Abstract

We introduce a new concept to improve the contrast and peak brightness of conventional data projectors. Our method provides a non-homogenous light source by dynamically directing fractions of the light from the projector lamp before it reaches the display mechanism. This will supply more light to the areas that need it most, at the expense of the darker parts of the image. In effect, this method will produce a low resolution version of the image onto the image-forming element. To manipulate the light in this manner, we propose using an intermediate array of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirrors. By directing the light away from the dark parts earlier in the display chain, the amount of light that needs to be blocked will be reduced, thus decreasing the black level of the final image. Moreover, the ability to dynamically allocate more light to the bright parts of the image will allow for peak brightnesses higher than the average maximum brightness of display.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Dewald, D. Segler, and S. Penn, "Advances in contrast enhancement for DLP projection displays," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 11, 177-181 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. E. Peterson, "Silicon as a Mechanical Material," Proceedings of the IEEE 70(5), 420-457 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Jung, U. Krishnamoorthy, and O. Solgaard, "High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives," J. Microelectromechanical Syst. 15, 563-571 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs. "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Transactions on Graphics,  23, 760-768, (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Trentacoste, W. Heidrich, L. Whitehead, H. Seetzen, and G. Ward, "Photometric image processing for high dynamic range displays," J. Visual Commun. Image Represent. 18, 439-451 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Pavlovych and W. Stuerzlinger, "A High-Dynamic Range Projection System," Prog. Biomed. Opt. Imaging 6,(39) (2005).
  7. G. Damberg, H. Seetzen, G. Ward, W. Heidrich, and L. Whitehead, "High Dynamic Range Projection Systems," SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 38, 4-7 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. G. J. Barten, "Physical model for the contrast sensitivity of the human eye," Proc. SPIE 1666, 57-72 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Burt and E. Adelson, "A multiresolution spline with application to image mosaics," ACM Transactions on Graphics 2, 217-236 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. P. Simoncelli. "matlabPyrTools"http://www.cns.nyu.edu/~lcv/software.htmlAccessed 02/22/07.
  11. P. Debevec and J. Malik, "Recovering high dynamic range radiance maps from photographs," Proceedings of the 24th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, 369-378 (1997).
  12. E. Reinhard, G. Ward, S. Pattanaik, and P. Debevec, High Dynamic Range Imaging: Acquisition, Display, and Image-Based Lighting (The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Computer Graphics) (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2005).
  13. S. J. Daly, "Visible differences predictor: an algorithm for the assessment of image fidelity," Proc. SPIE 1666, 2-15 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Mantiuk, S. Daly, K. Myszkowski, and H.-P. Seidel, "Predicting Visible Differences in High Dynamic Range Images - Model and its Calibration," in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging X, IS&T/SPIE�??s 17th Annual Symposium on Electronic Imaging (2005), B. E. Rogowitz, T. N. Pappas, and S. J. Daly, eds., Vol. 5666, pp. 204-214 (2005).
  15. K. Devlin, A. Chalmers, and E. Reinhard, "Visual calibration and correction for ambient illumination," ACM Transactions on Applied Perception(TAP) 3, 429-452 (2006).
  16. R. Heckaman, "Effect of DLP projector white channel on perceptual gamut," Journal of the SID 14, 755-761 (2006).

2007

M. Trentacoste, W. Heidrich, L. Whitehead, H. Seetzen, and G. Ward, "Photometric image processing for high dynamic range displays," J. Visual Commun. Image Represent. 18, 439-451 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Devlin, A. Chalmers, and E. Reinhard, "Visual calibration and correction for ambient illumination," ACM Transactions on Applied Perception(TAP) 3, 429-452 (2006).

R. Heckaman, "Effect of DLP projector white channel on perceptual gamut," Journal of the SID 14, 755-761 (2006).

I. Jung, U. Krishnamoorthy, and O. Solgaard, "High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives," J. Microelectromechanical Syst. 15, 563-571 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs. "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Transactions on Graphics,  23, 760-768, (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Dewald, D. Segler, and S. Penn, "Advances in contrast enhancement for DLP projection displays," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 11, 177-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. G. J. Barten, "Physical model for the contrast sensitivity of the human eye," Proc. SPIE 1666, 57-72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Daly, "Visible differences predictor: an algorithm for the assessment of image fidelity," Proc. SPIE 1666, 2-15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983

P. Burt and E. Adelson, "A multiresolution spline with application to image mosaics," ACM Transactions on Graphics 2, 217-236 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

K. E. Peterson, "Silicon as a Mechanical Material," Proceedings of the IEEE 70(5), 420-457 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Adelson, E.

P. Burt and E. Adelson, "A multiresolution spline with application to image mosaics," ACM Transactions on Graphics 2, 217-236 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Barten, P. G. J.

P. G. J. Barten, "Physical model for the contrast sensitivity of the human eye," Proc. SPIE 1666, 57-72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Burt, P.

P. Burt and E. Adelson, "A multiresolution spline with application to image mosaics," ACM Transactions on Graphics 2, 217-236 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chalmers, A.

K. Devlin, A. Chalmers, and E. Reinhard, "Visual calibration and correction for ambient illumination," ACM Transactions on Applied Perception(TAP) 3, 429-452 (2006).

Daly, S. J.

S. J. Daly, "Visible differences predictor: an algorithm for the assessment of image fidelity," Proc. SPIE 1666, 2-15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Devlin, K.

K. Devlin, A. Chalmers, and E. Reinhard, "Visual calibration and correction for ambient illumination," ACM Transactions on Applied Perception(TAP) 3, 429-452 (2006).

Dewald, D.

D. Dewald, D. Segler, and S. Penn, "Advances in contrast enhancement for DLP projection displays," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 11, 177-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, A.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs. "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Transactions on Graphics,  23, 760-768, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heckaman, R.

R. Heckaman, "Effect of DLP projector white channel on perceptual gamut," Journal of the SID 14, 755-761 (2006).

Heidrich, W.

M. Trentacoste, W. Heidrich, L. Whitehead, H. Seetzen, and G. Ward, "Photometric image processing for high dynamic range displays," J. Visual Commun. Image Represent. 18, 439-451 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs. "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Transactions on Graphics,  23, 760-768, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I.

I. Jung, U. Krishnamoorthy, and O. Solgaard, "High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives," J. Microelectromechanical Syst. 15, 563-571 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, U.

I. Jung, U. Krishnamoorthy, and O. Solgaard, "High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives," J. Microelectromechanical Syst. 15, 563-571 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Penn, S.

D. Dewald, D. Segler, and S. Penn, "Advances in contrast enhancement for DLP projection displays," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 11, 177-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, K. E.

K. E. Peterson, "Silicon as a Mechanical Material," Proceedings of the IEEE 70(5), 420-457 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Reinhard, E.

K. Devlin, A. Chalmers, and E. Reinhard, "Visual calibration and correction for ambient illumination," ACM Transactions on Applied Perception(TAP) 3, 429-452 (2006).

Seetzen, H.

M. Trentacoste, W. Heidrich, L. Whitehead, H. Seetzen, and G. Ward, "Photometric image processing for high dynamic range displays," J. Visual Commun. Image Represent. 18, 439-451 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs. "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Transactions on Graphics,  23, 760-768, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Segler, D.

D. Dewald, D. Segler, and S. Penn, "Advances in contrast enhancement for DLP projection displays," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 11, 177-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Solgaard, O.

I. Jung, U. Krishnamoorthy, and O. Solgaard, "High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives," J. Microelectromechanical Syst. 15, 563-571 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Stuerzlinger, W.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs. "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Transactions on Graphics,  23, 760-768, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trentacoste, M.

M. Trentacoste, W. Heidrich, L. Whitehead, H. Seetzen, and G. Ward, "Photometric image processing for high dynamic range displays," J. Visual Commun. Image Represent. 18, 439-451 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs. "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Transactions on Graphics,  23, 760-768, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vorozcovs, A.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs. "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Transactions on Graphics,  23, 760-768, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ward, G.

M. Trentacoste, W. Heidrich, L. Whitehead, H. Seetzen, and G. Ward, "Photometric image processing for high dynamic range displays," J. Visual Commun. Image Represent. 18, 439-451 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs. "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Transactions on Graphics,  23, 760-768, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, L.

M. Trentacoste, W. Heidrich, L. Whitehead, H. Seetzen, and G. Ward, "Photometric image processing for high dynamic range displays," J. Visual Commun. Image Represent. 18, 439-451 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs. "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Transactions on Graphics,  23, 760-768, (2004).
[CrossRef]

ACM Transactions on Applied Perception

K. Devlin, A. Chalmers, and E. Reinhard, "Visual calibration and correction for ambient illumination," ACM Transactions on Applied Perception(TAP) 3, 429-452 (2006).

ACM Transactions on Graphics

P. Burt and E. Adelson, "A multiresolution spline with application to image mosaics," ACM Transactions on Graphics 2, 217-236 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs. "High dynamic range display systems," ACM Transactions on Graphics,  23, 760-768, (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromechanical Syst.

I. Jung, U. Krishnamoorthy, and O. Solgaard, "High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives," J. Microelectromechanical Syst. 15, 563-571 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp.

D. Dewald, D. Segler, and S. Penn, "Advances in contrast enhancement for DLP projection displays," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 11, 177-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Visual Commun. Image Represent.

M. Trentacoste, W. Heidrich, L. Whitehead, H. Seetzen, and G. Ward, "Photometric image processing for high dynamic range displays," J. Visual Commun. Image Represent. 18, 439-451 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Journal of the SID

R. Heckaman, "Effect of DLP projector white channel on perceptual gamut," Journal of the SID 14, 755-761 (2006).

Proc. of SPIE

P. G. J. Barten, "Physical model for the contrast sensitivity of the human eye," Proc. SPIE 1666, 57-72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. J. Daly, "Visible differences predictor: an algorithm for the assessment of image fidelity," Proc. SPIE 1666, 2-15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of the IEEE

K. E. Peterson, "Silicon as a Mechanical Material," Proceedings of the IEEE 70(5), 420-457 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Pavlovych and W. Stuerzlinger, "A High-Dynamic Range Projection System," Prog. Biomed. Opt. Imaging 6,(39) (2005).

G. Damberg, H. Seetzen, G. Ward, W. Heidrich, and L. Whitehead, "High Dynamic Range Projection Systems," SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 38, 4-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Mantiuk, S. Daly, K. Myszkowski, and H.-P. Seidel, "Predicting Visible Differences in High Dynamic Range Images - Model and its Calibration," in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging X, IS&T/SPIE�??s 17th Annual Symposium on Electronic Imaging (2005), B. E. Rogowitz, T. N. Pappas, and S. J. Daly, eds., Vol. 5666, pp. 204-214 (2005).

E. P. Simoncelli. "matlabPyrTools"http://www.cns.nyu.edu/~lcv/software.htmlAccessed 02/22/07.

P. Debevec and J. Malik, "Recovering high dynamic range radiance maps from photographs," Proceedings of the 24th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, 369-378 (1997).

E. Reinhard, G. Ward, S. Pattanaik, and P. Debevec, High Dynamic Range Imaging: Acquisition, Display, and Image-Based Lighting (The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Computer Graphics) (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Schematic of a conventional DLP projector, and (b) schematic of an enhanced DLP projector with second MEMS mirror array (AMA).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Gaussian pyramid representation of a PSF (a) and (c) and an image (b) and (d). Each successively filtering step reduces the horizontal and vertical resolutions by factor of 2, from (a) to (c) and from (b) to (d).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Original grayscale HDR image [9], (b) pictorial representation of the placement of the 100 PSFs, including a scale bar showing the number of mirrors at a particular location, (c) luminance map of the PSF image and scale bar showing brightness improvement from the base level of 1, and (d) PIm, the corrected image sent to the DMD Idmd, with scale bar showing the DMD greyscale level.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Output from the Visual Difference Prediction algorithm of the simulated projector image compared to the original image, scaled to the same brightness. Small areas marked in black are predicted to be distinguishable if both images were to be compared side by side. These areas total only 0.03% of the total pixels in the image.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ip ( r , c ) = i = 1 n PSF ( r + a i , c + b i )

Metrics