Abstract

We demonstrate that the coupling between plasmonic modes of oriented metallic nanorods results in the formation of an extended (guided) plasmonic mode of the nanorod array. The electromagnetic field distribution associated to this mode is found to be concentrated between the nanorods within the assembly and propagates normally to the nanorod long axes, similar to a photonic mode waveguided by an anisotropic slab. This collective plasmonic mode determines the optical properties of nanorod assemblies and can be tuned in a wide spectral range by changing the nanorod array geometry. This geometry represents a unique opportunity for light guiding applications and manipulation at the nanoscale as well as sensing applications and development of molecular plasmonic devices.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. S. Friedman, M. C. McAlpine, D. S. Ricketts, D. Ham, C. M. Lieber, "High-speed integrated nanowire circuits," Nature 434,1085 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Xiang, W. Lu, Y. Hu, Y. Wu, H. Yan, and C. M. Lieber, "Ge/Si nanowire heterostructures as high-performance field-effect transistors," Nature 441, 489-493 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, "Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics," Nature 415, 617-620 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. M. Shalaev, W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. k. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, "Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina," Nanotechnology 17, 5746-5753 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K.-S. Lee, M. A. El-Sayed, "Gold and Silver Nanoparticles in Sensing and Imaging: Sensitivity of Plasmon Response to Size, Shape, and Metal Composition," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19220-19225 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Pelton, M. Liu, S. Park, N. F. Scherer, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Ultrafast resonant optical scattering from single gold nanorods: Large nonlinearities and plasmon saturation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155419-155424 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, G. Boreman, "Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427-155430 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, R. J. Pollard, "Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402-235408 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Ono, J.-i. Kato, and S. Kawata, "Subwavelength Optical Imaging through a Metallic Nanorod Array," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267407-267410 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, and B. N. Chichkov, "Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231117 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, W. Hendren, R. Atkinson, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, W. Harrison, C. Bower, A. V. Zayats, "Molecular Plasmonics with Tunable Exciton-Plasmon Coupling Strength in J-Aggregate Hybridized Au Nanorod Assemblies," Nano Lett. 7, 1297-1303 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. R. Evans, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, D. O'Connor, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, "Plasmonic Core/Shell Nanorod Arrays: Subattoliter Controlled Geometry and Tunable Optical Properties," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 12522-12527 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, "Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410-8426 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Plasmon Coupling in Nanorod Assemblies: Optical Absorption, Discrete Dipole Approximation Simulation, and Exciton-Coupling Model," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 13512-13522 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. J. Xiao, J. P. Huang, and K. W. Yu, "Optical response of strongly coupled metal nanoparticles in dimer arrays," Phys. Rev. B 71, 045404-045411 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. G. d. Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, "Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420-235432 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. J. Smythe, E. Cubukcu, and F. Capasso, "Optical properties of surface plasmon resonances of coupled metallic nanorods," Opt. Express 15, 7439-7447 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transfer and switching in nanoparticle chain arrays below the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356-R16359 (2000).
  26. S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics - A route to Nanoscale Optical Devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. S. Citrin, "Coherent Excitation Transport in Metal-Nanoparticle Chains," Nano Lett. 4, 2323-2330 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, "Propagation of optical excitations by dipolar interactions in metal nanoparticle chains," Phys. Rev. B 70, 125429-125436 (2004).
  29. R. d. Waele, A. F. Koenderink, and A. Polman, "Tunable Nanoscale localization of Energy on Plasmon Particle Arrays," Nano Lett. 7, 2004-2008 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, A. Requicha, and B. E. Koel, "Observation of coupled plasmon-polariton modes of plasmon waveguides for electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit," Proc. SPIE 4810, 71-81 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, and H. A. Atwater, "Optical pulse propagation in metal nanoparticle chain waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 67, 205402-205406 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Y. Park and D. Stroud, "Surface-plasmon dispersion relations in chains of metallic nanoparticles: An exact quasistatic calculation," Phys. Rev. B 69, 125418-125424 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. F. Koenderink and A. Polman, "Complex response and polariton-like dispersion splitting in periodic metal nanoparticle chains," Phys. Rev. B 74, 033402-033405 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. Vlad, M. Matefi-Tempfli, S. Faniel, V. Bayot, S. Melinte, L. Piraux, and S. Matefi-Tempfli, "Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template," Nanotechnology 17, 4873-4876 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  35. B. Wolfrum, Y. Mourzina, D. Mayer, D. Schwaab, and A. Offenhusser, "Fabrication of large-scale patterned gold-nanopillar arrays on a silicon substrate using imprinted porous alumina templates," Small 2, 1256-1260 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (5)

A. I. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozulenko, "Light propagation in nanorod arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 265-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, W. Hendren, R. Atkinson, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, W. Harrison, C. Bower, A. V. Zayats, "Molecular Plasmonics with Tunable Exciton-Plasmon Coupling Strength in J-Aggregate Hybridized Au Nanorod Assemblies," Nano Lett. 7, 1297-1303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Evans, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, D. O'Connor, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, "Plasmonic Core/Shell Nanorod Arrays: Subattoliter Controlled Geometry and Tunable Optical Properties," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 12522-12527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Smythe, E. Cubukcu, and F. Capasso, "Optical properties of surface plasmon resonances of coupled metallic nanorods," Opt. Express 15, 7439-7447 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. d. Waele, A. F. Koenderink, and A. Polman, "Tunable Nanoscale localization of Energy on Plasmon Particle Arrays," Nano Lett. 7, 2004-2008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (11)

A. F. Koenderink and A. Polman, "Complex response and polariton-like dispersion splitting in periodic metal nanoparticle chains," Phys. Rev. B 74, 033402-033405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Vlad, M. Matefi-Tempfli, S. Faniel, V. Bayot, S. Melinte, L. Piraux, and S. Matefi-Tempfli, "Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template," Nanotechnology 17, 4873-4876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Wolfrum, Y. Mourzina, D. Mayer, D. Schwaab, and A. Offenhusser, "Fabrication of large-scale patterned gold-nanopillar arrays on a silicon substrate using imprinted porous alumina templates," Small 2, 1256-1260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Prescott, P. Mulvaney, "Gold nanorod extinction spectra," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123504-123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Plasmon Coupling in Nanorod Assemblies: Optical Absorption, Discrete Dipole Approximation Simulation, and Exciton-Coupling Model," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 13512-13522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, and B. N. Chichkov, "Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, R. J. Pollard, "Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402-235408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiang, W. Lu, Y. Hu, Y. Wu, H. Yan, and C. M. Lieber, "Ge/Si nanowire heterostructures as high-performance field-effect transistors," Nature 441, 489-493 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, "Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina," Nanotechnology 17, 5746-5753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K.-S. Lee, M. A. El-Sayed, "Gold and Silver Nanoparticles in Sensing and Imaging: Sensitivity of Plasmon Response to Size, Shape, and Metal Composition," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19220-19225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pelton, M. Liu, S. Park, N. F. Scherer, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Ultrafast resonant optical scattering from single gold nanorods: Large nonlinearities and plasmon saturation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155419-155424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (7)

R. S. Friedman, M. C. McAlpine, D. S. Ricketts, D. Ham, C. M. Lieber, "High-speed integrated nanowire circuits," Nature 434,1085 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ono, J.-i. Kato, and S. Kawata, "Subwavelength Optical Imaging through a Metallic Nanorod Array," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267407-267410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, "Resonant light interaction with plasmonic nanowire systems," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S32-S37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. k. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Xiao, J. P. Huang, and K. W. Yu, "Optical response of strongly coupled metal nanoparticles in dimer arrays," Phys. Rev. B 71, 045404-045411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. G. d. Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, "Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420-235432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

D. S. Citrin, "Coherent Excitation Transport in Metal-Nanoparticle Chains," Nano Lett. 4, 2323-2330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, "Propagation of optical excitations by dipolar interactions in metal nanoparticle chains," Phys. Rev. B 70, 125429-125436 (2004).

S. Y. Park and D. Stroud, "Surface-plasmon dispersion relations in chains of metallic nanoparticles: An exact quasistatic calculation," Phys. Rev. B 69, 125418-125424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, and H. A. Atwater, "Optical pulse propagation in metal nanoparticle chain waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 67, 205402-205406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, G. Boreman, "Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427-155430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, "Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics," Nature 415, 617-620 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, A. Requicha, and B. E. Koel, "Observation of coupled plasmon-polariton modes of plasmon waveguides for electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit," Proc. SPIE 4810, 71-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics - A route to Nanoscale Optical Devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transfer and switching in nanoparticle chain arrays below the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356-R16359 (2000).

1999 (1)

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, "Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410-8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. G. d. Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, "Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420-235432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkinson, R.

G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, W. Hendren, R. Atkinson, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, W. Harrison, C. Bower, A. V. Zayats, "Molecular Plasmonics with Tunable Exciton-Plasmon Coupling Strength in J-Aggregate Hybridized Au Nanorod Assemblies," Nano Lett. 7, 1297-1303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Evans, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, D. O'Connor, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, "Plasmonic Core/Shell Nanorod Arrays: Subattoliter Controlled Geometry and Tunable Optical Properties," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 12522-12527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, "Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina," Nanotechnology 17, 5746-5753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, R. J. Pollard, "Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402-235408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, and H. A. Atwater, "Optical pulse propagation in metal nanoparticle chain waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 67, 205402-205406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, A. Requicha, and B. E. Koel, "Observation of coupled plasmon-polariton modes of plasmon waveguides for electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit," Proc. SPIE 4810, 71-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics - A route to Nanoscale Optical Devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transfer and switching in nanoparticle chain arrays below the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356-R16359 (2000).

Aussenegg, F. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, G. Boreman, "Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427-155430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bayot, V.

A. Vlad, M. Matefi-Tempfli, S. Faniel, V. Bayot, S. Melinte, L. Piraux, and S. Matefi-Tempfli, "Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template," Nanotechnology 17, 4873-4876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, G. Boreman, "Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427-155430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bower, C.

G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, W. Hendren, R. Atkinson, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, W. Harrison, C. Bower, A. V. Zayats, "Molecular Plasmonics with Tunable Exciton-Plasmon Coupling Strength in J-Aggregate Hybridized Au Nanorod Assemblies," Nano Lett. 7, 1297-1303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics - A route to Nanoscale Optical Devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transfer and switching in nanoparticle chain arrays below the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356-R16359 (2000).

Bryant, G. W.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. G. d. Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, "Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420-235432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W. S.

Capasso, F.

Chettiar, U. K.

Chichkov, B. N.

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, and B. N. Chichkov, "Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Citrin, D. S.

D. S. Citrin, "Coherent Excitation Transport in Metal-Nanoparticle Chains," Nano Lett. 4, 2323-2330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

Dickson, W.

G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, W. Hendren, R. Atkinson, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, W. Harrison, C. Bower, A. V. Zayats, "Molecular Plasmonics with Tunable Exciton-Plasmon Coupling Strength in J-Aggregate Hybridized Au Nanorod Assemblies," Nano Lett. 7, 1297-1303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Evans, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, D. O'Connor, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, "Plasmonic Core/Shell Nanorod Arrays: Subattoliter Controlled Geometry and Tunable Optical Properties," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 12522-12527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, "Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina," Nanotechnology 17, 5746-5753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, R. J. Pollard, "Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402-235408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, G. Boreman, "Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427-155430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H.-J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

K.-S. Lee, M. A. El-Sayed, "Gold and Silver Nanoparticles in Sensing and Imaging: Sensitivity of Plasmon Response to Size, Shape, and Metal Composition," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19220-19225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Plasmon Coupling in Nanorod Assemblies: Optical Absorption, Discrete Dipole Approximation Simulation, and Exciton-Coupling Model," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 13512-13522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, "Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410-8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eustis, S.

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Plasmon Coupling in Nanorod Assemblies: Optical Absorption, Discrete Dipole Approximation Simulation, and Exciton-Coupling Model," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 13512-13522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P.

R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, R. J. Pollard, "Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402-235408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, "Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina," Nanotechnology 17, 5746-5753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P. R.

P. R. Evans, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, D. O'Connor, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, "Plasmonic Core/Shell Nanorod Arrays: Subattoliter Controlled Geometry and Tunable Optical Properties," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 12522-12527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, W. Hendren, R. Atkinson, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, W. Harrison, C. Bower, A. V. Zayats, "Molecular Plasmonics with Tunable Exciton-Plasmon Coupling Strength in J-Aggregate Hybridized Au Nanorod Assemblies," Nano Lett. 7, 1297-1303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faniel, S.

A. Vlad, M. Matefi-Tempfli, S. Faniel, V. Bayot, S. Melinte, L. Piraux, and S. Matefi-Tempfli, "Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template," Nanotechnology 17, 4873-4876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. W.

W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, "Propagation of optical excitations by dipolar interactions in metal nanoparticle chains," Phys. Rev. B 70, 125429-125436 (2004).

Friedman, R. S.

R. S. Friedman, M. C. McAlpine, D. S. Ricketts, D. Ham, C. M. Lieber, "High-speed integrated nanowire circuits," Nature 434,1085 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gattass, R. R.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gudiksen, M. S.

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, "Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics," Nature 415, 617-620 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guyot-Sionnest, P.

M. Pelton, M. Liu, S. Park, N. F. Scherer, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Ultrafast resonant optical scattering from single gold nanorods: Large nonlinearities and plasmon saturation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155419-155424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ham, D.

R. S. Friedman, M. C. McAlpine, D. S. Ricketts, D. Ham, C. M. Lieber, "High-speed integrated nanowire circuits," Nature 434,1085 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrison, W.

G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, W. Hendren, R. Atkinson, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, W. Harrison, C. Bower, A. V. Zayats, "Molecular Plasmonics with Tunable Exciton-Plasmon Coupling Strength in J-Aggregate Hybridized Au Nanorod Assemblies," Nano Lett. 7, 1297-1303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartman, J. W.

M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transfer and switching in nanoparticle chain arrays below the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356-R16359 (2000).

He, S. L.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendren, W.

G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, W. Hendren, R. Atkinson, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, W. Harrison, C. Bower, A. V. Zayats, "Molecular Plasmonics with Tunable Exciton-Plasmon Coupling Strength in J-Aggregate Hybridized Au Nanorod Assemblies," Nano Lett. 7, 1297-1303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Evans, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, D. O'Connor, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, "Plasmonic Core/Shell Nanorod Arrays: Subattoliter Controlled Geometry and Tunable Optical Properties," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 12522-12527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hendren, W. R.

P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, "Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina," Nanotechnology 17, 5746-5753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, R. J. Pollard, "Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402-235408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, G. Boreman, "Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427-155430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

J. Xiang, W. Lu, Y. Hu, Y. Wu, H. Yan, and C. M. Lieber, "Ge/Si nanowire heterostructures as high-performance field-effect transistors," Nature 441, 489-493 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J. P.

J. J. Xiao, J. P. Huang, and K. W. Yu, "Optical response of strongly coupled metal nanoparticles in dimer arrays," Phys. Rev. B 71, 045404-045411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jain, P. K.

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Plasmon Coupling in Nanorod Assemblies: Optical Absorption, Discrete Dipole Approximation Simulation, and Exciton-Coupling Model," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 13512-13522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kato, J.-i.

A. Ono, J.-i. Kato, and S. Kawata, "Subwavelength Optical Imaging through a Metallic Nanorod Array," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267407-267410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

A. Ono, J.-i. Kato, and S. Kawata, "Subwavelength Optical Imaging through a Metallic Nanorod Array," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267407-267410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, and H. A. Atwater, "Optical pulse propagation in metal nanoparticle chain waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 67, 205402-205406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, A. Requicha, and B. E. Koel, "Observation of coupled plasmon-polariton modes of plasmon waveguides for electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit," Proc. SPIE 4810, 71-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics - A route to Nanoscale Optical Devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koel, B. E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, A. Requicha, and B. E. Koel, "Observation of coupled plasmon-polariton modes of plasmon waveguides for electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit," Proc. SPIE 4810, 71-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koenderink, A. F.

A. F. Koenderink and A. Polman, "Complex response and polariton-like dispersion splitting in periodic metal nanoparticle chains," Phys. Rev. B 74, 033402-033405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, G. Boreman, "Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427-155430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lauhon, L. J.

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, "Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics," Nature 415, 617-620 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.-S.

K.-S. Lee, M. A. El-Sayed, "Gold and Silver Nanoparticles in Sensing and Imaging: Sensitivity of Plasmon Response to Size, Shape, and Metal Composition," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19220-19225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitner, A.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, G. Boreman, "Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427-155430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. M.

J. Xiang, W. Lu, Y. Hu, Y. Wu, H. Yan, and C. M. Lieber, "Ge/Si nanowire heterostructures as high-performance field-effect transistors," Nature 441, 489-493 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Friedman, M. C. McAlpine, D. S. Ricketts, D. Ham, C. M. Lieber, "High-speed integrated nanowire circuits," Nature 434,1085 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, "Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics," Nature 415, 617-620 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Link, S.

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, "Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410-8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

M. Pelton, M. Liu, S. Park, N. F. Scherer, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Ultrafast resonant optical scattering from single gold nanorods: Large nonlinearities and plasmon saturation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155419-155424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, W.

J. Xiang, W. Lu, Y. Hu, Y. Wu, H. Yan, and C. M. Lieber, "Ge/Si nanowire heterostructures as high-performance field-effect transistors," Nature 441, 489-493 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, and H. A. Atwater, "Optical pulse propagation in metal nanoparticle chain waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 67, 205402-205406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, A. Requicha, and B. E. Koel, "Observation of coupled plasmon-polariton modes of plasmon waveguides for electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit," Proc. SPIE 4810, 71-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics - A route to Nanoscale Optical Devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matefi-Tempfli, M.

A. Vlad, M. Matefi-Tempfli, S. Faniel, V. Bayot, S. Melinte, L. Piraux, and S. Matefi-Tempfli, "Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template," Nanotechnology 17, 4873-4876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matefi-Tempfli, S.

A. Vlad, M. Matefi-Tempfli, S. Faniel, V. Bayot, S. Melinte, L. Piraux, and S. Matefi-Tempfli, "Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template," Nanotechnology 17, 4873-4876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, I.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayer, D.

B. Wolfrum, Y. Mourzina, D. Mayer, D. Schwaab, and A. Offenhusser, "Fabrication of large-scale patterned gold-nanopillar arrays on a silicon substrate using imprinted porous alumina templates," Small 2, 1256-1260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McAlpine, M. C.

R. S. Friedman, M. C. McAlpine, D. S. Ricketts, D. Ham, C. M. Lieber, "High-speed integrated nanowire circuits," Nature 434,1085 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melinte, S.

A. Vlad, M. Matefi-Tempfli, S. Faniel, V. Bayot, S. Melinte, L. Piraux, and S. Matefi-Tempfli, "Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template," Nanotechnology 17, 4873-4876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, A. Requicha, and B. E. Koel, "Observation of coupled plasmon-polariton modes of plasmon waveguides for electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit," Proc. SPIE 4810, 71-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics - A route to Nanoscale Optical Devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Monacelli, B.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, G. Boreman, "Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427-155430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mourzina, Y.

B. Wolfrum, Y. Mourzina, D. Mayer, D. Schwaab, and A. Offenhusser, "Fabrication of large-scale patterned gold-nanopillar arrays on a silicon substrate using imprinted porous alumina templates," Small 2, 1256-1260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mulvaney, P.

S. W. Prescott, P. Mulvaney, "Gold nanorod extinction spectra," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123504-123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E. E.

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, "Resonant light interaction with plasmonic nanowire systems," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S32-S37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O'Connor, D.

P. R. Evans, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, D. O'Connor, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, "Plasmonic Core/Shell Nanorod Arrays: Subattoliter Controlled Geometry and Tunable Optical Properties," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 12522-12527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Offenhusser, A.

B. Wolfrum, Y. Mourzina, D. Mayer, D. Schwaab, and A. Offenhusser, "Fabrication of large-scale patterned gold-nanopillar arrays on a silicon substrate using imprinted porous alumina templates," Small 2, 1256-1260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ono, A.

A. Ono, J.-i. Kato, and S. Kawata, "Subwavelength Optical Imaging through a Metallic Nanorod Array," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267407-267410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

M. Pelton, M. Liu, S. Park, N. F. Scherer, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Ultrafast resonant optical scattering from single gold nanorods: Large nonlinearities and plasmon saturation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155419-155424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. Y.

S. Y. Park and D. Stroud, "Surface-plasmon dispersion relations in chains of metallic nanoparticles: An exact quasistatic calculation," Phys. Rev. B 69, 125418-125424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Passinger, S.

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, and B. N. Chichkov, "Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pelton, M.

M. Pelton, M. Liu, S. Park, N. F. Scherer, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Ultrafast resonant optical scattering from single gold nanorods: Large nonlinearities and plasmon saturation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155419-155424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Piraux, L.

A. Vlad, M. Matefi-Tempfli, S. Faniel, V. Bayot, S. Melinte, L. Piraux, and S. Matefi-Tempfli, "Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template," Nanotechnology 17, 4873-4876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Podolskiy, V. A.

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, "Resonant light interaction with plasmonic nanowire systems," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S32-S37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollard, R. J.

G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, W. Hendren, R. Atkinson, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, W. Harrison, C. Bower, A. V. Zayats, "Molecular Plasmonics with Tunable Exciton-Plasmon Coupling Strength in J-Aggregate Hybridized Au Nanorod Assemblies," Nano Lett. 7, 1297-1303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Evans, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, D. O'Connor, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, "Plasmonic Core/Shell Nanorod Arrays: Subattoliter Controlled Geometry and Tunable Optical Properties," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 12522-12527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, R. J. Pollard, "Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402-235408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, "Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina," Nanotechnology 17, 5746-5753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

A. F. Koenderink and A. Polman, "Complex response and polariton-like dispersion splitting in periodic metal nanoparticle chains," Phys. Rev. B 74, 033402-033405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prescott, S. W.

S. W. Prescott, P. Mulvaney, "Gold nanorod extinction spectra," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123504-123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Puscasu, I.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, G. Boreman, "Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427-155430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rahachou, A. I.

A. I. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozulenko, "Light propagation in nanorod arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 265-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rechberger, W.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, C.

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, and B. N. Chichkov, "Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Requicha, A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, A. Requicha, and B. E. Koel, "Observation of coupled plasmon-polariton modes of plasmon waveguides for electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit," Proc. SPIE 4810, 71-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Requicha, A. A. G.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics - A route to Nanoscale Optical Devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richter, L. J.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. G. d. Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, "Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420-235432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ricketts, D. S.

R. S. Friedman, M. C. McAlpine, D. S. Ricketts, D. Ham, C. M. Lieber, "High-speed integrated nanowire circuits," Nature 434,1085 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarychev, A. K.

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, "Resonant light interaction with plasmonic nanowire systems," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S32-S37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schaich, W. L.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, G. Boreman, "Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427-155430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, N. F.

M. Pelton, M. Liu, S. Park, N. F. Scherer, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Ultrafast resonant optical scattering from single gold nanorods: Large nonlinearities and plasmon saturation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155419-155424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, G. Boreman, "Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427-155430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schwaab, D.

B. Wolfrum, Y. Mourzina, D. Mayer, D. Schwaab, and A. Offenhusser, "Fabrication of large-scale patterned gold-nanopillar arrays on a silicon substrate using imprinted porous alumina templates," Small 2, 1256-1260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, "Resonant light interaction with plasmonic nanowire systems," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S32-S37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. k. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. C.

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, "Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics," Nature 415, 617-620 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smythe, E. J.

Stroud, D.

S. Y. Park and D. Stroud, "Surface-plasmon dispersion relations in chains of metallic nanoparticles: An exact quasistatic calculation," Phys. Rev. B 69, 125418-125424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L. M.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlad, A.

A. Vlad, M. Matefi-Tempfli, S. Faniel, V. Bayot, S. Melinte, L. Piraux, and S. Matefi-Tempfli, "Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template," Nanotechnology 17, 4873-4876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, "Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics," Nature 415, 617-620 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, W. H.

W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, "Propagation of optical excitations by dipolar interactions in metal nanoparticle chains," Phys. Rev. B 70, 125429-125436 (2004).

Wolfrum, B.

B. Wolfrum, Y. Mourzina, D. Mayer, D. Schwaab, and A. Offenhusser, "Fabrication of large-scale patterned gold-nanopillar arrays on a silicon substrate using imprinted porous alumina templates," Small 2, 1256-1260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

J. Xiang, W. Lu, Y. Hu, Y. Wu, H. Yan, and C. M. Lieber, "Ge/Si nanowire heterostructures as high-performance field-effect transistors," Nature 441, 489-493 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wurtz, G. A.

G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, W. Hendren, R. Atkinson, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, W. Harrison, C. Bower, A. V. Zayats, "Molecular Plasmonics with Tunable Exciton-Plasmon Coupling Strength in J-Aggregate Hybridized Au Nanorod Assemblies," Nano Lett. 7, 1297-1303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Evans, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, D. O'Connor, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, "Plasmonic Core/Shell Nanorod Arrays: Subattoliter Controlled Geometry and Tunable Optical Properties," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 12522-12527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, "Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina," Nanotechnology 17, 5746-5753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, R. J. Pollard, "Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402-235408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, J.

J. Xiang, W. Lu, Y. Hu, Y. Wu, H. Yan, and C. M. Lieber, "Ge/Si nanowire heterostructures as high-performance field-effect transistors," Nature 441, 489-493 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, J. J.

J. J. Xiao, J. P. Huang, and K. W. Yu, "Optical response of strongly coupled metal nanoparticles in dimer arrays," Phys. Rev. B 71, 045404-045411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

J. Xiang, W. Lu, Y. Hu, Y. Wu, H. Yan, and C. M. Lieber, "Ge/Si nanowire heterostructures as high-performance field-effect transistors," Nature 441, 489-493 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, K. W.

J. J. Xiao, J. P. Huang, and K. W. Yu, "Optical response of strongly coupled metal nanoparticles in dimer arrays," Phys. Rev. B 71, 045404-045411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, W. Hendren, R. Atkinson, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, W. Harrison, C. Bower, A. V. Zayats, "Molecular Plasmonics with Tunable Exciton-Plasmon Coupling Strength in J-Aggregate Hybridized Au Nanorod Assemblies," Nano Lett. 7, 1297-1303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Evans, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, D. O'Connor, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, "Plasmonic Core/Shell Nanorod Arrays: Subattoliter Controlled Geometry and Tunable Optical Properties," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 12522-12527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, "Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina," Nanotechnology 17, 5746-5753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, R. J. Pollard, "Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402-235408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zozulenko, I. V.

A. I. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozulenko, "Light propagation in nanorod arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 265-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics - A route to Nanoscale Optical Devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, and B. N. Chichkov, "Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. W. Prescott, P. Mulvaney, "Gold nanorod extinction spectra," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 123504-123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (2)

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, "Resonant light interaction with plasmonic nanowire systems," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S32-S37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozulenko, "Light propagation in nanorod arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 265-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (3)

K.-S. Lee, M. A. El-Sayed, "Gold and Silver Nanoparticles in Sensing and Imaging: Sensitivity of Plasmon Response to Size, Shape, and Metal Composition," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19220-19225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Plasmon Coupling in Nanorod Assemblies: Optical Absorption, Discrete Dipole Approximation Simulation, and Exciton-Coupling Model," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 13512-13522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, "Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410-8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

P. R. Evans, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, D. O'Connor, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, "Plasmonic Core/Shell Nanorod Arrays: Subattoliter Controlled Geometry and Tunable Optical Properties," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 12522-12527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, W. Hendren, R. Atkinson, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, W. Harrison, C. Bower, A. V. Zayats, "Molecular Plasmonics with Tunable Exciton-Plasmon Coupling Strength in J-Aggregate Hybridized Au Nanorod Assemblies," Nano Lett. 7, 1297-1303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Citrin, "Coherent Excitation Transport in Metal-Nanoparticle Chains," Nano Lett. 4, 2323-2330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. d. Waele, A. F. Koenderink, and A. Polman, "Tunable Nanoscale localization of Energy on Plasmon Particle Arrays," Nano Lett. 7, 2004-2008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (2)

A. Vlad, M. Matefi-Tempfli, S. Faniel, V. Bayot, S. Melinte, L. Piraux, and S. Matefi-Tempfli, "Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template," Nanotechnology 17, 4873-4876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, and R. J. Pollard, "Growth and properties of gold and nickel nanorods in thin film alumina," Nanotechnology 17, 5746-5753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

R. S. Friedman, M. C. McAlpine, D. S. Ricketts, D. Ham, C. M. Lieber, "High-speed integrated nanowire circuits," Nature 434,1085 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xiang, W. Lu, Y. Hu, Y. Wu, H. Yan, and C. M. Lieber, "Ge/Si nanowire heterostructures as high-performance field-effect transistors," Nature 441, 489-493 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, "Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics," Nature 415, 617-620 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (10)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, and H. A. Atwater, "Optical pulse propagation in metal nanoparticle chain waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 67, 205402-205406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Park and D. Stroud, "Surface-plasmon dispersion relations in chains of metallic nanoparticles: An exact quasistatic calculation," Phys. Rev. B 69, 125418-125424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Koenderink and A. Polman, "Complex response and polariton-like dispersion splitting in periodic metal nanoparticle chains," Phys. Rev. B 74, 033402-033405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, "Propagation of optical excitations by dipolar interactions in metal nanoparticle chains," Phys. Rev. B 70, 125429-125436 (2004).

M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transfer and switching in nanoparticle chain arrays below the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356-R16359 (2000).

J. J. Xiao, J. P. Huang, and K. W. Yu, "Optical response of strongly coupled metal nanoparticles in dimer arrays," Phys. Rev. B 71, 045404-045411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. G. d. Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, "Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420-235432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pelton, M. Liu, S. Park, N. F. Scherer, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Ultrafast resonant optical scattering from single gold nanorods: Large nonlinearities and plasmon saturation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155419-155424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, G. Boreman, "Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427-155430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, R. J. Pollard, "Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402-235408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Ono, J.-i. Kato, and S. Kawata, "Subwavelength Optical Imaging through a Metallic Nanorod Array," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267407-267410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, A. Requicha, and B. E. Koel, "Observation of coupled plasmon-polariton modes of plasmon waveguides for electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit," Proc. SPIE 4810, 71-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

B. Wolfrum, Y. Mourzina, D. Mayer, D. Schwaab, and A. Offenhusser, "Fabrication of large-scale patterned gold-nanopillar arrays on a silicon substrate using imprinted porous alumina templates," Small 2, 1256-1260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM image of an array of Au nanorods in air. Inset: TEM cross-section of Au nanorods embedded in AAO (the scale bars are 100 nm), (b) zero-order optical extinction spectra for different of angles of incidence. The spectra have been taken for nanorods embedded in an AAO matrix. The nanorods length is 300 nm, diameter is 30 nm, and the inter-rod distance (center-to-center) is about 100 nm. (c) zero-order optical extinction spectra of arrays of Au nanorods in AAO as a function of rod aspect ratio. The nanorods length is 400 nm and the inter-rod distance (center-to-center) is about 100 nm. The curves are labeled according to the rod’s aspect ratio corresponding to rods with diameter ranging from about 15 nm to 30 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Angular dispersion of the L-mode as measured from Fig. 1(b) for incidence angles varying from 10° to 50°. The momentum is the projection of the incident photon momentum perpendicular to the rods long axis, (b) dispersion ħΔωk for the L-mode measured as a function of effective inter-rod distance between the incidence angles of 10° and 50°. The lines in (a) and (b) are a guide to the eye.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) L-mode wavelength dependence on the aspect ratio for nanorods in the array (circles) and isolated ellipsoids (squares). The L-mode data are from Fig. 1(c). (b) Schematic energy diagram of the plasmonic resonances in the array of nanorods with regards to the isolated modes. Strong electromagnetic coupling of the plasmonic resonances supported by individual nanorods leads to the formation of a collective plasmonic mode. J measures the inter-rod coupling strength. See text for details. (b) Spectra of Re(εzz ) calculated in the modified Maxwell-Garnet model for assemblies of Au ellipsoids with different concentrations: (squares) 0.08 rods/µm2, (circles) 0.3 rods/µm2, (triangles) 0.8 rods/µm2, and (crosses) 48 rods/µm2. The ellipsoids are embedded in AAO, have a major and minor axis length of 300 nm and 25 nm, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

L-mode’s electric field distribution in the primitive cell of the nanorod array for different inter-rod distances: (a) 500 nm, (b) 200 nm, (c) 150 nm, and (d) 100 nm calculated using the finite element method. The nanorod length and diameter is 300 nm and 30 nm, respectively. The nanorods are embedded in an AAO matrix (n=6) and supported by a glass substrate (n=1.5). The superstrate is air (n=1). The angle of incidence of TM-polarized probe light is 45°. The arrows in (a)–(d) show the direction of the Poynting vector.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Group velocity (dotted labels) and propagation length (square labels) of electromagnetic energy of the L-Mode as a function of inter-rod distance, a decreasing distance corresponds to an increasing coupling strength.

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