nahata, A.

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures," Nature 446, 517-521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao and A. Nahata, "Resonantly enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures," Opt. Express 12, 1004-1010 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikolajsen, T.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833-5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nori, F.

S. Savel??ev, A. L. Rakhmanov, and F. Nori, "Josephson vortex lattices as scatterers of terahertz radiation: Giant magneto-optical effect and Doppler effect using terahertz tunable photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 74, 184512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Savel??ev, A. L. Rakhmanov, and F. Nori, "Using Josephson vortex lattices to control terahertz radiation: tunable transparency and terahertz photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 157004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O??Hara, J. F.

Padilla, W. J.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O??Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, "Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials," Opt. Express 15, 1084-1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Opt. Lett. 32, 1620-1622 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, D. J.

Park, Q.-H.

Park, S.

S. Park and S. H. Song, "Polymeric variable optical attenuator based on long range surface plasmon polaritons," Electron. Lett. 42402-403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pashkin, A.

Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Planken, P. C. M.

Qu, D.

Rakhmanov, A. L.

S. Savel??ev, A. L. Rakhmanov, and F. Nori, "Josephson vortex lattices as scatterers of terahertz radiation: Giant magneto-optical effect and Doppler effect using terahertz tunable photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 74, 184512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Savel??ev, A. L. Rakhmanov, and F. Nori, "Using Josephson vortex lattices to control terahertz radiation: tunable transparency and terahertz photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 157004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reno, J. L.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, "Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381-1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivas, J. G.

C. Janke, J. G. Rivas, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "All-optical switching of the transmission of electromagnetic radiation through subwavelength apertures," Opt. Lett. 30, 2357-2359 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 201306(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robel, I.

J. Dintinger, I. Robel, P. V. Kamat, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Terahertz all-optical molecule-plasmon modulation," Adv. Mater. 18, 1645-1648 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rochat, M.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, "Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381-1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sano, E.

Savel??ev, S.

S. Savel??ev, A. L. Rakhmanov, and F. Nori, "Josephson vortex lattices as scatterers of terahertz radiation: Giant magneto-optical effect and Doppler effect using terahertz tunable photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 74, 184512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Savel??ev, A. L. Rakhmanov, and F. Nori, "Using Josephson vortex lattices to control terahertz radiation: tunable transparency and terahertz photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 157004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schotsch, C.

J. G. Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 201306(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sebastian, M. T.

Seo, M. A.

Shaner, E. A.

D. Wasserman, E. A. Shaner, and J. G. Cederberg, "Midinfrared doping-tunable extraordinary transmission from sub-wavelength gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, S. H.

S. Park and S. H. Song, "Polymeric variable optical attenuator based on long range surface plasmon polaritons," Electron. Lett. 42402-403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

Tanaka, T.

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Opt. Lett. 32, 1620-1622 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O??Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, "Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials," Opt. Express 15, 1084-1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, "Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 24, 256-258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T.W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Exter, M.

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 20062015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z. V.

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures," Nature 446, 517-521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wasserman, D.

D. Wasserman, E. A. Shaner, and J. G. Cederberg, "Midinfrared doping-tunable extraordinary transmission from sub-wavelength gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Willenberg, H.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, "Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381-1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

W. Zhang, A. K. Azad, J. Han, J. Xu, J. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Direct observation of a transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, "High-contrast modulation of light with light by control of surface plasmon polariton wave coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3369-3371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

W. Zhang, A. K. Azad, J. Han, J. Xu, J. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Direct observation of a transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nature Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, "High-contrast modulation of light with light by control of surface plasmon polariton wave coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3369-3371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J. M. O.

Adv. Mater.

J. Dintinger, I. Robel, P. V. Kamat, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Terahertz all-optical molecule-plasmon modulation," Adv. Mater. 18, 1645-1648 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, "Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381-1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Wasserman, E. A. Shaner, and J. G. Cederberg, "Midinfrared doping-tunable extraordinary transmission from sub-wavelength gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, "High-contrast modulation of light with light by control of surface plasmon polariton wave coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3369-3371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833-5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

S. Park and S. H. Song, "Polymeric variable optical attenuator based on long range surface plasmon polaritons," Electron. Lett. 42402-403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 20062015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nature

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures," Nature 446, 517-521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nature Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

A. K. Azad and W. Zhang, "Resonant terahertz transmission in subwavelength metallic hole arrays of sub-skindepth thickness," Opt. Lett. 30, 2945-2947 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, "Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength metallic hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 29, 896-898 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Janke, J. G. Rivas, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "All-optical switching of the transmission of electromagnetic radiation through subwavelength apertures," Opt. Lett. 30, 2357-2359 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, "Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 24, 256-258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, F. Miyamaru, M. Hangyo, T. Tanaka, M. Akazawa, and E. Sano, "Effect of a thin dielectric layer on terahertz transmission characteristics for metal hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 30, 1210-1212 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic design of the metal hole arrays exhibiting an electronically switchable extraordinary THz transmission. (b) Cross-sectional view of structures showing the depletion regions under reverse voltage bias. Two unit cells are shown with (c) wide and (d) narrow holes. All dimensions are in microns.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

THz intensity transmission spectra for samples fabricated on an intrinsic GaAs substrate (black curves) and on an n-GaAs substrate (red curves). (a) Hole width 20 µm and (b) hole width 5 µm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The THz intensity transmission spectra as a function of the applied reverse voltage bias for samples fabricated on n-GaAs substrates. (a) Hole width 20 µm and (b) hole width 5 µm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The THz intensity transmission spectra at 0 (black solid curve) and 4 volts (red dashed curve) forward voltage bias.

Equations (1)

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λ res = L ε 1 ,

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