Abstract

We report on the observation of central wavelength dynamics in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser by using the nonlinear polarization rotating technique. The evolution of central wavelength with the laser operation state was observed experimentally. Numerical simulations confirmed the experimental observation and further demonstrated that the dynamics of wavelength evolution is due to the combined effects of fiber birefringence, fiber nonlinearity, and cavity filter.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Stimulated soliton pulse formation and its mechanism in a passively mode-locked soliton laser," Opt. Commun. 165, 189-194 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation," Electron. Lett. 28, 1391-1393 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, T. Sugawa, and Y. Kimura, "Continuum suppressed, uniformly repetitive 136 fs pulse generation from an erbium-doped fibre laser with nonlinear polarisation rotation," Electron. Lett. 29, 1327-1328 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. A. Malomed, "Bound solitons in the nonlinear Schrödinger-Ginzburg-Landau equation," Phys. Rev. A 44, 6954-6957 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Mitchell, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Observation of multihump multimode solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett 80, 4657-4660 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Bound-soliton fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, "Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Horowitz, Y. Barad, and Y. Silberberg, "Noise-like pulses with a broadband spectrum generated from an erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 22, 799-801 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and B. Zhao, "Soliton collapse and bunched noise-like pulse generation in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser," Opt. Express 13, 2289-2294 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-7-2289
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Horowitz and Y. Silberberg, "Control of noise-like pulse generation in Erbium-doped fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1389-1391 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, M. S. Demokan, P. K. A. Wai, and D. Y. Tang, "Mechanism of intrinsic wavelength tuning and sideband asymmetry in a passively mode-locked soliton fiber ring laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 28-33 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. M. J. Kelly, "Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average," Electron. Lett. 28, 806-808 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. J. Chen, P. K. A. Wai, and C. R. Menyuk, "Soliton fiber ring laser," Opt. Lett. 17, 417-419 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and B. Zhao, "Soliton collapse and bunched noise-like pulse generation in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser," Opt. Express 13, 2289-2294 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-7-2289
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Bound-soliton fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, "Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Stimulated soliton pulse formation and its mechanism in a passively mode-locked soliton laser," Opt. Commun. 165, 189-194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Horowitz and Y. Silberberg, "Control of noise-like pulse generation in Erbium-doped fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1389-1391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Observation of multihump multimode solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett 80, 4657-4660 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, T. Sugawa, and Y. Kimura, "Continuum suppressed, uniformly repetitive 136 fs pulse generation from an erbium-doped fibre laser with nonlinear polarisation rotation," Electron. Lett. 29, 1327-1328 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation," Electron. Lett. 28, 1391-1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. M. J. Kelly, "Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average," Electron. Lett. 28, 806-808 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chen, P. K. A. Wai, and C. R. Menyuk, "Soliton fiber ring laser," Opt. Lett. 17, 417-419 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

B. A. Malomed, "Bound solitons in the nonlinear Schrödinger-Ginzburg-Landau equation," Phys. Rev. A 44, 6954-6957 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barad, Y.

Chan, C. C.

J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. J.

Christodoulides, D. N.

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Observation of multihump multimode solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett 80, 4657-4660 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. S.

Drummond, P. D.

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, "Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

M. Horowitz and Y. Silberberg, "Control of noise-like pulse generation in Erbium-doped fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1389-1391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Horowitz, Y. Barad, and Y. Silberberg, "Noise-like pulses with a broadband spectrum generated from an erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 22, 799-801 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, S. M. J.

S. M. J. Kelly, "Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average," Electron. Lett. 28, 806-808 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, Y.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, T. Sugawa, and Y. Kimura, "Continuum suppressed, uniformly repetitive 136 fs pulse generation from an erbium-doped fibre laser with nonlinear polarisation rotation," Electron. Lett. 29, 1327-1328 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. Q.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Bound-soliton fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Malomed, B. A.

B. A. Malomed, "Bound solitons in the nonlinear Schrödinger-Ginzburg-Landau equation," Phys. Rev. A 44, 6954-6957 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Man, W. S.

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Bound-soliton fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, "Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, M. S. Demokan, P. K. A. Wai, and D. Y. Tang, "Mechanism of intrinsic wavelength tuning and sideband asymmetry in a passively mode-locked soliton fiber ring laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 28-33 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Stimulated soliton pulse formation and its mechanism in a passively mode-locked soliton laser," Opt. Commun. 165, 189-194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsas, V. J.

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation," Electron. Lett. 28, 1391-1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Menyuk, C. R.

Mitchell, M.

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Observation of multihump multimode solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett 80, 4657-4660 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, T. Sugawa, and Y. Kimura, "Continuum suppressed, uniformly repetitive 136 fs pulse generation from an erbium-doped fibre laser with nonlinear polarisation rotation," Electron. Lett. 29, 1327-1328 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Newson, T. P.

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation," Electron. Lett. 28, 1391-1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation," Electron. Lett. 28, 1391-1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation," Electron. Lett. 28, 1391-1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Observation of multihump multimode solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett 80, 4657-4660 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Y.

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Bound-soliton fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

M. Horowitz and Y. Silberberg, "Control of noise-like pulse generation in Erbium-doped fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1389-1391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Horowitz, Y. Barad, and Y. Silberberg, "Noise-like pulses with a broadband spectrum generated from an erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 22, 799-801 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugawa, T.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, T. Sugawa, and Y. Kimura, "Continuum suppressed, uniformly repetitive 136 fs pulse generation from an erbium-doped fibre laser with nonlinear polarisation rotation," Electron. Lett. 29, 1327-1328 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Bound-soliton fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, "Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, M. S. Demokan, P. K. A. Wai, and D. Y. Tang, "Mechanism of intrinsic wavelength tuning and sideband asymmetry in a passively mode-locked soliton fiber ring laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 28-33 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Stimulated soliton pulse formation and its mechanism in a passively mode-locked soliton laser," Opt. Commun. 165, 189-194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and B. Zhao, "Soliton collapse and bunched noise-like pulse generation in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser," Opt. Express 13, 2289-2294 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-7-2289
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Bound-soliton fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, "Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, M. S. Demokan, P. K. A. Wai, and D. Y. Tang, "Mechanism of intrinsic wavelength tuning and sideband asymmetry in a passively mode-locked soliton fiber ring laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 28-33 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Stimulated soliton pulse formation and its mechanism in a passively mode-locked soliton laser," Opt. Commun. 165, 189-194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wai, P. K. A.

Wu, J.

J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, E.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, T. Sugawa, and Y. Kimura, "Continuum suppressed, uniformly repetitive 136 fs pulse generation from an erbium-doped fibre laser with nonlinear polarisation rotation," Electron. Lett. 29, 1327-1328 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and B. Zhao, "Soliton collapse and bunched noise-like pulse generation in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser," Opt. Express 13, 2289-2294 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-7-2289
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Bound-soliton fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. M.

J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and B. Zhao, "Soliton collapse and bunched noise-like pulse generation in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser," Opt. Express 13, 2289-2294 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-7-2289
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (3)

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation," Electron. Lett. 28, 1391-1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, T. Sugawa, and Y. Kimura, "Continuum suppressed, uniformly repetitive 136 fs pulse generation from an erbium-doped fibre laser with nonlinear polarisation rotation," Electron. Lett. 29, 1327-1328 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. M. J. Kelly, "Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average," Electron. Lett. 28, 806-808 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Horowitz and Y. Silberberg, "Control of noise-like pulse generation in Erbium-doped fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1389-1391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Stimulated soliton pulse formation and its mechanism in a passively mode-locked soliton laser," Opt. Commun. 165, 189-194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Bound-soliton fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, "Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Malomed, "Bound solitons in the nonlinear Schrödinger-Ginzburg-Landau equation," Phys. Rev. A 44, 6954-6957 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett (1)

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Observation of multihump multimode solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett 80, 4657-4660 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic design of a fiber laser passively mode locked by nonlinear polarizationrotation. WDM is the wavelength division multiplexing coupler.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical optical spectra of the ASE and mode-locked solitons. (a) shows the typical spectrum of the ASE for the central wavelength of 1532 nm. (b) shows the typical spectrum of the mode-locked solitons for the central wavelength of 1558 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical spectra under different PC rotating orientation. The pump power is 325 mW. (a) Spectrum of ASE. (b)–(h) Spectral shaping corresponding to the PC rotation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Numerically calculated spectra under different linear phase delay bias for a small signal gain of 500, in which (a) and (c) show the spectra as linear phase delay is 0.5π and -0.7π; respectively, while (b) shows the spectra as linear phase delay is 0.2π, 0.18π, and 0.12π respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Relationship between system transmission coefficient and phase delay. “A”, “B” and “C” show typical linear phase delay offset ranges corresponding to the different PC rotating orientation, respectively.

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