Abstract

A novel structure, namely a laterally tapered undercut active-waveguide (LTUAWG) for an optical spot-size converter (SSC) is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. Using a selectively undercut-etching-active-region (UEAR) on a laterally tapered ridge to define a LTUAWG, a vertical waveguide directional coupler (VWGDC) can be fabricated simply by a wet etching-based technique. The VWGDC comprises a top LTUAWG and a bottom passive waveguide (PWG). An electroabsorption modulator (EAM) is monolithically integrated with a LTUAWG-VWGDC serving as the connecting active waveguide (AWG) and the optical transmission testing device. Through a loss budget analysis on an EAM-integrated VWGDC, an optical mode transfer loss of -1.6 dB is observed between the PWG and the AWG. By comparing the reverse directions of optical excitation, the identical optical transmission relations with bias are observed, further verifying the high efficiency properties in a SSC. Optical misalignment tolerance is employed to test the two transferred optical modes. 1dB misalignment tolerance of ±2.9 µm (horizontal) and ±2.2 µm (vertical) is obtained from the PWG, which is better than the value of ±1.9 µm (horizontal) and ±1.6 µm (vertical) from the AWG. Far-field angle measurement shows 6.0° (horizontal) ×9.3° (vertical) and 11° (horizontal) ×20° (vertical) for the PWG and the AWG, respectively, exhibiting the capability of a mode transformer. All of these measurements are also examined by a 3D beam propagation method (BPM) showing quite consistent results. In this wet etching technique, no regrowth is needed during processing. Furthermore, UEAR processing controlled by in situ monitoring can lead to a simple way for submicron-size processing, showing that a highly reliable processing technique can thus be expected. A low cost of fabrication can also be realized, indicating that this method can be potentially used in optoelectronic integration.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Muller, B. Stegmuller, H. Westermeier, and G. Wenger, "Tapered InP/GaAsP waveguide structure for efficient fiber-chip coupling," Electron. Lett. 27, 1836-1838 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. F. Lealman, L. J. Rivers, M. J. Harlow, and S. D. Perrin, "InGaAsP/InP tapered active layer multiquantum well laser with 1.8dB coupling loss to cleaved singlemode fiber," Electron. Lett. 30, 1685-1687 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. Koren, R. Ben-Michael, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien, H. H. Yaffe, G. Raybon, and K. Dreyer, "Electroabsorption modulator with passive waveguide spot size converters," Electron. Lett. 30, 1582-1583 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Itaya, and T. Sugie, "Spot size converted 1.3 μm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Y. Fang, D. Bertone, M. Meliga, I. Montrosset, G. Olivetti, and R. Paoletti, "Low-cost 1.55 μm InGaAsP/InP spot size converted (SSC) laser with conventional active layers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1084-1086 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Vusirikala, S. S. Saini, R. E. Bartolo, S. Agarwala, R. D. Whaley, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, and M. Dagenais, "1.55-μm InGaAsP-InP laser arrays with integrated-mode expanders fabricated using single epitaxial growth," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1332-1343 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Flem, "Tapered rib adiabatic following fiber couplers in etched GaAs materials for monolithic spot-size transformation," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1361-1371 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Mersali, A. Ramdane, and A. Carenco, "Optical-mode transformer: A III-V circuit integration enabler," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1321-1331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, "A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308-1320 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M.-K. Chin and C.-W. Lee, "Polarization-independent vertical coupler for photonics integration," Opt. Express 12, 117-123 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. Y.-J. Chiu, T. H. Wu, W. C. Cheng, F. J. Lin, and J. E. Bowers, "Enhanced performance in traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators based on undercut-etching the active-region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2065-2067 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, and Y. Kondo, "Very-low-driving-voltage electroabsorption modulators operating at 40 Gb/s," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2219-2224 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Yamaguchi, K. Tada, and T. Ishikawa, "Vertical multiple-quantum-well directional-coupler switch with low switching voltage," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 723-725 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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2006

2005

Y.-J. Chiu, T. H. Wu, W. C. Cheng, F. J. Lin, and J. E. Bowers, "Enhanced performance in traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators based on undercut-etching the active-region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2065-2067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

1997

R. Y. Fang, D. Bertone, M. Meliga, I. Montrosset, G. Olivetti, and R. Paoletti, "Low-cost 1.55 μm InGaAsP/InP spot size converted (SSC) laser with conventional active layers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1084-1086 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Vusirikala, S. S. Saini, R. E. Bartolo, S. Agarwala, R. D. Whaley, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, and M. Dagenais, "1.55-μm InGaAsP-InP laser arrays with integrated-mode expanders fabricated using single epitaxial growth," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1332-1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Flem, "Tapered rib adiabatic following fiber couplers in etched GaAs materials for monolithic spot-size transformation," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1361-1371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Mersali, A. Ramdane, and A. Carenco, "Optical-mode transformer: A III-V circuit integration enabler," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1321-1331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, "A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308-1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Itaya, and T. Sugie, "Spot size converted 1.3 μm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

I. F. Lealman, L. J. Rivers, M. J. Harlow, and S. D. Perrin, "InGaAsP/InP tapered active layer multiquantum well laser with 1.8dB coupling loss to cleaved singlemode fiber," Electron. Lett. 30, 1685-1687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Koren, R. Ben-Michael, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien, H. H. Yaffe, G. Raybon, and K. Dreyer, "Electroabsorption modulator with passive waveguide spot size converters," Electron. Lett. 30, 1582-1583 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. Yamaguchi, K. Tada, and T. Ishikawa, "Vertical multiple-quantum-well directional-coupler switch with low switching voltage," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 723-725 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. W. Koops, H. Olzhausen, G. Zesch, A. Kohl, and A. Menschig, "Fabrication of optical beamwidth transformers for guided waves on InP using wedge-shaped taper structures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3459-3463 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Muller, B. Stegmuller, H. Westermeier, and G. Wenger, "Tapered InP/GaAsP waveguide structure for efficient fiber-chip coupling," Electron. Lett. 27, 1836-1838 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Agarwala, S.

V. Vusirikala, S. S. Saini, R. E. Bartolo, S. Agarwala, R. D. Whaley, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, and M. Dagenais, "1.55-μm InGaAsP-InP laser arrays with integrated-mode expanders fabricated using single epitaxial growth," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1332-1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bartolo, R. E.

V. Vusirikala, S. S. Saini, R. E. Bartolo, S. Agarwala, R. D. Whaley, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, and M. Dagenais, "1.55-μm InGaAsP-InP laser arrays with integrated-mode expanders fabricated using single epitaxial growth," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1332-1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Michael, R.

U. Koren, R. Ben-Michael, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien, H. H. Yaffe, G. Raybon, and K. Dreyer, "Electroabsorption modulator with passive waveguide spot size converters," Electron. Lett. 30, 1582-1583 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bertone, D.

R. Y. Fang, D. Bertone, M. Meliga, I. Montrosset, G. Olivetti, and R. Paoletti, "Low-cost 1.55 μm InGaAsP/InP spot size converted (SSC) laser with conventional active layers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1084-1086 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Y.-J. Chiu, T. H. Wu, W. C. Cheng, F. J. Lin, and J. E. Bowers, "Enhanced performance in traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators based on undercut-etching the active-region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2065-2067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bruckner, H.

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. W. Koops, H. Olzhausen, G. Zesch, A. Kohl, and A. Menschig, "Fabrication of optical beamwidth transformers for guided waves on InP using wedge-shaped taper structures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3459-3463 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Carenco, A.

B. Mersali, A. Ramdane, and A. Carenco, "Optical-mode transformer: A III-V circuit integration enabler," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1321-1331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W. C.

Y.-J. Chiu, T. H. Wu, W. C. Cheng, F. J. Lin, and J. E. Bowers, "Enhanced performance in traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators based on undercut-etching the active-region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2065-2067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chien, M.

U. Koren, R. Ben-Michael, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien, H. H. Yaffe, G. Raybon, and K. Dreyer, "Electroabsorption modulator with passive waveguide spot size converters," Electron. Lett. 30, 1582-1583 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chin, M.-K.

Chiu, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Chiu, T. H. Wu, W. C. Cheng, F. J. Lin, and J. E. Bowers, "Enhanced performance in traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators based on undercut-etching the active-region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2065-2067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

V. Vusirikala, S. S. Saini, R. E. Bartolo, S. Agarwala, R. D. Whaley, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, and M. Dagenais, "1.55-μm InGaAsP-InP laser arrays with integrated-mode expanders fabricated using single epitaxial growth," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1332-1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P. M.

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, "A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308-1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dreyer, K.

U. Koren, R. Ben-Michael, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien, H. H. Yaffe, G. Raybon, and K. Dreyer, "Electroabsorption modulator with passive waveguide spot size converters," Electron. Lett. 30, 1582-1583 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fang, R. Y.

R. Y. Fang, D. Bertone, M. Meliga, I. Montrosset, G. Olivetti, and R. Paoletti, "Low-cost 1.55 μm InGaAsP/InP spot size converted (SSC) laser with conventional active layers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1084-1086 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flem, J. F.

G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Flem, "Tapered rib adiabatic following fiber couplers in etched GaAs materials for monolithic spot-size transformation," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1361-1371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fukano, H.

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, and Y. Kondo, "Very-low-driving-voltage electroabsorption modulators operating at 40 Gb/s," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2219-2224 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Itaya, and T. Sugie, "Spot size converted 1.3 μm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, M.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Itaya, and T. Sugie, "Spot size converted 1.3 μm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Harlow, M. J.

I. F. Lealman, L. J. Rivers, M. J. Harlow, and S. D. Perrin, "InGaAsP/InP tapered active layer multiquantum well laser with 1.8dB coupling loss to cleaved singlemode fiber," Electron. Lett. 30, 1685-1687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hou, H. Q.

G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Flem, "Tapered rib adiabatic following fiber couplers in etched GaAs materials for monolithic spot-size transformation," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1361-1371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, T.

T. Yamaguchi, K. Tada, and T. Ishikawa, "Vertical multiple-quantum-well directional-coupler switch with low switching voltage," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 723-725 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Itaya, Y.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Itaya, and T. Sugie, "Spot size converted 1.3 μm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, F. G.

V. Vusirikala, S. S. Saini, R. E. Bartolo, S. Agarwala, R. D. Whaley, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, and M. Dagenais, "1.55-μm InGaAsP-InP laser arrays with integrated-mode expanders fabricated using single epitaxial growth," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1332-1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kohl, A.

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. W. Koops, H. Olzhausen, G. Zesch, A. Kohl, and A. Menschig, "Fabrication of optical beamwidth transformers for guided waves on InP using wedge-shaped taper structures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3459-3463 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

Koops, H. W.

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. W. Koops, H. Olzhausen, G. Zesch, A. Kohl, and A. Menschig, "Fabrication of optical beamwidth transformers for guided waves on InP using wedge-shaped taper structures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3459-3463 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koren, U.

U. Koren, R. Ben-Michael, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien, H. H. Yaffe, G. Raybon, and K. Dreyer, "Electroabsorption modulator with passive waveguide spot size converters," Electron. Lett. 30, 1582-1583 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lealman, I. F.

I. F. Lealman, L. J. Rivers, M. J. Harlow, and S. D. Perrin, "InGaAsP/InP tapered active layer multiquantum well laser with 1.8dB coupling loss to cleaved singlemode fiber," Electron. Lett. 30, 1685-1687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-W.

Lin, F. J.

Y.-J. Chiu, T. H. Wu, W. C. Cheng, F. J. Lin, and J. E. Bowers, "Enhanced performance in traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators based on undercut-etching the active-region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2065-2067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, S.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Itaya, and T. Sugie, "Spot size converted 1.3 μm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meliga, M.

R. Y. Fang, D. Bertone, M. Meliga, I. Montrosset, G. Olivetti, and R. Paoletti, "Low-cost 1.55 μm InGaAsP/InP spot size converted (SSC) laser with conventional active layers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1084-1086 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Menschig, A.

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. W. Koops, H. Olzhausen, G. Zesch, A. Kohl, and A. Menschig, "Fabrication of optical beamwidth transformers for guided waves on InP using wedge-shaped taper structures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3459-3463 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mersali, B.

B. Mersali, A. Ramdane, and A. Carenco, "Optical-mode transformer: A III-V circuit integration enabler," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1321-1331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, B. I.

U. Koren, R. Ben-Michael, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien, H. H. Yaffe, G. Raybon, and K. Dreyer, "Electroabsorption modulator with passive waveguide spot size converters," Electron. Lett. 30, 1582-1583 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mitomi, O.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Itaya, and T. Sugie, "Spot size converted 1.3 μm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, "A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308-1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Montrosset, I.

R. Y. Fang, D. Bertone, M. Meliga, I. Montrosset, G. Olivetti, and R. Paoletti, "Low-cost 1.55 μm InGaAsP/InP spot size converted (SSC) laser with conventional active layers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1084-1086 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Muller, G.

G. Muller, B. Stegmuller, H. Westermeier, and G. Wenger, "Tapered InP/GaAsP waveguide structure for efficient fiber-chip coupling," Electron. Lett. 27, 1836-1838 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, M.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Itaya, and T. Sugie, "Spot size converted 1.3 μm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Olivetti, G.

R. Y. Fang, D. Bertone, M. Meliga, I. Montrosset, G. Olivetti, and R. Paoletti, "Low-cost 1.55 μm InGaAsP/InP spot size converted (SSC) laser with conventional active layers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1084-1086 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Olzhausen, H.

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. W. Koops, H. Olzhausen, G. Zesch, A. Kohl, and A. Menschig, "Fabrication of optical beamwidth transformers for guided waves on InP using wedge-shaped taper structures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3459-3463 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Paoletti, R.

R. Y. Fang, D. Bertone, M. Meliga, I. Montrosset, G. Olivetti, and R. Paoletti, "Low-cost 1.55 μm InGaAsP/InP spot size converted (SSC) laser with conventional active layers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1084-1086 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, S. D.

I. F. Lealman, L. J. Rivers, M. J. Harlow, and S. D. Perrin, "InGaAsP/InP tapered active layer multiquantum well laser with 1.8dB coupling loss to cleaved singlemode fiber," Electron. Lett. 30, 1685-1687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ramdane, A.

B. Mersali, A. Ramdane, and A. Carenco, "Optical-mode transformer: A III-V circuit integration enabler," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1321-1331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

U. Koren, R. Ben-Michael, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien, H. H. Yaffe, G. Raybon, and K. Dreyer, "Electroabsorption modulator with passive waveguide spot size converters," Electron. Lett. 30, 1582-1583 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rivers, L. J.

I. F. Lealman, L. J. Rivers, M. J. Harlow, and S. D. Perrin, "InGaAsP/InP tapered active layer multiquantum well laser with 1.8dB coupling loss to cleaved singlemode fiber," Electron. Lett. 30, 1685-1687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Saini, S. S.

V. Vusirikala, S. S. Saini, R. E. Bartolo, S. Agarwala, R. D. Whaley, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, and M. Dagenais, "1.55-μm InGaAsP-InP laser arrays with integrated-mode expanders fabricated using single epitaxial growth," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1332-1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, Y.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Itaya, and T. Sugie, "Spot size converted 1.3 μm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. E.

G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Flem, "Tapered rib adiabatic following fiber couplers in etched GaAs materials for monolithic spot-size transformation," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1361-1371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stegmuller, B.

G. Muller, B. Stegmuller, H. Westermeier, and G. Wenger, "Tapered InP/GaAsP waveguide structure for efficient fiber-chip coupling," Electron. Lett. 27, 1836-1838 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stone, D. R.

V. Vusirikala, S. S. Saini, R. E. Bartolo, S. Agarwala, R. D. Whaley, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, and M. Dagenais, "1.55-μm InGaAsP-InP laser arrays with integrated-mode expanders fabricated using single epitaxial growth," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1332-1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sugie, T.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Itaya, and T. Sugie, "Spot size converted 1.3 μm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, C. T.

G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Flem, "Tapered rib adiabatic following fiber couplers in etched GaAs materials for monolithic spot-size transformation," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1361-1371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suzaki, Y.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Itaya, and T. Sugie, "Spot size converted 1.3 μm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tada, K.

T. Yamaguchi, K. Tada, and T. Ishikawa, "Vertical multiple-quantum-well directional-coupler switch with low switching voltage," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 723-725 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, M.

Tohmori, Y.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Itaya, and T. Sugie, "Spot size converted 1.3 μm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Van Daele, P. P.

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, "A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308-1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vawter, G. A.

G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Flem, "Tapered rib adiabatic following fiber couplers in etched GaAs materials for monolithic spot-size transformation," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1361-1371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vusirikala, V.

V. Vusirikala, S. S. Saini, R. E. Bartolo, S. Agarwala, R. D. Whaley, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, and M. Dagenais, "1.55-μm InGaAsP-InP laser arrays with integrated-mode expanders fabricated using single epitaxial growth," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1332-1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wada, M.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Itaya, and T. Sugie, "Spot size converted 1.3 μm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Flem, "Tapered rib adiabatic following fiber couplers in etched GaAs materials for monolithic spot-size transformation," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1361-1371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wenger, G.

G. Muller, B. Stegmuller, H. Westermeier, and G. Wenger, "Tapered InP/GaAsP waveguide structure for efficient fiber-chip coupling," Electron. Lett. 27, 1836-1838 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Westermeier, H.

G. Muller, B. Stegmuller, H. Westermeier, and G. Wenger, "Tapered InP/GaAsP waveguide structure for efficient fiber-chip coupling," Electron. Lett. 27, 1836-1838 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Whaley, R. D.

V. Vusirikala, S. S. Saini, R. E. Bartolo, S. Agarwala, R. D. Whaley, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, and M. Dagenais, "1.55-μm InGaAsP-InP laser arrays with integrated-mode expanders fabricated using single epitaxial growth," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1332-1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T. H.

Y.-J. Chiu, T. H. Wu, W. C. Cheng, F. J. Lin, and J. E. Bowers, "Enhanced performance in traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators based on undercut-etching the active-region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2065-2067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yaffe, H. H.

U. Koren, R. Ben-Michael, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien, H. H. Yaffe, G. Raybon, and K. Dreyer, "Electroabsorption modulator with passive waveguide spot size converters," Electron. Lett. 30, 1582-1583 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, T.

T. Yamaguchi, K. Tada, and T. Ishikawa, "Vertical multiple-quantum-well directional-coupler switch with low switching voltage," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 723-725 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Itaya, and T. Sugie, "Spot size converted 1.3 μm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, T.

Young, M. G.

U. Koren, R. Ben-Michael, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien, H. H. Yaffe, G. Raybon, and K. Dreyer, "Electroabsorption modulator with passive waveguide spot size converters," Electron. Lett. 30, 1582-1583 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zengerle, R.

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. W. Koops, H. Olzhausen, G. Zesch, A. Kohl, and A. Menschig, "Fabrication of optical beamwidth transformers for guided waves on InP using wedge-shaped taper structures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3459-3463 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zesch, G.

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. W. Koops, H. Olzhausen, G. Zesch, A. Kohl, and A. Menschig, "Fabrication of optical beamwidth transformers for guided waves on InP using wedge-shaped taper structures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3459-3463 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

G. Muller, B. Stegmuller, H. Westermeier, and G. Wenger, "Tapered InP/GaAsP waveguide structure for efficient fiber-chip coupling," Electron. Lett. 27, 1836-1838 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. F. Lealman, L. J. Rivers, M. J. Harlow, and S. D. Perrin, "InGaAsP/InP tapered active layer multiquantum well laser with 1.8dB coupling loss to cleaved singlemode fiber," Electron. Lett. 30, 1685-1687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Koren, R. Ben-Michael, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien, H. H. Yaffe, G. Raybon, and K. Dreyer, "Electroabsorption modulator with passive waveguide spot size converters," Electron. Lett. 30, 1582-1583 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Itaya, and T. Sugie, "Spot size converted 1.3 μm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

V. Vusirikala, S. S. Saini, R. E. Bartolo, S. Agarwala, R. D. Whaley, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, and M. Dagenais, "1.55-μm InGaAsP-InP laser arrays with integrated-mode expanders fabricated using single epitaxial growth," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1332-1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron.

G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Flem, "Tapered rib adiabatic following fiber couplers in etched GaAs materials for monolithic spot-size transformation," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1361-1371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Mersali, A. Ramdane, and A. Carenco, "Optical-mode transformer: A III-V circuit integration enabler," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1321-1331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, "A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308-1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. Y. Fang, D. Bertone, M. Meliga, I. Montrosset, G. Olivetti, and R. Paoletti, "Low-cost 1.55 μm InGaAsP/InP spot size converted (SSC) laser with conventional active layers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1084-1086 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Chiu, T. H. Wu, W. C. Cheng, F. J. Lin, and J. E. Bowers, "Enhanced performance in traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators based on undercut-etching the active-region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2065-2067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamaguchi, K. Tada, and T. Ishikawa, "Vertical multiple-quantum-well directional-coupler switch with low switching voltage," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 723-725 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. W. Koops, H. Olzhausen, G. Zesch, A. Kohl, and A. Menschig, "Fabrication of optical beamwidth transformers for guided waves on InP using wedge-shaped taper structures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3459-3463 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

S. L. Chuang, Physics of optoelectronic devices (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NY, 1995), Chap. 8.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Refractive index profile of epitaxial layers. Right side shows schematic cross-section plot of LTUAWG. Waveguide core of width w is formed by undercut etching of active region through wide ridge.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Mode effective index for TE polarization against different active region width w of LTUAWG. Right side shows PWG (bottom right) and LTUAWG modes for w=1.8, 2.4, and 3.5 µm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic structure of VWGDC based on LTUAWG; SEM pictures of cleaved facets on AWG and PWG.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Optical output power against reverse bias of forward (PWG to AWG) and backward (AWG to PWG) transmission through VWGDC. Insert shows semi-log scale and results from cutback method. (b) BPM calculated transfer efficiency of VWGDC.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Alignment tolerance and far-field angle measurement (inserts) for PWG (left) and AWG (right). Solid dot curve is for horizontal direction and open dot curve is for vertical direction. All measurement is consistent with calculation curves. Corresponding alignment tolerance of 1 dB drop for PWG and AWG are ±2.9µm (horizontal), ±2.2µm (vertical) and ±1.9µm (horizontal), ±1.6µm (vertical), respectively. Measured far-field angles for PWG and AWG are 6.0° (horizontal) ×9.3° (vertical) and 11° (horizontal) ×20° (vertical), respectively.

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