Abstract

Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) have become a key element of many ultrafast laser sources, enabling passively modelocked lasers with >100 GHz repetition rate or with >10 µJ pulse energy. Precise knowledge of the nonlinear optical reflectivity is required to optimize the SESAMs for self-starting passive modelocking at record high repetition rates or pulse energies. In this article, we discuss a new method for wide dynamic range nonlinear reflectivity measurements. We achieve a higher accuracy (<0.05%) with a simpler and more cost-efficient measurement scheme compared with previous measurement systems. The method can easily be implemented for arbitrary wavelength regions and fluence ranges.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 2, 435-453 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. U. Keller, "Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers," Nature 424, 831-838 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. U. Keller, "Ultrafast solid-state lasers," in Landolt-Börnstein. Laser Physics and Applications. Subvolume B: Laser Systems. Part I, G. Herziger, H. Weber, and R. Proprawe, eds. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 2007), pp. 33-167.
  4. L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Compact Nd:YVO4 lasers with pulse repetition rates up to 160 GHz," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1331-1338 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. V. Marchese, C. R. E. Baer, A. G. Engqvist, S. Hashimoto, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Femtosecond thin disk laser oscillator with pulse energy beyond the 10-microjoule level," Opt. Express 16, 6397-6407 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46-56 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, "60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 16, 42-44 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B 70, S41-S49 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. C. Zeller, T. Südmeyer, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Passively modelocked 77 GHz Er:Yb:glass laser," Electron. Lett. 43, 32-33 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. V. Marchese, C. R. E. Baer, R. Peters, C. Kränkel, A. G. Engqvist, M. Golling, D. J. H. C. Maas, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, "Efficient femtosecond high power Yb:Lu2O3 thin disk laser," Opt. Express 15, 16966-16971 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42 (2006).
  14. U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, "Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Phys. Rep. 429, 67-120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, "Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 331-339 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Marchese, C. R. E. Baer, R. Peters, C. Kränkel, A. G. Engqvist, M. Golling, D. J. H. C. Maas, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, "Efficient femtosecond high power Yb:Lu2O3 thin disk laser," Opt. Express 15, 16966-16971 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Zeller, T. Südmeyer, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Passively modelocked 77 GHz Er:Yb:glass laser," Electron. Lett. 43, 32-33 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42 (2006).

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, "Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Phys. Rep. 429, 67-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, "Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 331-339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

U. Keller, "Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers," Nature 424, 831-838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Compact Nd:YVO4 lasers with pulse repetition rates up to 160 GHz," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1331-1338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B 70, S41-S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Baer, C. R. E.

Bellancourt, A.-R.

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42 (2006).

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ebling, D.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42 (2006).

Engqvist, A. G.

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42 (2006).

Golling, M.

S. V. Marchese, C. R. E. Baer, A. G. Engqvist, S. Hashimoto, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Femtosecond thin disk laser oscillator with pulse energy beyond the 10-microjoule level," Opt. Express 16, 6397-6407 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Marchese, C. R. E. Baer, R. Peters, C. Kränkel, A. G. Engqvist, M. Golling, D. J. H. C. Maas, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, "Efficient femtosecond high power Yb:Lu2O3 thin disk laser," Opt. Express 15, 16966-16971 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grange, R.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, "Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 331-339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haiml, M.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, "Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 331-339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, S.

Hönninger, C.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46-56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Ippen, E. P.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B 70, S41-S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B 70, S41-S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kean, P. N.

Keller, U.

S. V. Marchese, C. R. E. Baer, A. G. Engqvist, S. Hashimoto, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Femtosecond thin disk laser oscillator with pulse energy beyond the 10-microjoule level," Opt. Express 16, 6397-6407 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Marchese, C. R. E. Baer, R. Peters, C. Kränkel, A. G. Engqvist, M. Golling, D. J. H. C. Maas, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, "Efficient femtosecond high power Yb:Lu2O3 thin disk laser," Opt. Express 15, 16966-16971 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Zeller, T. Südmeyer, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Passively modelocked 77 GHz Er:Yb:glass laser," Electron. Lett. 43, 32-33 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, "Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Phys. Rep. 429, 67-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42 (2006).

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, "Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 331-339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, "Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers," Nature 424, 831-838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Compact Nd:YVO4 lasers with pulse repetition rates up to 160 GHz," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1331-1338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46-56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krainer, L.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Compact Nd:YVO4 lasers with pulse repetition rates up to 160 GHz," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1331-1338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kränkel, C.

Lecomte, S.

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Compact Nd:YVO4 lasers with pulse repetition rates up to 160 GHz," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1331-1338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liverini, V.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lorenser, D.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42 (2006).

Maas, D. J. H. C.

S. V. Marchese, C. R. E. Baer, A. G. Engqvist, S. Hashimoto, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Femtosecond thin disk laser oscillator with pulse energy beyond the 10-microjoule level," Opt. Express 16, 6397-6407 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Marchese, C. R. E. Baer, R. Peters, C. Kränkel, A. G. Engqvist, M. Golling, D. J. H. C. Maas, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, "Efficient femtosecond high power Yb:Lu2O3 thin disk laser," Opt. Express 15, 16966-16971 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42 (2006).

Marchese, S. V.

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F.

Moser, M.

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Compact Nd:YVO4 lasers with pulse repetition rates up to 160 GHz," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1331-1338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46-56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ostinelli, O.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Compact Nd:YVO4 lasers with pulse repetition rates up to 160 GHz," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1331-1338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46-56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

Peters, R.

Rudin, B.

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42 (2006).

Schibli, T. R.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B 70, S41-S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schon, S.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Spence, D. E.

Spuhler, G. J.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spühler, G. J.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Südmeyer, T.

Thoen, E. R.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B 70, S41-S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, "Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Phys. Rep. 429, 67-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Unold, H. J.

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42 (2006).

Weingarten, K. J.

S. C. Zeller, T. Südmeyer, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Passively modelocked 77 GHz Er:Yb:glass laser," Electron. Lett. 43, 32-33 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Compact Nd:YVO4 lasers with pulse repetition rates up to 160 GHz," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1331-1338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zeller, S. C.

S. C. Zeller, T. Südmeyer, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Passively modelocked 77 GHz Er:Yb:glass laser," Electron. Lett. 43, 32-33 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (5)

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B 70, S41-S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, "Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 331-339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. C. Zeller, T. Südmeyer, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Passively modelocked 77 GHz Er:Yb:glass laser," Electron. Lett. 43, 32-33 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42 (2006).

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Compact Nd:YVO4 lasers with pulse repetition rates up to 160 GHz," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1331-1338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

U. Keller, "Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers," Nature 424, 831-838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, "Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Phys. Rep. 429, 67-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

U. Keller, "Ultrafast solid-state lasers," in Landolt-Börnstein. Laser Physics and Applications. Subvolume B: Laser Systems. Part I, G. Herziger, H. Weber, and R. Proprawe, eds. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 2007), pp. 33-167.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) A typical SESAM design. The structure contains a 30 pair distributed Bragg reflector with a saturable absorber grown on top. (b) Reflectivity as function of the incident pulse fluence. Initially, the reflectivity increases with pulse fluence. Inverse saturable absorption can lead to a roll-over and decreases the reflectivity for high fluences. The blue curve has a small induced absorption parameter F 2, the green curve has a large F 2 and for the red curve F 2=∞.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Previous setup according to Ref. [16]: the attenuation is a combination of an half wave plate and an AOM. The core of the setup is the beamsplitter (BS) that separates the incident (Pin) and reflected beam (Pout).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The experimental setup: the output of the pulsed laser source propagates through a variable attenuator to set the pulse energy, then through the isolator to eliminate back reflections and finally enters the measurement part. The reflectivity of the SESAM is obtained by measuring the response from both arms and computing the ratio.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The chopper wheel is lifted a few centimeters to block both beams at certain angles, which makes it possible to measure the photodiode offset and (b) the corresponding trace on the photodiode.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Two alignment beams are used to guarantee the reproducibility of the sample position.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Measurement of a HR without calibration (i.e. C=1), the flatness of the mirror is below <0.05% and (b) a typical SESAM measurement.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measurement of a HR with calibration, the reflectivity is close to 100% with a flatness of 0.055% and a SESAM measurement with small modulation depth, measured over four orders of magnitude. The green curve shows the fit function without induced absorption.

Equations (2)

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R ( F ) = R ns ln [ 1 + R lin R ns ( e F F sat 1 ) ] F F sat e F F 2 ,
R Gauss ( F p ) = 1 2 F p 0 2 F p R ( F ) d F .

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