Abstract

We present an experimental method for direct analysis of guided-mode resonances in photonic crystal slab structures using transmission measurements. By positioning the photonic crystal slab between orthogonally oriented polarization filters light transmission is suppressed except for the guided-mode resonances. Angle resolved transmission measurements with crossed polarizers are performed to obtain the band structure around the Γ-point. Results are compared to mode simulations. Spatially resolved measurements in a confocal microscope setup are used for homogeneity characterizations. Stitching errors and inhomogeneities in exposure dose down to 1.3% in photonic crystal slabs fabricated by electron beam lithography are observed using this method.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Fan and J. D. Jannopoulos, "Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 65,235112 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Wang and S. Sheem, "Two-dimensional distributed-feedback lasers and their applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 460-462 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310-2312 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q1. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phs. Rev.Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, "Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340-3342 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Ding and R. Magnusson, "Resonant leaky-mode spectral-band engineering and device applications," Opt. Express 12,5661-5674 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Q2. V. N. Astratov, M. S. Skolnick, S. Brand, T. F. Krauss, O. Z. Karimov, R. M. Stevenson, D. M. Whittaker, I. Culshaw and R. M. De La Rue, "Experimental technique to determine the band structure of two-dimensional photonic lattices," IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 398-402 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. N. Astratov, R. M. Stevenson, I. Culshaw, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, T. F. Krauss and R. M. De La Rue, "Heavy photon dispersion in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 178-180 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade and Y. Chen, "Measurement of photonic mode dispersion and linewidths in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1402-1410 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. B. Crozier, V. Lousee, O. Kilic, S. Kim, S. Fan and O. Solgaard, "Air-bridged photonic crystal slabs at visible and near-infrared wavelengths," Phys. Rev. B 73, 115126 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. C. Netti, A. Harris, J. J. Baumberg, D. M. Whittaker, M. B. D. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob and G. J. Parker, "Optical trirefringence in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1526 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. D. Bristow, V. N. Astratov, R. Shimada, I. S. Culshaw, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui and T. F. Krauss, "Polarization conversion in the reflectivity properties of photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 880-884 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. A. Vlasov, M. Deutsch, and D. J. Norris, "Single-domain spectroscopy of self-assembled photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1627-1629 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Gerken, R. Boschert, R. Bornemann, U. Lemmer, D. Schelle, M. Augustin, E.-B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, "Transmission measurements for the optical characterization of 2D-photonic crystals," Proc. SPIE 5963, Optical Systems Design (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, M. J. Jory, W. L. Barnes and I. D. W. Samuel, "Relationship between photonic band structure and emission characteristics of a polymer distributed feedback laser," Phys. Rev. B 64, 125122 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes and I. D. W. Samuel," Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser," Phys. Rev. B 67, 165107 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, "Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1335-1340 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, D. Erni, W. Baechtold, B. J. Offrein and U. Scherf, "Enhanced feedback and experimental band mapping of organic photonic-crystal lasers," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 273-277 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. Garcia-Martin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Goesele, "Diffraction properties of two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614-616 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "Highly efficient waveguide bends in photonic crystal with a low in-plane index contrast," Opt. Express 11, 3284-3289 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663-665 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, "Photonic-crystal slabs with a triangular lattice of triangular holes investigated using a guided-mode expansion method," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235114 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006

K. B. Crozier, V. Lousee, O. Kilic, S. Kim, S. Fan and O. Solgaard, "Air-bridged photonic crystal slabs at visible and near-infrared wavelengths," Phys. Rev. B 73, 115126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, D. Erni, W. Baechtold, B. J. Offrein and U. Scherf, "Enhanced feedback and experimental band mapping of organic photonic-crystal lasers," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 273-277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, "Photonic-crystal slabs with a triangular lattice of triangular holes investigated using a guided-mode expansion method," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, "Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1335-1340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade and Y. Chen, "Measurement of photonic mode dispersion and linewidths in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1402-1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Ding and R. Magnusson, "Resonant leaky-mode spectral-band engineering and device applications," Opt. Express 12,5661-5674 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663-665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes and I. D. W. Samuel," Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser," Phys. Rev. B 67, 165107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. Garcia-Martin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Goesele, "Diffraction properties of two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614-616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "Highly efficient waveguide bends in photonic crystal with a low in-plane index contrast," Opt. Express 11, 3284-3289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

S. Fan and J. D. Jannopoulos, "Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 65,235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Bristow, V. N. Astratov, R. Shimada, I. S. Culshaw, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui and T. F. Krauss, "Polarization conversion in the reflectivity properties of photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 880-884 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, M. J. Jory, W. L. Barnes and I. D. W. Samuel, "Relationship between photonic band structure and emission characteristics of a polymer distributed feedback laser," Phys. Rev. B 64, 125122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Netti, A. Harris, J. J. Baumberg, D. M. Whittaker, M. B. D. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob and G. J. Parker, "Optical trirefringence in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1526 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, "Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340-3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Astratov, R. M. Stevenson, I. Culshaw, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, T. F. Krauss and R. M. De La Rue, "Heavy photon dispersion in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 178-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. Deutsch, and D. J. Norris, "Single-domain spectroscopy of self-assembled photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1627-1629 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310-2312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Q2. V. N. Astratov, M. S. Skolnick, S. Brand, T. F. Krauss, O. Z. Karimov, R. M. Stevenson, D. M. Whittaker, I. Culshaw and R. M. De La Rue, "Experimental technique to determine the band structure of two-dimensional photonic lattices," IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 398-402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Q1. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phs. Rev.Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1973

S. Wang and S. Sheem, "Two-dimensional distributed-feedback lasers and their applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 460-462 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Agio, M.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade and Y. Chen, "Measurement of photonic mode dispersion and linewidths in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1402-1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, "Photonic-crystal slabs with a triangular lattice of triangular holes investigated using a guided-mode expansion method," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade and Y. Chen, "Measurement of photonic mode dispersion and linewidths in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1402-1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andrew, P.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes and I. D. W. Samuel," Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser," Phys. Rev. B 67, 165107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, M. J. Jory, W. L. Barnes and I. D. W. Samuel, "Relationship between photonic band structure and emission characteristics of a polymer distributed feedback laser," Phys. Rev. B 64, 125122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Astratov, V. N.

A. D. Bristow, V. N. Astratov, R. Shimada, I. S. Culshaw, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui and T. F. Krauss, "Polarization conversion in the reflectivity properties of photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 880-884 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Astratov, R. M. Stevenson, I. Culshaw, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, T. F. Krauss and R. M. De La Rue, "Heavy photon dispersion in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 178-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q2. V. N. Astratov, M. S. Skolnick, S. Brand, T. F. Krauss, O. Z. Karimov, R. M. Stevenson, D. M. Whittaker, I. Culshaw and R. M. De La Rue, "Experimental technique to determine the band structure of two-dimensional photonic lattices," IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 398-402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Augustin, M.

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663-665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "Highly efficient waveguide bends in photonic crystal with a low in-plane index contrast," Opt. Express 11, 3284-3289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baechtold, W.

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, D. Erni, W. Baechtold, B. J. Offrein and U. Scherf, "Enhanced feedback and experimental band mapping of organic photonic-crystal lasers," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 273-277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bajoni, D.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade and Y. Chen, "Measurement of photonic mode dispersion and linewidths in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1402-1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes and I. D. W. Samuel," Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser," Phys. Rev. B 67, 165107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, M. J. Jory, W. L. Barnes and I. D. W. Samuel, "Relationship between photonic band structure and emission characteristics of a polymer distributed feedback laser," Phys. Rev. B 64, 125122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, "Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340-3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J. J.

M. C. Netti, A. Harris, J. J. Baumberg, D. M. Whittaker, M. B. D. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob and G. J. Parker, "Optical trirefringence in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1526 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belotti, M.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade and Y. Chen, "Measurement of photonic mode dispersion and linewidths in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1402-1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brand, S.

Q2. V. N. Astratov, M. S. Skolnick, S. Brand, T. F. Krauss, O. Z. Karimov, R. M. Stevenson, D. M. Whittaker, I. Culshaw and R. M. De La Rue, "Experimental technique to determine the band structure of two-dimensional photonic lattices," IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 398-402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, A. D.

A. D. Bristow, V. N. Astratov, R. Shimada, I. S. Culshaw, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui and T. F. Krauss, "Polarization conversion in the reflectivity properties of photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 880-884 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. Garcia-Martin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Goesele, "Diffraction properties of two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614-616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Caimi, D.

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, D. Erni, W. Baechtold, B. J. Offrein and U. Scherf, "Enhanced feedback and experimental band mapping of organic photonic-crystal lasers," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 273-277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, M. B. D.

M. C. Netti, A. Harris, J. J. Baumberg, D. M. Whittaker, M. B. D. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob and G. J. Parker, "Optical trirefringence in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1526 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade and Y. Chen, "Measurement of photonic mode dispersion and linewidths in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1402-1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

K. B. Crozier, V. Lousee, O. Kilic, S. Kim, S. Fan and O. Solgaard, "Air-bridged photonic crystal slabs at visible and near-infrared wavelengths," Phys. Rev. B 73, 115126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, I.

V. N. Astratov, R. M. Stevenson, I. Culshaw, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, T. F. Krauss and R. M. De La Rue, "Heavy photon dispersion in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 178-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q2. V. N. Astratov, M. S. Skolnick, S. Brand, T. F. Krauss, O. Z. Karimov, R. M. Stevenson, D. M. Whittaker, I. Culshaw and R. M. De La Rue, "Experimental technique to determine the band structure of two-dimensional photonic lattices," IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 398-402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, I. S.

A. D. Bristow, V. N. Astratov, R. Shimada, I. S. Culshaw, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui and T. F. Krauss, "Polarization conversion in the reflectivity properties of photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 880-884 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

V. N. Astratov, R. M. Stevenson, I. Culshaw, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, T. F. Krauss and R. M. De La Rue, "Heavy photon dispersion in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 178-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q2. V. N. Astratov, M. S. Skolnick, S. Brand, T. F. Krauss, O. Z. Karimov, R. M. Stevenson, D. M. Whittaker, I. Culshaw and R. M. De La Rue, "Experimental technique to determine the band structure of two-dimensional photonic lattices," IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 398-402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. Deutsch, and D. J. Norris, "Single-domain spectroscopy of self-assembled photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1627-1629 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Diem, M.

G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. Garcia-Martin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Goesele, "Diffraction properties of two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614-616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

Dodabalapur, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Erni, D.

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, D. Erni, W. Baechtold, B. J. Offrein and U. Scherf, "Enhanced feedback and experimental band mapping of organic photonic-crystal lasers," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 273-277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Etrich, C.

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663-665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "Highly efficient waveguide bends in photonic crystal with a low in-plane index contrast," Opt. Express 11, 3284-3289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

K. B. Crozier, V. Lousee, O. Kilic, S. Kim, S. Fan and O. Solgaard, "Air-bridged photonic crystal slabs at visible and near-infrared wavelengths," Phys. Rev. B 73, 115126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan and J. D. Jannopoulos, "Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 65,235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q1. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phs. Rev.Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310-2312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, H.-J.

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663-665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "Highly efficient waveguide bends in photonic crystal with a low in-plane index contrast," Opt. Express 11, 3284-3289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galli, M.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade and Y. Chen, "Measurement of photonic mode dispersion and linewidths in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1402-1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Martin, A.

G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. Garcia-Martin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Goesele, "Diffraction properties of two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614-616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gerace, D.

L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, "Photonic-crystal slabs with a triangular lattice of triangular holes investigated using a guided-mode expansion method," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade and Y. Chen, "Measurement of photonic mode dispersion and linewidths in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1402-1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goesele, U.

G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. Garcia-Martin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Goesele, "Diffraction properties of two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614-616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310-2312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guizzetti, G.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade and Y. Chen, "Measurement of photonic mode dispersion and linewidths in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1402-1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, R.

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, D. Erni, W. Baechtold, B. J. Offrein and U. Scherf, "Enhanced feedback and experimental band mapping of organic photonic-crystal lasers," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 273-277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harris, A.

M. C. Netti, A. Harris, J. J. Baumberg, D. M. Whittaker, M. B. D. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob and G. J. Parker, "Optical trirefringence in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1526 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iliew, R.

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663-665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "Highly efficient waveguide bends in photonic crystal with a low in-plane index contrast," Opt. Express 11, 3284-3289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jannopoulos, J. D.

S. Fan and J. D. Jannopoulos, "Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 65,235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q1. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phs. Rev.Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jory, M. J.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, M. J. Jory, W. L. Barnes and I. D. W. Samuel, "Relationship between photonic band structure and emission characteristics of a polymer distributed feedback laser," Phys. Rev. B 64, 125122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, "Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340-3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kallinger, C.

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310-2312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Karimov, O. Z.

Q2. V. N. Astratov, M. S. Skolnick, S. Brand, T. F. Krauss, O. Z. Karimov, R. M. Stevenson, D. M. Whittaker, I. Culshaw and R. M. De La Rue, "Experimental technique to determine the band structure of two-dimensional photonic lattices," IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 398-402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kilic, O.

K. B. Crozier, V. Lousee, O. Kilic, S. Kim, S. Fan and O. Solgaard, "Air-bridged photonic crystal slabs at visible and near-infrared wavelengths," Phys. Rev. B 73, 115126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

K. B. Crozier, V. Lousee, O. Kilic, S. Kim, S. Fan and O. Solgaard, "Air-bridged photonic crystal slabs at visible and near-infrared wavelengths," Phys. Rev. B 73, 115126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E.-B.

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663-665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "Highly efficient waveguide bends in photonic crystal with a low in-plane index contrast," Opt. Express 11, 3284-3289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, W.

G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. Garcia-Martin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Goesele, "Diffraction properties of two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614-616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

A. D. Bristow, V. N. Astratov, R. Shimada, I. S. Culshaw, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui and T. F. Krauss, "Polarization conversion in the reflectivity properties of photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 880-884 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Astratov, R. M. Stevenson, I. Culshaw, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, T. F. Krauss and R. M. De La Rue, "Heavy photon dispersion in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 178-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q2. V. N. Astratov, M. S. Skolnick, S. Brand, T. F. Krauss, O. Z. Karimov, R. M. Stevenson, D. M. Whittaker, I. Culshaw and R. M. De La Rue, "Experimental technique to determine the band structure of two-dimensional photonic lattices," IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 398-402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663-665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "Highly efficient waveguide bends in photonic crystal with a low in-plane index contrast," Opt. Express 11, 3284-3289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemmer, U.

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310-2312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lousee, V.

K. B. Crozier, V. Lousee, O. Kilic, S. Kim, S. Fan and O. Solgaard, "Air-bridged photonic crystal slabs at visible and near-infrared wavelengths," Phys. Rev. B 73, 115126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lupton, J. M.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, "Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340-3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, R.

Mahrt, R. F.

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, D. Erni, W. Baechtold, B. J. Offrein and U. Scherf, "Enhanced feedback and experimental band mapping of organic photonic-crystal lasers," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 273-277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matterson, B. J.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, "Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340-3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meier, M.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meisel, D. C.

G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. Garcia-Martin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Goesele, "Diffraction properties of two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614-616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mekis, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miyai, E.

K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, "Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1335-1340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moll, N.

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, D. Erni, W. Baechtold, B. J. Offrein and U. Scherf, "Enhanced feedback and experimental band mapping of organic photonic-crystal lasers," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 273-277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nalamasu, O.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Netti, M. C.

M. C. Netti, A. Harris, J. J. Baumberg, D. M. Whittaker, M. B. D. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob and G. J. Parker, "Optical trirefringence in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1526 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noda, S.

K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, "Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1335-1340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663-665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "Highly efficient waveguide bends in photonic crystal with a low in-plane index contrast," Opt. Express 11, 3284-3289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, D. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. Deutsch, and D. J. Norris, "Single-domain spectroscopy of self-assembled photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1627-1629 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Offrein, B. J.

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, D. Erni, W. Baechtold, B. J. Offrein and U. Scherf, "Enhanced feedback and experimental band mapping of organic photonic-crystal lasers," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 273-277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohnishi, D.

K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, "Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1335-1340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okano, T.

K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, "Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1335-1340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paleari, F.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade and Y. Chen, "Measurement of photonic mode dispersion and linewidths in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1402-1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parker, G. J.

M. C. Netti, A. Harris, J. J. Baumberg, D. M. Whittaker, M. B. D. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob and G. J. Parker, "Optical trirefringence in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1526 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patrini, M.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade and Y. Chen, "Measurement of photonic mode dispersion and linewidths in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1402-1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, S.

G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. Garcia-Martin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Goesele, "Diffraction properties of two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614-616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663-665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "Highly efficient waveguide bends in photonic crystal with a low in-plane index contrast," Opt. Express 11, 3284-3289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyrade, D.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade and Y. Chen, "Measurement of photonic mode dispersion and linewidths in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1402-1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riechel, S.

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310-2312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, T.

K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, "Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1335-1340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K.

K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, "Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1335-1340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes and I. D. W. Samuel," Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser," Phys. Rev. B 67, 165107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, M. J. Jory, W. L. Barnes and I. D. W. Samuel, "Relationship between photonic band structure and emission characteristics of a polymer distributed feedback laser," Phys. Rev. B 64, 125122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, "Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340-3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schelle, D.

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663-665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "Highly efficient waveguide bends in photonic crystal with a low in-plane index contrast," Opt. Express 11, 3284-3289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherf, U.

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, D. Erni, W. Baechtold, B. J. Offrein and U. Scherf, "Enhanced feedback and experimental band mapping of organic photonic-crystal lasers," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 273-277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310-2312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, J.

G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. Garcia-Martin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Goesele, "Diffraction properties of two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614-616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

Q1. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phs. Rev.Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sheem, S.

S. Wang and S. Sheem, "Two-dimensional distributed-feedback lasers and their applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 460-462 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, R.

A. D. Bristow, V. N. Astratov, R. Shimada, I. S. Culshaw, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui and T. F. Krauss, "Polarization conversion in the reflectivity properties of photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 880-884 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Skolnick, M. S.

A. D. Bristow, V. N. Astratov, R. Shimada, I. S. Culshaw, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui and T. F. Krauss, "Polarization conversion in the reflectivity properties of photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 880-884 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Astratov, R. M. Stevenson, I. Culshaw, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, T. F. Krauss and R. M. De La Rue, "Heavy photon dispersion in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 178-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q2. V. N. Astratov, M. S. Skolnick, S. Brand, T. F. Krauss, O. Z. Karimov, R. M. Stevenson, D. M. Whittaker, I. Culshaw and R. M. De La Rue, "Experimental technique to determine the band structure of two-dimensional photonic lattices," IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 398-402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solgaard, O.

K. B. Crozier, V. Lousee, O. Kilic, S. Kim, S. Fan and O. Solgaard, "Air-bridged photonic crystal slabs at visible and near-infrared wavelengths," Phys. Rev. B 73, 115126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, R. M.

V. N. Astratov, R. M. Stevenson, I. Culshaw, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, T. F. Krauss and R. M. De La Rue, "Heavy photon dispersion in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 178-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q2. V. N. Astratov, M. S. Skolnick, S. Brand, T. F. Krauss, O. Z. Karimov, R. M. Stevenson, D. M. Whittaker, I. Culshaw and R. M. De La Rue, "Experimental technique to determine the band structure of two-dimensional photonic lattices," IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 398-402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, P.

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, D. Erni, W. Baechtold, B. J. Offrein and U. Scherf, "Enhanced feedback and experimental band mapping of organic photonic-crystal lasers," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 273-277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tahraoui, A.

A. D. Bristow, V. N. Astratov, R. Shimada, I. S. Culshaw, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui and T. F. Krauss, "Polarization conversion in the reflectivity properties of photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 880-884 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Timko, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663-665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "Highly efficient waveguide bends in photonic crystal with a low in-plane index contrast," Opt. Express 11, 3284-3289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turnbull, G. A.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes and I. D. W. Samuel," Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser," Phys. Rev. B 67, 165107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, M. J. Jory, W. L. Barnes and I. D. W. Samuel, "Relationship between photonic band structure and emission characteristics of a polymer distributed feedback laser," Phys. Rev. B 64, 125122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q1. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phs. Rev.Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. Deutsch, and D. J. Norris, "Single-domain spectroscopy of self-assembled photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1627-1629 (2000).
[CrossRef]

von Freymann, G.

G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. Garcia-Martin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Goesele, "Diffraction properties of two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614-616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang and S. Sheem, "Two-dimensional distributed-feedback lasers and their applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 460-462 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. Garcia-Martin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Goesele, "Diffraction properties of two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614-616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. Garcia-Martin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Goesele, "Diffraction properties of two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614-616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, D. M.

A. D. Bristow, V. N. Astratov, R. Shimada, I. S. Culshaw, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui and T. F. Krauss, "Polarization conversion in the reflectivity properties of photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 880-884 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Netti, A. Harris, J. J. Baumberg, D. M. Whittaker, M. B. D. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob and G. J. Parker, "Optical trirefringence in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1526 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Astratov, R. M. Stevenson, I. Culshaw, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, T. F. Krauss and R. M. De La Rue, "Heavy photon dispersion in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 178-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q2. V. N. Astratov, M. S. Skolnick, S. Brand, T. F. Krauss, O. Z. Karimov, R. M. Stevenson, D. M. Whittaker, I. Culshaw and R. M. De La Rue, "Experimental technique to determine the band structure of two-dimensional photonic lattices," IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 398-402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wittwer, V.

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310-2312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zoorob, M. E.

M. C. Netti, A. Harris, J. J. Baumberg, D. M. Whittaker, M. B. D. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob and G. J. Parker, "Optical trirefringence in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1526 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Wang and S. Sheem, "Two-dimensional distributed-feedback lasers and their applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 460-462 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310-2312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, "Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3340-3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Astratov, R. M. Stevenson, I. Culshaw, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, T. F. Krauss and R. M. De La Rue, "Heavy photon dispersion in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 178-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. Deutsch, and D. J. Norris, "Single-domain spectroscopy of self-assembled photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1627-1629 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. Garcia-Martin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Goesele, "Diffraction properties of two-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614-616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Augustin, H.-J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E.-B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, U. Peschel and F. Lederer, "High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663-665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. D. Bristow, V. N. Astratov, R. Shimada, I. S. Culshaw, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, A. Tahraoui and T. F. Krauss, "Polarization conversion in the reflectivity properties of photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 880-884 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

M. Galli, D. Bajoni, M. Belotti, F. Paleari, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, D. Gerace, M. Agio, L. C. Andreani, D. Peyrade and Y. Chen, "Measurement of photonic mode dispersion and linewidths in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1402-1410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, "Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1335-1340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Proc. Optoelectron.

Q2. V. N. Astratov, M. S. Skolnick, S. Brand, T. F. Krauss, O. Z. Karimov, R. M. Stevenson, D. M. Whittaker, I. Culshaw and R. M. De La Rue, "Experimental technique to determine the band structure of two-dimensional photonic lattices," IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 398-402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, D. Erni, W. Baechtold, B. J. Offrein and U. Scherf, "Enhanced feedback and experimental band mapping of organic photonic-crystal lasers," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 273-277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phs. Rev.Lett.

Q1. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phs. Rev.Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan and J. D. Jannopoulos, "Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 65,235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Crozier, V. Lousee, O. Kilic, S. Kim, S. Fan and O. Solgaard, "Air-bridged photonic crystal slabs at visible and near-infrared wavelengths," Phys. Rev. B 73, 115126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, "Photonic-crystal slabs with a triangular lattice of triangular holes investigated using a guided-mode expansion method," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, M. J. Jory, W. L. Barnes and I. D. W. Samuel, "Relationship between photonic band structure and emission characteristics of a polymer distributed feedback laser," Phys. Rev. B 64, 125122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes and I. D. W. Samuel," Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser," Phys. Rev. B 67, 165107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. C. Netti, A. Harris, J. J. Baumberg, D. M. Whittaker, M. B. D. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob and G. J. Parker, "Optical trirefringence in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1526 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Gerken, R. Boschert, R. Bornemann, U. Lemmer, D. Schelle, M. Augustin, E.-B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, "Transmission measurements for the optical characterization of 2D-photonic crystals," Proc. SPIE 5963, Optical Systems Design (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Confocal microscope setup for transmission measurements with orthogonally oriented polarization filters. The first and second polarization filter are referred to as polarizer and analyzer respectively. b) Schematic of photonic crystal orientation relative to polarizer and analyzer for normal incidence measurements. Arrows indicate electric field orientation. Azimuthal angle ϕ defines the fraction which couples to the photonic crystal slab (ϕ>0°, θ=0°). c) Schematic drawing of photonic crystal slab for oblique polar angle θ. d is the thickness of the photonic crystal slab, a is the period and 2r is the width (diameter) of the etched pattern in 1D (2D) structures (ϕ=0°, θ>0°).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmittivity and reflectivity measurements of a photonic crystal slab with hexagonal geometry of holes in a 150 nm Nb2O5 (n=2.3 for wavelength λ=500 nm) layer with a periodicity of a=300 nm. Black lines indicate measurements on structured and gray lines on unstructured regions (θ=0°). a) Polarizer and analyzer with parallel orientation. Superposition of guided-mode resonances and background. b) Transmittivity measurement with crossed polarization filters. Direct observation of guided-mode resonances. Inset: SEM image of hexagonal photonic crystal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission measurements with crossed polarization filters performed on 1D photonic crystal slab with a periodicity of a=350 nm, structured in a 130 nm ITO (n=1.87 for λ=500 nm) layer on a glass substrate. θ=0°, while ϕ is varied from 0° to 180°. a) Transmission spectra at three different angles ϕ. Inset: SEM image of 1D photonic crystal. b) Central mode intensity (530 nm–540 nm) versus angle ϕ. Maxima at ϕ=45° and ϕ=135°.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Angle resolved transmission measurements on a photonic crystal slab with hexagonal geometry in Γ - M direction. Polar angle θ is varied from 0° to 8° a) Transmission measurements under various angles. The intensity plot is normalized to the transmittivity without sample. b) Band structure calculation for the measured photonic crystal slab. Assuming a radius of r=85 nm the best fit to the measurements was observed.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission measurements on a photonic crystal slab with hexagonal geometry (θ=0°). a) False color plot of red image channel using orthogonally oriented polarization filters. Dotted line indicates position of scan shown in Fig. 5(b). b) Spectrally and spatially resolved transmission measurements at normal incidence. 1.3% drift in photonic modes is observed.

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