Abstract

We demonstrate phase stable, mJ-level parametric amplification of pulse pairs originating from a Ti:Sapphire frequency comb laser. The amplifier-induced phase shift between the pulses has been determined interferometrically with an accuracy of ≈10 mrad. Typical phase shifts are on the order of 50–200 mrad, depending on the operating conditions. The measured phase-relation can be as stable as 20 mrad rms (1/300th of an optical cycle). This makes the system suitable for Ramsey spectroscopy at short wavelengths by employing harmonic upconversion of the double-pulses in nonlinear media.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schulze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uierbacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking "Control of Electron Localization in Molecular Dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. F. Ramsey "A Molecular Beam Resonance Method with Separated Oscillating Fields," Phys. Rev. 78, 695-699 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Cavalieri, R. Eramo, M. Materazzi, Ch. Corsi, and M. Bellini, "Ramsey-Type Spectroscopy with High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 133002 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Deep-Ultraviolet Quantum Interference Metrology with Ultrashort Laser Pulses," Science 307, 400-403 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and Th. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency synthesizer for Precision Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and Th. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, J. Thorpe, J. Ye "Phase-Coherent Frequency Combs in the Vacuum Ultraviolet via High-Harmonic Generation inside a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity," Opt. Lett. 29, 2812-2814 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region," Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. J. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, F. Krausz, "Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire laser system to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level," Appl. Phys. B 82, 513-517 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysiorowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, A. L. Wolf, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, "A source of 2 terawatt, 2.7 cycle laser pulses based on noncollinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification," Opt. Express 14, 8168-8177 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Renault, D. Z. Kandula, S. Witte, A. L. Wolf, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Phase stability of terawatt-class ultrabroadband parametric amplification," Opt. Lett. 32, 2363-2365 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L�??Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. N. Ross, P. Matousek, G. H. C. New, and K. Osvay, "Analysis and optimization of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2945-2956 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Numerical simulations for performance optimization of a few-cycle terawatt NOPCPA system," Appl. Phys. B 87, 677-684 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Takeda, H. Ina, and S. Kobayashi, "Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 156-160 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Pearson�??s linear correlation coefficient is not appropriate, as it assumes a linear relationship between the variables, which is not the case here.
  20. The phase mismatch is very sensitive to the angles in the parametric amplification. It is extremely difficult to measure them accurate enough to be able to determine �??k

2007 (3)

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Numerical simulations for performance optimization of a few-cycle terawatt NOPCPA system," Appl. Phys. B 87, 677-684 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Renault, D. Z. Kandula, S. Witte, A. L. Wolf, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Phase stability of terawatt-class ultrabroadband parametric amplification," Opt. Lett. 32, 2363-2365 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, A. L. Wolf, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, "A source of 2 terawatt, 2.7 cycle laser pulses based on noncollinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification," Opt. Express 14, 8168-8177 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schulze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uierbacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking "Control of Electron Localization in Molecular Dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region," Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, F. Krausz, "Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire laser system to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level," Appl. Phys. B 82, 513-517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Deep-Ultraviolet Quantum Interference Metrology with Ultrashort Laser Pulses," Science 307, 400-403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and Th. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, J. Thorpe, J. Ye "Phase-Coherent Frequency Combs in the Vacuum Ultraviolet via High-Harmonic Generation inside a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity," Opt. Lett. 29, 2812-2814 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysiorowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

I. N. Ross, P. Matousek, G. H. C. New, and K. Osvay, "Analysis and optimization of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2945-2956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Cavalieri, R. Eramo, M. Materazzi, Ch. Corsi, and M. Bellini, "Ramsey-Type Spectroscopy with High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 133002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and Th. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency synthesizer for Precision Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L�??Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1950 (1)

N. F. Ramsey "A Molecular Beam Resonance Method with Separated Oscillating Fields," Phys. Rev. 78, 695-699 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, Ph.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L�??Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bellini, M.

S. Cavalieri, R. Eramo, M. Materazzi, Ch. Corsi, and M. Bellini, "Ramsey-Type Spectroscopy with High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 133002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biegert, J.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysiorowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cavalieri, S.

S. Cavalieri, R. Eramo, M. Materazzi, Ch. Corsi, and M. Bellini, "Ramsey-Type Spectroscopy with High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 133002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constant, E.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L�??Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corsi, Ch.

S. Cavalieri, R. Eramo, M. Materazzi, Ch. Corsi, and M. Bellini, "Ramsey-Type Spectroscopy with High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 133002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couairon, A.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysiorowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schulze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uierbacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking "Control of Electron Localization in Molecular Dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eikema, K. S. E.

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Numerical simulations for performance optimization of a few-cycle terawatt NOPCPA system," Appl. Phys. B 87, 677-684 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Renault, D. Z. Kandula, S. Witte, A. L. Wolf, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Phase stability of terawatt-class ultrabroadband parametric amplification," Opt. Lett. 32, 2363-2365 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, A. L. Wolf, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, "A source of 2 terawatt, 2.7 cycle laser pulses based on noncollinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification," Opt. Express 14, 8168-8177 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Deep-Ultraviolet Quantum Interference Metrology with Ultrashort Laser Pulses," Science 307, 400-403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eramo, R.

S. Cavalieri, R. Eramo, M. Materazzi, Ch. Corsi, and M. Bellini, "Ramsey-Type Spectroscopy with High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 133002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M. B.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L�??Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gohle, Ch.

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and Th. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, Th. W.

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and Th. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, Th.W.

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and Th. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency synthesizer for Precision Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauri, C. P.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysiorowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, A.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysiorowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helbing, F. W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysiorowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hendel, S.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, M.

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and Th. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogervorst, W.

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Numerical simulations for performance optimization of a few-cycle terawatt NOPCPA system," Appl. Phys. B 87, 677-684 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Renault, D. Z. Kandula, S. Witte, A. L. Wolf, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Phase stability of terawatt-class ultrabroadband parametric amplification," Opt. Lett. 32, 2363-2365 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, A. L. Wolf, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, "A source of 2 terawatt, 2.7 cycle laser pulses based on noncollinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification," Opt. Express 14, 8168-8177 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Deep-Ultraviolet Quantum Interference Metrology with Ultrashort Laser Pulses," Science 307, 400-403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and Th. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and Th. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency synthesizer for Precision Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ina, H.

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R. J.

Kabachnik, N. M.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kandula, D. Z.

Keller, U.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysiorowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khan, J. I.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schulze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uierbacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking "Control of Electron Localization in Molecular Dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kling, M. F.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schulze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uierbacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking "Control of Electron Localization in Molecular Dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, S.

Kompa, K. L.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kornelis, W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysiorowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schulze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uierbacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking "Control of Electron Localization in Molecular Dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, F. Krausz, "Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire laser system to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level," Appl. Phys. B 82, 513-517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and Th. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulander, K. C.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L�??Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L???Huillier, A.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L�??Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lezius, M.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Materazzi, M.

S. Cavalieri, R. Eramo, M. Materazzi, Ch. Corsi, and M. Bellini, "Ramsey-Type Spectroscopy with High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 133002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matousek, P.

Moll, K. D.

Muller, H.-G.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysiorowicz, A.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysiorowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

New, G. H. C.

Ni, Y.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schulze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uierbacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking "Control of Electron Localization in Molecular Dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nomura, Y.

A. J. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, F. Krausz, "Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire laser system to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level," Appl. Phys. B 82, 513-517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Osvay, K.

Ramsey, N. F.

N. F. Ramsey "A Molecular Beam Resonance Method with Separated Oscillating Fields," Phys. Rev. 78, 695-699 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and Th. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renault, A.

Ross, I. N.

Salin, F.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L�??Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K. J.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L�??Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, K.

A. J. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, F. Krausz, "Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire laser system to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level," Appl. Phys. B 82, 513-517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schroder, H.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuessler, H. A.

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and Th. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulze, M.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schulze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uierbacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking "Control of Electron Localization in Molecular Dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seres, J.

A. J. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, F. Krausz, "Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire laser system to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level," Appl. Phys. B 82, 513-517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Siedschlag, Ch.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schulze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uierbacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking "Control of Electron Localization in Molecular Dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeda, M.

Tempea, G.

A. J. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, F. Krausz, "Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire laser system to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level," Appl. Phys. B 82, 513-517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thorpe, J.

Ubachs, W.

Udem, Th.

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and Th. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and Th. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency synthesizer for Precision Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uierbacker, M.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schulze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uierbacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking "Control of Electron Localization in Molecular Dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uphues, Th.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schulze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uierbacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking "Control of Electron Localization in Molecular Dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veisz, L.

A. J. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, F. Krausz, "Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire laser system to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level," Appl. Phys. B 82, 513-517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verhoef, A. J.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schulze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uierbacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking "Control of Electron Localization in Molecular Dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, F. Krausz, "Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire laser system to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level," Appl. Phys. B 82, 513-517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schulze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uierbacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking "Control of Electron Localization in Molecular Dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witte, S.

A. Renault, D. Z. Kandula, S. Witte, A. L. Wolf, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Phase stability of terawatt-class ultrabroadband parametric amplification," Opt. Lett. 32, 2363-2365 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Numerical simulations for performance optimization of a few-cycle terawatt NOPCPA system," Appl. Phys. B 87, 677-684 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, A. L. Wolf, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, "A source of 2 terawatt, 2.7 cycle laser pulses based on noncollinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification," Opt. Express 14, 8168-8177 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region," Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Deep-Ultraviolet Quantum Interference Metrology with Ultrashort Laser Pulses," Science 307, 400-403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, A. L.

Yakovlev, V.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

Zinkstok, R. Th.

A. Renault, D. Z. Kandula, S. Witte, A. L. Wolf, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Phase stability of terawatt-class ultrabroadband parametric amplification," Opt. Lett. 32, 2363-2365 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Numerical simulations for performance optimization of a few-cycle terawatt NOPCPA system," Appl. Phys. B 87, 677-684 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, A. L. Wolf, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, "A source of 2 terawatt, 2.7 cycle laser pulses based on noncollinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification," Opt. Express 14, 8168-8177 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region," Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Deep-Ultraviolet Quantum Interference Metrology with Ultrashort Laser Pulses," Science 307, 400-403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

A. J. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, F. Krausz, "Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire laser system to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level," Appl. Phys. B 82, 513-517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysiorowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Numerical simulations for performance optimization of a few-cycle terawatt NOPCPA system," Appl. Phys. B 87, 677-684 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (London) (2)

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz "Attosecond real-time observations of electron tunelling in atoms," Nature (London) 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and Th. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

N. F. Ramsey "A Molecular Beam Resonance Method with Separated Oscillating Fields," Phys. Rev. 78, 695-699 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region," Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L�??Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and Th. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency synthesizer for Precision Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cavalieri, R. Eramo, M. Materazzi, Ch. Corsi, and M. Bellini, "Ramsey-Type Spectroscopy with High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 133002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Deep-Ultraviolet Quantum Interference Metrology with Ultrashort Laser Pulses," Science 307, 400-403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schulze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uierbacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking "Control of Electron Localization in Molecular Dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Pearson�??s linear correlation coefficient is not appropriate, as it assumes a linear relationship between the variables, which is not the case here.

The phase mismatch is very sensitive to the angles in the parametric amplification. It is extremely difficult to measure them accurate enough to be able to determine �??k

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the noncollinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (NOPCPA), showing in detail the relay imaged delay line that splits the pulses in two replica. PBS: polarizing beam splitter, VP: vertical periscope, LCM: liquid crystal modulator, L: relay image lens f=50cm, SHG: second harmonic generation

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spatial profiles of the 1st and 2nd pump pulse after the post-amplifier. The small diffraction patterns are due to dust particles on the camera and other optics, and are not part of the actual beam profile.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Energy of the first and second amplified pulse (upper, red and green traces) and the ratio between them (lower, black trace). The energy stability here is 3.6% and 3.8% rms for the first and second pulse respectively and 3.3% rms for the ratio between them.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mach-Zehnder interferometer for measurement of the differential phase shift accumulated during the amplification in a NOPCPA, and the setup used to test the reliability of the measurement (dashed box). BS: Beam splitter, PBS: polarizing beam splitter, PC1/2: Pockels cells, sPC - slow Pockels cell, NG: neutral grey filter, D: diaphragm, G: 1200 l/mm grating

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectral interference fringes between the two amplified pulses and their respective reference pulses

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Artificial phase shift measured with the interferometric switching technique (black/lower trace) and tested in a single interferogram for each pulse, with alternate switching the phase shift on and off (first pulse - green/upper traces, second pulse - red/middle traces).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Phase traces, measured on three different days, showing two times the difference in phase shift of 151 mrad (upper/green trace), -227 mrad (lower/red) and -4 mrad (black/middle trace).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Different phase shifts of -114 mrad, 32 mrad and -270 mrad, emerging from different pump-intensity ratios between two pulses (equal pulses (black), second pulse stronger (red) and first pulse stronger (green) respectively with a ratio of 2:1).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Ratio between the energies of the first and second amplified pulse (black/upper trace) and the measured phase shift (red/lower trace)

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

a) Intensity profile of the amplified pulses after the last amplification stage. The circles refer to the beam sections chosen for the measurement, depicted in: b) Measurement of the phase-shift difference for two sections of the amplified pulse pair (as indicated in 10 a). The dashed lines indicate the switching between the two sections. T/B - top/bottom section.

Equations (1)

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φ s ( L ) = φ s ( 0 ) Δ k 2 0 L f f + γ s 2 dz

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