Abstract

A new method to retrieve sizes and flutter of ice crystals in the atmosphere when they reveal their preferably horizontal orientation is proposed and realized. The method consists of the measurement of angular width for the specular component of scattered light in the bistatic sounding scheme. The technique is realized with a floodlight beam and a CCD camera as a detector.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. N. Liou, "Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: a global perspective," Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167-1199 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. L. Stephens, S. C. Tsay, P. W. Stackhouse, and P. J. Flatau, "The relevance of the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds to climate and climate feedbacks," J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1742-1753 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, P. J. Mason, G. R. Patterson, S. C. Marsden, and R. T. Austin, "The optical properties of equatorial cirrus from observations in the ARM pilot radiation observation experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 1977-1996 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, S. Kinne, and T. P. Ackerman, "An examination of cirrus cloud characteristics using data from millimeter wave radar and lidar. The 24 April SUCCESS case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1133-1136 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. Noel and H. Chepfer, "Study of ice crystal orientation in cirrus clouds based on satellite polarized radiance measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2073-2081 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. H. Knap, L. C.- Labonnote, G. Brogniez, and P. Stammes, "Modeling total and polarized reflectances of ice clouds: evaluation by means of POLDER and ATSR-2 instruments," Appl. Opt. 44, 4060-4073 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. M. R. Platt, "Lidar and radiometer observations of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1191-1204 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Sassen, "The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848-1866 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, and M. P. McCormick, "An overview of LITE: NASA's lidar in-space technology experiment," Proc. IEEE 84, 164-180 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, "The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds," Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, Z. Liu, B. Liu, P. Yang, D. Flittner, B. Hunt, R. Kuehn, J. Huang, D. Wu, S. Rodier, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and D. Winker, "The depolarization-attenuated backscatter relation: CALIPSO lidar measurements vs. theory," Opt. Express 15, 5327-5332 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. M. R. Platt, "Lidar backscatter from horizontal ice crystal plates," J. Appl. Meteorol. 17, 482-488 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. M. R. Platt, N. L. Abshire, and G. T. McNice, "Some microphysical properties of an ice cloud from lidar observations of horizontally oriented crystals," J. Appl. Meteorol. 17, 1220-1224 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Noel, G. Roy, L. Bissonnette, H. Chepfer, and P. Flamant, "Analysis of lidar measurements of ice clouds at multiple incidence angles," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 014828 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. Noel and K. Sassen, "Study of planar ice crystal orientations in ice clouds from scanning polarization lidar observations," J. Appl. Meteorol. 44, 653-654 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. E. Barnes, N. C. P. Sharma, and T. B. Kaplan, "Atmospheric aerosol profiling with a bistatic imaging lidar system," Appl. Opt. 45, 2922-2929 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Sassen, "Polarization and Brewster angle properties of light pillars," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 570-580 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. P. Galileiskii, A. I. Grishin, A. M. Morozov, and V. K. Oshlakov, "Specular reflection from atmospheric nonspherical particles," Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 7, 706-710 (1994).
  19. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).
  20. W. Tape, Atmospheric Halos (American Geophysical Union, Washington, 1994).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2005 (2)

V. Noel and K. Sassen, "Study of planar ice crystal orientations in ice clouds from scanning polarization lidar observations," J. Appl. Meteorol. 44, 653-654 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knap, L. C.- Labonnote, G. Brogniez, and P. Stammes, "Modeling total and polarized reflectances of ice clouds: evaluation by means of POLDER and ATSR-2 instruments," Appl. Opt. 44, 4060-4073 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

V. Noel and H. Chepfer, "Study of ice crystal orientation in cirrus clouds based on satellite polarized radiance measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2073-2081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, "The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds," Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

V. Noel, G. Roy, L. Bissonnette, H. Chepfer, and P. Flamant, "Analysis of lidar measurements of ice clouds at multiple incidence angles," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 014828 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, P. J. Mason, G. R. Patterson, S. C. Marsden, and R. T. Austin, "The optical properties of equatorial cirrus from observations in the ARM pilot radiation observation experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 1977-1996 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, S. Kinne, and T. P. Ackerman, "An examination of cirrus cloud characteristics using data from millimeter wave radar and lidar. The 24 April SUCCESS case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, and M. P. McCormick, "An overview of LITE: NASA's lidar in-space technology experiment," Proc. IEEE 84, 164-180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

V. P. Galileiskii, A. I. Grishin, A. M. Morozov, and V. K. Oshlakov, "Specular reflection from atmospheric nonspherical particles," Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 7, 706-710 (1994).

1991 (1)

K. Sassen, "The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848-1866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. L. Stephens, S. C. Tsay, P. W. Stackhouse, and P. J. Flatau, "The relevance of the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds to climate and climate feedbacks," J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1742-1753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

K. N. Liou, "Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: a global perspective," Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167-1199 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

C. M. R. Platt, "Lidar backscatter from horizontal ice crystal plates," J. Appl. Meteorol. 17, 482-488 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, N. L. Abshire, and G. T. McNice, "Some microphysical properties of an ice cloud from lidar observations of horizontally oriented crystals," J. Appl. Meteorol. 17, 1220-1224 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

C. M. R. Platt, "Lidar and radiometer observations of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1191-1204 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Abshire, N. L.

C. M. R. Platt, N. L. Abshire, and G. T. McNice, "Some microphysical properties of an ice cloud from lidar observations of horizontally oriented crystals," J. Appl. Meteorol. 17, 1220-1224 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, T. P.

G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, S. Kinne, and T. P. Ackerman, "An examination of cirrus cloud characteristics using data from millimeter wave radar and lidar. The 24 April SUCCESS case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. T.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, P. J. Mason, G. R. Patterson, S. C. Marsden, and R. T. Austin, "The optical properties of equatorial cirrus from observations in the ARM pilot radiation observation experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 1977-1996 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. E.

J. E. Barnes, N. C. P. Sharma, and T. B. Kaplan, "Atmospheric aerosol profiling with a bistatic imaging lidar system," Appl. Opt. 45, 2922-2929 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bissonnette, L.

V. Noel, G. Roy, L. Bissonnette, H. Chepfer, and P. Flamant, "Analysis of lidar measurements of ice clouds at multiple incidence angles," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 014828 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, G.

Chepfer, H.

V. Noel and H. Chepfer, "Study of ice crystal orientation in cirrus clouds based on satellite polarized radiance measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2073-2081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Noel, G. Roy, L. Bissonnette, H. Chepfer, and P. Flamant, "Analysis of lidar measurements of ice clouds at multiple incidence angles," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 014828 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Couch, R. H.

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, and M. P. McCormick, "An overview of LITE: NASA's lidar in-space technology experiment," Proc. IEEE 84, 164-180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P.

V. Noel, G. Roy, L. Bissonnette, H. Chepfer, and P. Flamant, "Analysis of lidar measurements of ice clouds at multiple incidence angles," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 014828 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flatau, P. J.

G. L. Stephens, S. C. Tsay, P. W. Stackhouse, and P. J. Flatau, "The relevance of the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds to climate and climate feedbacks," J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1742-1753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Flittner, D.

Galileiskii, V. P.

V. P. Galileiskii, A. I. Grishin, A. M. Morozov, and V. K. Oshlakov, "Specular reflection from atmospheric nonspherical particles," Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 7, 706-710 (1994).

Grishin, A. I.

V. P. Galileiskii, A. I. Grishin, A. M. Morozov, and V. K. Oshlakov, "Specular reflection from atmospheric nonspherical particles," Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 7, 706-710 (1994).

Hu, Y.

Huang, J.

Hunt, B.

Kaplan, T. B.

J. E. Barnes, N. C. P. Sharma, and T. B. Kaplan, "Atmospheric aerosol profiling with a bistatic imaging lidar system," Appl. Opt. 45, 2922-2929 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kinne, S.

G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, S. Kinne, and T. P. Ackerman, "An examination of cirrus cloud characteristics using data from millimeter wave radar and lidar. The 24 April SUCCESS case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knap, W. H.

Kuehn, R.

Labonnote, L. C.-

Liou, K. N.

K. N. Liou, "Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: a global perspective," Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167-1199 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Liu, Z.

Mace, G. G.

G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, S. Kinne, and T. P. Ackerman, "An examination of cirrus cloud characteristics using data from millimeter wave radar and lidar. The 24 April SUCCESS case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marsden, S. C.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, P. J. Mason, G. R. Patterson, S. C. Marsden, and R. T. Austin, "The optical properties of equatorial cirrus from observations in the ARM pilot radiation observation experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 1977-1996 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mason, P. J.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, P. J. Mason, G. R. Patterson, S. C. Marsden, and R. T. Austin, "The optical properties of equatorial cirrus from observations in the ARM pilot radiation observation experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 1977-1996 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, "The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds," Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, and M. P. McCormick, "An overview of LITE: NASA's lidar in-space technology experiment," Proc. IEEE 84, 164-180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McNice, G. T.

C. M. R. Platt, N. L. Abshire, and G. T. McNice, "Some microphysical properties of an ice cloud from lidar observations of horizontally oriented crystals," J. Appl. Meteorol. 17, 1220-1224 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Morozov, A. M.

V. P. Galileiskii, A. I. Grishin, A. M. Morozov, and V. K. Oshlakov, "Specular reflection from atmospheric nonspherical particles," Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 7, 706-710 (1994).

Noel, V.

V. Noel and K. Sassen, "Study of planar ice crystal orientations in ice clouds from scanning polarization lidar observations," J. Appl. Meteorol. 44, 653-654 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Noel and H. Chepfer, "Study of ice crystal orientation in cirrus clouds based on satellite polarized radiance measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2073-2081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Noel, G. Roy, L. Bissonnette, H. Chepfer, and P. Flamant, "Analysis of lidar measurements of ice clouds at multiple incidence angles," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 014828 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oshlakov, V. K.

V. P. Galileiskii, A. I. Grishin, A. M. Morozov, and V. K. Oshlakov, "Specular reflection from atmospheric nonspherical particles," Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 7, 706-710 (1994).

Patterson, G. R.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, P. J. Mason, G. R. Patterson, S. C. Marsden, and R. T. Austin, "The optical properties of equatorial cirrus from observations in the ARM pilot radiation observation experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 1977-1996 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, "The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds," Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Platt, C. M. R.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, P. J. Mason, G. R. Patterson, S. C. Marsden, and R. T. Austin, "The optical properties of equatorial cirrus from observations in the ARM pilot radiation observation experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 1977-1996 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, "Lidar backscatter from horizontal ice crystal plates," J. Appl. Meteorol. 17, 482-488 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, N. L. Abshire, and G. T. McNice, "Some microphysical properties of an ice cloud from lidar observations of horizontally oriented crystals," J. Appl. Meteorol. 17, 1220-1224 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, "Lidar and radiometer observations of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1191-1204 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Powell, K.

Rodier, S.

Roy, G.

V. Noel, G. Roy, L. Bissonnette, H. Chepfer, and P. Flamant, "Analysis of lidar measurements of ice clouds at multiple incidence angles," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 014828 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sassen, K.

V. Noel and K. Sassen, "Study of planar ice crystal orientations in ice clouds from scanning polarization lidar observations," J. Appl. Meteorol. 44, 653-654 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, S. Kinne, and T. P. Ackerman, "An examination of cirrus cloud characteristics using data from millimeter wave radar and lidar. The 24 April SUCCESS case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, "The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848-1866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, "Polarization and Brewster angle properties of light pillars," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 570-580 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, N. C. P.

J. E. Barnes, N. C. P. Sharma, and T. B. Kaplan, "Atmospheric aerosol profiling with a bistatic imaging lidar system," Appl. Opt. 45, 2922-2929 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stackhouse, P. W.

G. L. Stephens, S. C. Tsay, P. W. Stackhouse, and P. J. Flatau, "The relevance of the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds to climate and climate feedbacks," J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1742-1753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stammes, P.

Stephens, G. L.

G. L. Stephens, S. C. Tsay, P. W. Stackhouse, and P. J. Flatau, "The relevance of the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds to climate and climate feedbacks," J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1742-1753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trepte, C.

Tsay, S. C.

G. L. Stephens, S. C. Tsay, P. W. Stackhouse, and P. J. Flatau, "The relevance of the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds to climate and climate feedbacks," J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1742-1753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, M.

Winker, D.

Winker, D. M.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, "The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds," Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, and M. P. McCormick, "An overview of LITE: NASA's lidar in-space technology experiment," Proc. IEEE 84, 164-180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

Yang, P.

Young, S. A.

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, P. J. Mason, G. R. Patterson, S. C. Marsden, and R. T. Austin, "The optical properties of equatorial cirrus from observations in the ARM pilot radiation observation experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 1977-1996 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Atmos. Oceanic Opt. (1)

V. P. Galileiskii, A. I. Grishin, A. M. Morozov, and V. K. Oshlakov, "Specular reflection from atmospheric nonspherical particles," Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 7, 706-710 (1994).

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

K. Sassen, "The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848-1866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, S. Kinne, and T. P. Ackerman, "An examination of cirrus cloud characteristics using data from millimeter wave radar and lidar. The 24 April SUCCESS case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Noel, G. Roy, L. Bissonnette, H. Chepfer, and P. Flamant, "Analysis of lidar measurements of ice clouds at multiple incidence angles," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 014828 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (3)

V. Noel and K. Sassen, "Study of planar ice crystal orientations in ice clouds from scanning polarization lidar observations," J. Appl. Meteorol. 44, 653-654 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, "Lidar backscatter from horizontal ice crystal plates," J. Appl. Meteorol. 17, 482-488 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, N. L. Abshire, and G. T. McNice, "Some microphysical properties of an ice cloud from lidar observations of horizontally oriented crystals," J. Appl. Meteorol. 17, 1220-1224 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (4)

V. Noel and H. Chepfer, "Study of ice crystal orientation in cirrus clouds based on satellite polarized radiance measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2073-2081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Stephens, S. C. Tsay, P. W. Stackhouse, and P. J. Flatau, "The relevance of the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds to climate and climate feedbacks," J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1742-1753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, P. J. Mason, G. R. Patterson, S. C. Marsden, and R. T. Austin, "The optical properties of equatorial cirrus from observations in the ARM pilot radiation observation experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 1977-1996 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, "Lidar and radiometer observations of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1191-1204 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Mon. Weather Rev. (1)

K. N. Liou, "Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: a global perspective," Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167-1199 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, and M. P. McCormick, "An overview of LITE: NASA's lidar in-space technology experiment," Proc. IEEE 84, 164-180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, "The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds," Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).

W. Tape, Atmospheric Halos (American Geophysical Union, Washington, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (2722 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental schemes with (a) vertical and (b) tilted illumination of a scattering layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(2.65 MB) Movie of the floodlight beam scanning near the zenith. The scan direction is perpendicular to the line connecting the beam projector and an observer. The right picture is an enlargement of the left one. [Media 1]

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Specular and diffuse spots seen by an observer in the experimental scheme of Fig. 1(a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Specular spot and its angular structure obtained by digitization of the spot along its diameter.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( r , n ) = I d ( r , n ) + I s ( r , n ) ,
I s ( r , n ) = c ( r ) δ ( n n 0 ) ,
( Δ θ ) d λ D .
I s ( r , n ) = c ( r ) S ( n n 0 ) .
( Δ θ ) f 2 F .
Δ θ λ D + 2 F .

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