Abstract

We demonstrate that filaments generated by ultrashort laser pulses can induce a remarkably large birefringence in Argon over its whole length, resulting in an ultrafast “half-wave plate” for a copropagating probe beam. This birefringence originates from the difference between the nonlinear refractive indices induced by the filament on the axes parallel and orthogonal to its polarization. An angle of 45° between the filament and the probe polarizations allows the realization of ultrafast Kerr-gates, with a switching time ultimately limited by the duration of the filamenting pulse.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

Y. H. Chen, S. Varma, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, "Measurement of transient nonlinear refractive index in gases using xenon supercontinuum single-shot spectral interferometry," Opt. Express 15, 7458-7467 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Trushin, K. Kosma, W. Fuss, and W. E. Schmid, "Sub-10-fs supercontinuum radiation generated by filamentation of few-cycle 800 nm pulses in argon," Opt. Lett. 32, 2432-2434 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Béjot, C. Bonnet, V. Boutou, and J.-P. Wolf, "Laser noise compression by filamentation at 400 nm in argon," Opt. Express 15, 13295-13309 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, "Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P.  Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, "Multifilamentation transmission through fog," Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G.  Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Q. J. Zhang, Z. Q. Hao, Y. T. Li, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, Q. L. Dong, X. Lu, Z. Y. Wei, Z. M. Sheng, J. Yu, and W. Yu, "Polarization-dependent supercontinuum generation from light filaments in air," Opt. Lett. 30, 534-536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D'amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, "Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization," Appl. Phys. B 79, 379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Bieglert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Self-focusing of circularly polarized beams," Phys. Rev. E 67,036622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Polarization dynamics of femtosecond pulses propagating in air," Phys. Rev. E 64, 046607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B 73, 287-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 181, 123-127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Petit, A. Talebpour, A. Proulx, and S. L. Chin, "Polarization dependence of the propagation of intense laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 175, 323-327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Femtosecond pulse propagation in argon: A pressure dependence study," Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903-4910 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Sprangle, E. Esarey, and B. Hafizi, "Propagation and stability of intense laser pulses in partially stripped plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 56, 5894-5907 (1997)
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

Ackermann, R.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akozbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G.  Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B 73, 287-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Alexeev, I.

André, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D'amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, "Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization," Appl. Phys. B 79, 379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Audebert, P.

Becker, A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G.  Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B 73, 287-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Béjot, P.

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P.  Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, "Multifilamentation transmission through fog," Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bieglert, J.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Bieglert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bonnet, C.

Bourayou, R.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boutou, V.

Bowden, C. M.

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B 73, 287-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Champeaux, S.

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, "Multifilamentation transmission through fog," Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. H.

Chien, C. Y.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G.  Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B 73, 287-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Petit, A. Talebpour, A. Proulx, and S. L. Chin, "Polarization dependence of the propagation of intense laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 175, 323-327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Comtois, D.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Bieglert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D'amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, "Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization," Appl. Phys. B 79, 379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Desparois, A.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Q. L.

Dossantos, A.

Du, D.

Eislöffel, J.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Esarey, E.

P. Sprangle, E. Esarey, and B. Hafizi, "Propagation and stability of intense laser pulses in partially stripped plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 56, 5894-5907 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Fallies, F.

Fibich, G.

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Self-focusing of circularly polarized beams," Phys. Rev. E 67,036622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 181, 123-127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Frey, S.

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, "Multifilamentation transmission through fog," Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuss, W.

Gauthier, J. C.

Geindre, J. P.

Hafizi, B.

P. Sprangle, E. Esarey, and B. Hafizi, "Propagation and stability of intense laser pulses in partially stripped plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 56, 5894-5907 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Hamoniaux, G.

Hao, Z. Q.

Hatzes, A. P.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hauri, C. P.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Bieglert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Bieglert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G.  Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ilan, B.

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Self-focusing of circularly polarized beams," Phys. Rev. E 67,036622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. W.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G.  Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, "Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation," Opt. Express 16, 466-493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, "Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P.  Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, "Multifilamentation transmission through fog," Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Bieglert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.-C.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kolesik, M.

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Polarization dynamics of femtosecond pulses propagating in air," Phys. Rev. E 64, 046607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Kornelis, W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Bieglert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G.  Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kosma, K.

La Fontaine, B.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lascoux, N.

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, "Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laux, U.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. T.

Liu, W.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G.  Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Lu, X.

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G.  Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Méchain, G.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D'amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, "Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization," Appl. Phys. B 79, 379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Méjean, G.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, "Multifilamentation transmission through fog," Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milchberg, H. M.

Mlejnek, M.

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Femtosecond pulse propagation in argon: A pressure dependence study," Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903-4910 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Polarization dynamics of femtosecond pulses propagating in air," Phys. Rev. E 64, 046607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Femtosecond pulse propagation in argon: A pressure dependence study," Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903-4910 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Bieglert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 181, 123-127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dossantos, and G.  Hamoniaux, "Frequency-Domain Interferometer for Measuring the Phase and Amplitude of a Femtosecond Pulse Probing a Laser-Produced Plasma," Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P.  Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, "Multifilamentation transmission through fog," Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oral, E.

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B 73, 287-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pépin, H.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petit, S.

S. Petit, A. Talebpour, A. Proulx, and S. L. Chin, "Polarization dependence of the propagation of intense laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 175, 323-327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 181, 123-127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proulx, A.

S. Petit, A. Talebpour, A. Proulx, and S. L. Chin, "Polarization dependence of the propagation of intense laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 175, 323-327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohwetter, P.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rousse, A.

Salamé, R.

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, "Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, "Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, "Multifilamentation transmission through fog," Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schlie, L. A. V.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, W. E.

Scholz, A.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G.  Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Z. M.

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P.  Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, "Multifilamentation transmission through fog," Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sprangle, P.

P. Sprangle, E. Esarey, and B. Hafizi, "Propagation and stability of intense laser pulses in partially stripped plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 56, 5894-5907 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Stecklum, B.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stelmaszczyk, K.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Talebpour, A.

S. Petit, A. Talebpour, A. Proulx, and S. L. Chin, "Polarization dependence of the propagation of intense laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 175, 323-327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Theberge, F.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G.  Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Trushin, S. A.

Tzortzakis, S.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 181, 123-127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Varma, S.

Vidal, F.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vijayalakshmi, K.

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B 73, 287-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vinçotte, A.

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, "Multifilamentation transmission through fog," Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. H.

Wei, Z. Y.

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winn, W.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J. P.

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, "Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, "Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation," Opt. Express 16, 466-493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Béjot, C. Bonnet, V. Boutou, and J.-P. Wolf, "Laser noise compression by filamentation at 400 nm in argon," Opt. Express 15, 13295-13309 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P.  Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, "Multifilamentation transmission through fog," Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wöste, L.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, E. M.

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Polarization dynamics of femtosecond pulses propagating in air," Phys. Rev. E 64, 046607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Femtosecond pulse propagation in argon: A pressure dependence study," Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903-4910 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Yu, J.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, "Multifilamentation transmission through fog," Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Q. J. Zhang, Z. Q. Hao, Y. T. Li, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, Q. L. Dong, X. Lu, Z. Y. Wei, Z. M. Sheng, J. Yu, and W. Yu, "Polarization-dependent supercontinuum generation from light filaments in air," Opt. Lett. 30, 534-536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, W.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, Q. J.

Zheng, Z. Y.

Appl. Phys. B

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Bieglert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B 73, 287-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D'amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, "Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization," Appl. Phys. B 79, 379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, "Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G.  Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 181, 123-127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Petit, A. Talebpour, A. Proulx, and S. L. Chin, "Polarization dependence of the propagation of intense laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 175, 323-327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Plasmas

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnson, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Self-focusing of circularly polarized beams," Phys. Rev. E 67,036622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Femtosecond pulse propagation in argon: A pressure dependence study," Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903-4910 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, "Multifilamentation transmission through fog," Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Sprangle, E. Esarey, and B. Hafizi, "Propagation and stability of intense laser pulses in partially stripped plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 56, 5894-5907 (1997)
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Polarization dynamics of femtosecond pulses propagating in air," Phys. Rev. E 64, 046607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P.  Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (1318 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. The polarization of the driving pulse (filamenting pulse, red) is set relative to that of the probe pulse (blue) before their interaction in the Argon cell. The driving and the probe beams are separated by a spectrometer and their polarization is analyzed by rotating a Glan cube.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Filament-induced birefringence leading to a half-wave plate behavior in 3-bar Argon. (a)–(b) Polar plot of the intensity transmitted as a function of the analyzing polarizer angle. For clarity, only half of the pattern is shown, the other half being given by symmetry. (a) Driving pulse (filament) polarization set at 0°. (b) Input (blue, -55°) and output (green, 57°) polarizations of the probe pulse. Co-propagation with the filament rotates the probe polarization by 112°. The squared cosine patterns are signatures for linearly polarized light (c) Experimental rotation of the probe polarization as a function of its initial value (green dots): The influence of the filament-induced effective λ probe /2.1 plate agrees remarkably well with the behavior of an ideal half-wave plate, displayed for reference (solid line).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Pressure dependence of the filament-induced birefringence. (a). Input probe polarization; (b)–(d). Output probe beam polarization for 1, 2 and 3 bar respectively. The black solid lines are fits assuming elliptical polarizations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(1.3 MB) Movie of the pressure dependence of the output polarization diagram of a probe beam driven by an ultrashort laser filament. The movie displays, for each pressure, the simulated signal of the probe beam as a function of the orientation of a polarizer downstream of the interaction region between the drive and pump pulses.[Media 1]

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Experimental (circles) and simulated (triangular) pressure dependence of the filament-induced dephasing. (b). Evolution of the intensity at the filament center with the propagation distance, depending on the pressure.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

z ε = i 2 k 0 Δ 2 ε i k 2 t 2 ε + i k 0 n 2 n 0 ε 2 ε i k 0 2 n 0 2 ρ c ρ ε 1 2 σ ρ ε β K 2 ε 2 K 2 ε
t ρ = σ K ( ρ at ρ ) ε 2 K + σ U i ρ ε 2 α ρ 2
P XPM , x probe = 3 ε 0 2 χ xxxx ( 3 ) E x filament 2 E x probe
P XPM , y probe = 3 ε 0 2 χ yyxx ( 3 ) E x filament 2 E y probe
Δ n XPM probe = 1 2 n 0 ( 3 2 Re ( χ xxxx ( 3 ) χ xxyy ( 3 ) ) ) E x filament 2 = n 2 XPM I filament
n 2 XPM = Re ( χ xxxx ( 3 ) ) ( n 0 2 ε 0 c ) = 4 n 2 3
Δ φ XPM probe = 2 π Δ n XPM probe d z λ probe = 2 π n 2 XPM I filament ( z ) d z λ probe

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