Abstract

We investigate the spectral properties of violet 405 nm (Al,In)GaN laser diodes (LDs). Depending on the substrate the LDs are grown on, the lasing spectra show significant differences. LDs grown on low dislocation GaN substrate have a broad spectrum with several longitudinal modes, while LDs grown on SiC substrate are lasing on a single longitudinal mode. With increasing current, the laser emission of LDs grown on SiC substrate jumps from one longitudinal mode to another (mode hopping), whereas GaN substrate LDs show a smooth but asymmetric mode comb. The different envelopes of these spectra can be understood by assuming a variation of the gain for each individual longitudinal mode. With a high spectral resolution setup, we measure the gain of each longitudinal mode, employing the Hakki–Paoli method. Measurements show a slightly fluctuating gain for the modes of GaN substrate LDs, but much larger fluctuations for LDs on SiC substrate. We carry out simulations of the longitudinal mode spectrum of (Al,In)GaN laser diodes using a rate equation model with nonlinear gain (self saturation, symmetric and asymmetric cross saturation) and including gain fluctuations. With a set of parameters which is largely identical for LDs on either substrate, the simulated spectra truly resemble those typical for LDs on GaN or SiC substrate.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  2. T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, "Recent status of white LEDs and nitride LDs," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689414 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T.-C. Lu, C.-C. Kao, H.-C. Kuo, G.-S. Huang, and S.-C. Wang, "CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," Opt. Express 15, 7730 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den-Baars, and S. Nakamura, "AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L284 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K.M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L761 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Masui, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Stimulated emission at 474nm from an InGaN laser diode structure grown on a (11¯22) GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Rosetti, R. M. Smeeton, W.-S. Tan, M. Kauer, S. E. Hooper, J. Heffernan, H. Xiu, and C. J. Humphreys, "Degradation of InGaN/GaN laser diodes analyzed by micro-photoluminescence and micro-electroluminescence mappings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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  15. M. Yamada, "Theoretical analysis of nonlinear optical phenomena taking into account the beating vibration of the electron density in semiconductor lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 81 (1989).
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  16. B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, F. Roemer, G. Feicht, and U. T. Schwarz, "Simulation and design of optical gain in In(Al)GaN/GaN short wavelength lasers," Proc. SPIE 6184, 61840E (2006).
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  17. Y. P. Varshni, "Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors," Physica 34, 149 (1967).
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  18. C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, M. Seyboth, F. Habel, M. Scherer, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, V. Härle, and D. Hofstetter, "Time resolved study of laser diode characteristics during pulsed operation," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 2283 (2003).
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  19. H. Braun, H.-M. Solowan, D. Scholz, T. Meyer, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Lateral and longitudinal mode pattern of broad ridge 405 nm (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073102 (2008).
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  20. H. Braun, T. Meyer, D. Scholz, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Spectral and time resolved scanning near-field microscopy of broad area 405 nm InGaN laser diode dynamics,"Phys. Status Solidi C (to be published).
  21. B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, U. T. Schwarz, G. Feicht, W. Wegscheider, K. Engl, M. Furitsch, A. Leber, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Microscopic analysis of optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. U. T. Schwarz, H. Braun, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Investigation and comparison of optical gain spectra of (Al,In)GaN laser diodes emitting in the 375 nm to 470 nm spectral range," Proc. SPIE 6485, 648506 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. U. T. Schwarz, E. Sturm, W. Wegscheider, V. Kümmler, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Optical gain, carrier-induced phase shift, and linewidth enhancement factor in InGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4095 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. H. Peters and D. T. Cassidy, "Strain and scattering related spectral output of 1.3-?m InGaAsP semiconductor diode lasers," Appl. Optics 30, 1036 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. Corbett and D. McDonald, "Single longitudinal mode ridge waveguide 1.3�??m Fabry-Perot laser by modal perturbation," Electron. Lett. 31, 2181 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. B. Roycroft, P. Lambkin, S. Riesner, B. Corbett, and J. F. Donegan, "Transition from perturbed to coupled-cavity behavior with asymmetric spectral emission in ridge lasers emitting at 1.55?m," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 58 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. O�??Brien, A. Amann, R. Fehse, S. Osborne, and E. P. O�??Reilly, "Spectral manipulation in Fabry-Perot lasers: perturbative inverse scattering approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1046 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. U. T. Schwarz, W. Wegscheider, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Nitride-based in-plane laser diodes with vertical current path," Proc. SPIE 5365, 267 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  29. V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. H¨arle, "Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 16 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  30. U. Strauss, C. Eichler, C. Rumbolz, A. Lell, S. Lutgen, S. Tautz, M. O. Schillgalies, and S. Brüninghoff, "Beam quality of blue InGaN lasers for projection," Phys. Status Solidi C (to be published).
  31. C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Observation of temperature-independent longitudinal-mode patterns in violet-blue InGaN-based laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1782 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  32. N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, "Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121911 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  33. U. Strau�?, S. Brüninghoff, M. Schillgalies, C. Vierheilig, N. Gmeinwieser, V. Kümmler, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, D. Dini, C. Eichler, A. Lell, and U. T. Schwarz. "True blue InGaN laser for pico size projectors," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689417 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and G. A. D. Briggs, "Growth modes in heteroepitaxy of InGaN on GaN," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013707 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  35. H. Sato, T. Sugahara, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, "Compositional inhomogeneity of InGaN grown on sapphire and bulk GaN substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2013 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  36. K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, "Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  37. N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Thrush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, "Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1600 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, "Suppression of non-radiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 127, 402 (2005).
  39. C. Netzel, H. Bremers, L. Hoffmann, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, "Emission and recombination characteristics of Ga1�??xInxN/GaN quantum well structures with nonradiative recombination suppression by V- shaped pits," Phys. Rev. B 76, 155322 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  40. M. Ahmed, M. Yamada, and M. Saito, "Numerical modeling of intensity and phase noise in semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1600 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  41. M. Ahmed, M. Yamada, and S. Abdulrahmann, "A multimode simulation model of mode-competition low-frequency noise in semiconductor lasers," Fluctuation and Noise Letters 1, L163 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  42. M. Ahmed and M. Yamada, "Influence of instantaneous mode competition on the dynamics of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 682 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  43. G. Ropars, A. Le Floch, and G. P. Agrawal, "Spectral and spatial dynamics in InGaN blue-violet lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241128 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (5)

M. Rosetti, R. M. Smeeton, W.-S. Tan, M. Kauer, S. E. Hooper, J. Heffernan, H. Xiu, and C. J. Humphreys, "Degradation of InGaN/GaN laser diodes analyzed by micro-photoluminescence and micro-electroluminescence mappings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Braun, H.-M. Solowan, D. Scholz, T. Meyer, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Lateral and longitudinal mode pattern of broad ridge 405 nm (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Strau�?, S. Brüninghoff, M. Schillgalies, C. Vierheilig, N. Gmeinwieser, V. Kümmler, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, D. Dini, C. Eichler, A. Lell, and U. T. Schwarz. "True blue InGaN laser for pico size projectors," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, "Recent status of white LEDs and nitride LDs," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T.-C. Lu, C.-C. Kao, H.-C. Kuo, G.-S. Huang, and S.-C. Wang, "CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (11)

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, "Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 123103 (2007).

C. Netzel, H. Bremers, L. Hoffmann, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, "Emission and recombination characteristics of Ga1�??xInxN/GaN quantum well structures with nonradiative recombination suppression by V- shaped pits," Phys. Rev. B 76, 155322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, "Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. H¨arle, "Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 16 (2007)
[CrossRef]

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, "Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwarz, H. Braun, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Investigation and comparison of optical gain spectra of (Al,In)GaN laser diodes emitting in the 375 nm to 470 nm spectral range," Proc. SPIE 6485, 648506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Roycroft, P. Lambkin, S. Riesner, B. Corbett, and J. F. Donegan, "Transition from perturbed to coupled-cavity behavior with asymmetric spectral emission in ridge lasers emitting at 1.55?m," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 58 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den-Baars, and S. Nakamura, "AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K.M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Masui, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Stimulated emission at 474nm from an InGaN laser diode structure grown on a (11¯22) GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," Opt. Express 15, 7730 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, F. Roemer, G. Feicht, and U. T. Schwarz, "Simulation and design of optical gain in In(Al)GaN/GaN short wavelength lasers," Proc. SPIE 6184, 61840E (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, U. T. Schwarz, G. Feicht, W. Wegscheider, K. Engl, M. Furitsch, A. Leber, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Microscopic analysis of optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Ropars, A. Le Floch, and G. P. Agrawal, "Spectral and spatial dynamics in InGaN blue-violet lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. O�??Brien, A. Amann, R. Fehse, S. Osborne, and E. P. O�??Reilly, "Spectral manipulation in Fabry-Perot lasers: perturbative inverse scattering approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, "Suppression of non-radiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 127, 402 (2005).

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Observation of temperature-independent longitudinal-mode patterns in violet-blue InGaN-based laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1782 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and G. A. D. Briggs, "Growth modes in heteroepitaxy of InGaN on GaN," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

U. T. Schwarz, W. Wegscheider, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Nitride-based in-plane laser diodes with vertical current path," Proc. SPIE 5365, 267 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

U. T. Schwarz, E. Sturm, W. Wegscheider, V. Kümmler, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Optical gain, carrier-induced phase shift, and linewidth enhancement factor in InGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, M. Seyboth, F. Habel, M. Scherer, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, V. Härle, and D. Hofstetter, "Time resolved study of laser diode characteristics during pulsed operation," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 2283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Ahmed and M. Yamada, "Influence of instantaneous mode competition on the dynamics of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Ahmed, M. Yamada, and M. Saito, "Numerical modeling of intensity and phase noise in semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ahmed, M. Yamada, and S. Abdulrahmann, "A multimode simulation model of mode-competition low-frequency noise in semiconductor lasers," Fluctuation and Noise Letters 1, L163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Thrush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, "Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Sato, T. Sugahara, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, "Compositional inhomogeneity of InGaN grown on sapphire and bulk GaN substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2013 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. Corbett and D. McDonald, "Single longitudinal mode ridge waveguide 1.3�??m Fabry-Perot laser by modal perturbation," Electron. Lett. 31, 2181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

F. H. Peters and D. T. Cassidy, "Strain and scattering related spectral output of 1.3-?m InGaAsP semiconductor diode lasers," Appl. Optics 30, 1036 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. Yamada, "Theoretical analysis of nonlinear optical phenomena taking into account the beating vibration of the electron density in semiconductor lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. Yamada and Y. Suematsu, "Analysis of gain suppression in undoped injection lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 2653 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

B. W. Hakki and T. L. Paoli, "Gain spectra in GaAs double-heterostructure injection lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1299 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

B. W. Hakki and T. L. Paoli, "cw degradation at 300 K of GaAs double-heterostructure junction lasers. II. Electronic gain," J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4113 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

Y. P. Varshni, "Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors," Physica 34, 149 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Abdulrahmann, S.

M. Ahmed, M. Yamada, and S. Abdulrahmann, "A multimode simulation model of mode-competition low-frequency noise in semiconductor lasers," Fluctuation and Noise Letters 1, L163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ade, G.

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, "Suppression of non-radiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 127, 402 (2005).

Agrawal, G. P.

G. Ropars, A. Le Floch, and G. P. Agrawal, "Spectral and spatial dynamics in InGaN blue-violet lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, M.

M. Ahmed and M. Yamada, "Influence of instantaneous mode competition on the dynamics of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ahmed, M. Yamada, and M. Saito, "Numerical modeling of intensity and phase noise in semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ahmed, M. Yamada, and S. Abdulrahmann, "A multimode simulation model of mode-competition low-frequency noise in semiconductor lasers," Fluctuation and Noise Letters 1, L163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Akita, K.

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, "Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Amann, A.

Avramescu, A.

U. Strau�?, S. Brüninghoff, M. Schillgalies, C. Vierheilig, N. Gmeinwieser, V. Kümmler, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, D. Dini, C. Eichler, A. Lell, and U. T. Schwarz. "True blue InGaN laser for pico size projectors," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bangert, U.

N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Thrush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, "Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Braun, H.

H. Braun, H.-M. Solowan, D. Scholz, T. Meyer, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Lateral and longitudinal mode pattern of broad ridge 405 nm (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwarz, H. Braun, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Investigation and comparison of optical gain spectra of (Al,In)GaN laser diodes emitting in the 375 nm to 470 nm spectral range," Proc. SPIE 6485, 648506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Braun, T. Meyer, D. Scholz, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Spectral and time resolved scanning near-field microscopy of broad area 405 nm InGaN laser diode dynamics,"Phys. Status Solidi C (to be published).

Bremers, H.

C. Netzel, H. Bremers, L. Hoffmann, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, "Emission and recombination characteristics of Ga1�??xInxN/GaN quantum well structures with nonradiative recombination suppression by V- shaped pits," Phys. Rev. B 76, 155322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, G. A. D.

R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and G. A. D. Briggs, "Growth modes in heteroepitaxy of InGaN on GaN," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brüderl, G.

U. Strau�?, S. Brüninghoff, M. Schillgalies, C. Vierheilig, N. Gmeinwieser, V. Kümmler, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, D. Dini, C. Eichler, A. Lell, and U. T. Schwarz. "True blue InGaN laser for pico size projectors," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brüninghoff, S.

U. Strau�?, S. Brüninghoff, M. Schillgalies, C. Vierheilig, N. Gmeinwieser, V. Kümmler, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, D. Dini, C. Eichler, A. Lell, and U. T. Schwarz. "True blue InGaN laser for pico size projectors," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Braun, H.-M. Solowan, D. Scholz, T. Meyer, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Lateral and longitudinal mode pattern of broad ridge 405 nm (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Braun, T. Meyer, D. Scholz, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Spectral and time resolved scanning near-field microscopy of broad area 405 nm InGaN laser diode dynamics,"Phys. Status Solidi C (to be published).

U. Strauss, C. Eichler, C. Rumbolz, A. Lell, S. Lutgen, S. Tautz, M. O. Schillgalies, and S. Brüninghoff, "Beam quality of blue InGaN lasers for projection," Phys. Status Solidi C (to be published).

Cassidy, D. T.

F. H. Peters and D. T. Cassidy, "Strain and scattering related spectral output of 1.3-?m InGaAsP semiconductor diode lasers," Appl. Optics 30, 1036 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, D. A.

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den-Baars, and S. Nakamura, "AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K.M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Corbett, B.

B. Roycroft, P. Lambkin, S. Riesner, B. Corbett, and J. F. Donegan, "Transition from perturbed to coupled-cavity behavior with asymmetric spectral emission in ridge lasers emitting at 1.55?m," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 58 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Corbett and D. McDonald, "Single longitudinal mode ridge waveguide 1.3�??m Fabry-Perot laser by modal perturbation," Electron. Lett. 31, 2181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, P.

N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Thrush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, "Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K.M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Den-Baars, S. P.

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den-Baars, and S. Nakamura, "AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dini, D.

U. Strau�?, S. Brüninghoff, M. Schillgalies, C. Vierheilig, N. Gmeinwieser, V. Kümmler, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, D. Dini, C. Eichler, A. Lell, and U. T. Schwarz. "True blue InGaN laser for pico size projectors," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Donegan, J. F.

B. Roycroft, P. Lambkin, S. Riesner, B. Corbett, and J. F. Donegan, "Transition from perturbed to coupled-cavity behavior with asymmetric spectral emission in ridge lasers emitting at 1.55?m," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 58 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duxbury, N.

N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Thrush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, "Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, C.

U. Strau�?, S. Brüninghoff, M. Schillgalies, C. Vierheilig, N. Gmeinwieser, V. Kümmler, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, D. Dini, C. Eichler, A. Lell, and U. T. Schwarz. "True blue InGaN laser for pico size projectors," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Observation of temperature-independent longitudinal-mode patterns in violet-blue InGaN-based laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1782 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, M. Seyboth, F. Habel, M. Scherer, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, V. Härle, and D. Hofstetter, "Time resolved study of laser diode characteristics during pulsed operation," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 2283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Strauss, C. Eichler, C. Rumbolz, A. Lell, S. Lutgen, S. Tautz, M. O. Schillgalies, and S. Brüninghoff, "Beam quality of blue InGaN lasers for projection," Phys. Status Solidi C (to be published).

Engl, K.

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, U. T. Schwarz, G. Feicht, W. Wegscheider, K. Engl, M. Furitsch, A. Leber, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Microscopic analysis of optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den-Baars, and S. Nakamura, "AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K.M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feezell, D. F.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K.M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den-Baars, and S. Nakamura, "AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fehse, R.

Feicht, G.

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, F. Roemer, G. Feicht, and U. T. Schwarz, "Simulation and design of optical gain in In(Al)GaN/GaN short wavelength lasers," Proc. SPIE 6184, 61840E (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, U. T. Schwarz, G. Feicht, W. Wegscheider, K. Engl, M. Furitsch, A. Leber, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Microscopic analysis of optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuhrmann, D.

C. Netzel, H. Bremers, L. Hoffmann, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, "Emission and recombination characteristics of Ga1�??xInxN/GaN quantum well structures with nonradiative recombination suppression by V- shaped pits," Phys. Rev. B 76, 155322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, "Suppression of non-radiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 127, 402 (2005).

Fujito, K.

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den-Baars, and S. Nakamura, "AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K.M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Funato, M.

K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Masui, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Stimulated emission at 474nm from an InGaN laser diode structure grown on a (11¯22) GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwarz, H. Braun, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Investigation and comparison of optical gain spectra of (Al,In)GaN laser diodes emitting in the 375 nm to 470 nm spectral range," Proc. SPIE 6485, 648506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," Opt. Express 15, 7730 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furitsch, M.

V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. H¨arle, "Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 16 (2007)
[CrossRef]

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, U. T. Schwarz, G. Feicht, W. Wegscheider, K. Engl, M. Furitsch, A. Leber, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Microscopic analysis of optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gmeinwieser, N.

U. Strau�?, S. Brüninghoff, M. Schillgalies, C. Vierheilig, N. Gmeinwieser, V. Kümmler, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, D. Dini, C. Eichler, A. Lell, and U. T. Schwarz. "True blue InGaN laser for pico size projectors," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H¨arle, V.

V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. H¨arle, "Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 16 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Habel, F.

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, M. Seyboth, F. Habel, M. Scherer, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, V. Härle, and D. Hofstetter, "Time resolved study of laser diode characteristics during pulsed operation," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 2283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haeger, D. A.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K.M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hakki, B. W.

B. W. Hakki and T. L. Paoli, "Gain spectra in GaAs double-heterostructure injection lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1299 (1974).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Hakki and T. L. Paoli, "cw degradation at 300 K of GaAs double-heterostructure junction lasers. II. Electronic gain," J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4113 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hangleiter, A.

C. Netzel, H. Bremers, L. Hoffmann, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, "Emission and recombination characteristics of Ga1�??xInxN/GaN quantum well structures with nonradiative recombination suppression by V- shaped pits," Phys. Rev. B 76, 155322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, "Suppression of non-radiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 127, 402 (2005).

Härle, V.

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, U. T. Schwarz, G. Feicht, W. Wegscheider, K. Engl, M. Furitsch, A. Leber, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Microscopic analysis of optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Observation of temperature-independent longitudinal-mode patterns in violet-blue InGaN-based laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1782 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwarz, W. Wegscheider, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Nitride-based in-plane laser diodes with vertical current path," Proc. SPIE 5365, 267 (2004)
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwarz, E. Sturm, W. Wegscheider, V. Kümmler, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Optical gain, carrier-induced phase shift, and linewidth enhancement factor in InGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, M. Seyboth, F. Habel, M. Scherer, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, V. Härle, and D. Hofstetter, "Time resolved study of laser diode characteristics during pulsed operation," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 2283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heffernan, J.

M. Rosetti, R. M. Smeeton, W.-S. Tan, M. Kauer, S. E. Hooper, J. Heffernan, H. Xiu, and C. J. Humphreys, "Degradation of InGaN/GaN laser diodes analyzed by micro-photoluminescence and micro-electroluminescence mappings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hinze, P.

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, "Suppression of non-radiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 127, 402 (2005).

Hitzel, F.

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, "Suppression of non-radiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 127, 402 (2005).

Hoffmann, L.

C. Netzel, H. Bremers, L. Hoffmann, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, "Emission and recombination characteristics of Ga1�??xInxN/GaN quantum well structures with nonradiative recombination suppression by V- shaped pits," Phys. Rev. B 76, 155322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Observation of temperature-independent longitudinal-mode patterns in violet-blue InGaN-based laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1782 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, M. Seyboth, F. Habel, M. Scherer, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, V. Härle, and D. Hofstetter, "Time resolved study of laser diode characteristics during pulsed operation," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 2283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, S. E.

M. Rosetti, R. M. Smeeton, W.-S. Tan, M. Kauer, S. E. Hooper, J. Heffernan, H. Xiu, and C. J. Humphreys, "Degradation of InGaN/GaN laser diodes analyzed by micro-photoluminescence and micro-electroluminescence mappings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.-S.

T.-C. Lu, C.-C. Kao, H.-C. Kuo, G.-S. Huang, and S.-C. Wang, "CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, C. J.

M. Rosetti, R. M. Smeeton, W.-S. Tan, M. Kauer, S. E. Hooper, J. Heffernan, H. Xiu, and C. J. Humphreys, "Degradation of InGaN/GaN laser diodes analyzed by micro-photoluminescence and micro-electroluminescence mappings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, "Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and G. A. D. Briggs, "Growth modes in heteroepitaxy of InGaN on GaN," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iso, K.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K.M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, K.

N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Thrush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, "Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. M.

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, "Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 123103 (2007).

Kao, C.-C.

T.-C. Lu, C.-C. Kao, H.-C. Kuo, G.-S. Huang, and S.-C. Wang, "CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kappers, M. J.

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, "Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and G. A. D. Briggs, "Growth modes in heteroepitaxy of InGaN on GaN," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, K.

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, "Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kauer, M.

M. Rosetti, R. M. Smeeton, W.-S. Tan, M. Kauer, S. E. Hooper, J. Heffernan, H. Xiu, and C. J. Humphreys, "Degradation of InGaN/GaN laser diodes analyzed by micro-photoluminescence and micro-electroluminescence mappings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Masui, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Stimulated emission at 474nm from an InGaN laser diode structure grown on a (11¯22) GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwarz, H. Braun, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Investigation and comparison of optical gain spectra of (Al,In)GaN laser diodes emitting in the 375 nm to 470 nm spectral range," Proc. SPIE 6485, 648506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," Opt. Express 15, 7730 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelchner, K.M.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K.M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kiesel, P.

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, "Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 123103 (2007).

Kim, K.-C.

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den-Baars, and S. Nakamura, "AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kitabayashi, H.

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, "Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, "Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 123103 (2007).

Knollenberg, C.

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, "Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 123103 (2007).

Kojima, K.

K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," Opt. Express 15, 7730 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Masui, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Stimulated emission at 474nm from an InGaN laser diode structure grown on a (11¯22) GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwarz, H. Braun, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Investigation and comparison of optical gain spectra of (Al,In)GaN laser diodes emitting in the 375 nm to 470 nm spectral range," Proc. SPIE 6485, 648506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kozaki, T.

T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, "Recent status of white LEDs and nitride LDs," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kümmler, V.

U. Strau�?, S. Brüninghoff, M. Schillgalies, C. Vierheilig, N. Gmeinwieser, V. Kümmler, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, D. Dini, C. Eichler, A. Lell, and U. T. Schwarz. "True blue InGaN laser for pico size projectors," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwarz, E. Sturm, W. Wegscheider, V. Kümmler, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Optical gain, carrier-induced phase shift, and linewidth enhancement factor in InGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-C.

T.-C. Lu, C.-C. Kao, H.-C. Kuo, G.-S. Huang, and S.-C. Wang, "CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kyono, T.

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, "Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laino, V.

V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. H¨arle, "Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 16 (2007)
[CrossRef]

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, U. T. Schwarz, G. Feicht, W. Wegscheider, K. Engl, M. Furitsch, A. Leber, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Microscopic analysis of optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, F. Roemer, G. Feicht, and U. T. Schwarz, "Simulation and design of optical gain in In(Al)GaN/GaN short wavelength lasers," Proc. SPIE 6184, 61840E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lambkin, P.

B. Roycroft, P. Lambkin, S. Riesner, B. Corbett, and J. F. Donegan, "Transition from perturbed to coupled-cavity behavior with asymmetric spectral emission in ridge lasers emitting at 1.55?m," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 58 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lauterbach, C.

V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. H¨arle, "Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 16 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Le Floch, A.

G. Ropars, A. Le Floch, and G. P. Agrawal, "Spectral and spatial dynamics in InGaN blue-violet lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leber, A.

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, U. T. Schwarz, G. Feicht, W. Wegscheider, K. Engl, M. Furitsch, A. Leber, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Microscopic analysis of optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lell, A.

H. Braun, H.-M. Solowan, D. Scholz, T. Meyer, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Lateral and longitudinal mode pattern of broad ridge 405 nm (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Strau�?, S. Brüninghoff, M. Schillgalies, C. Vierheilig, N. Gmeinwieser, V. Kümmler, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, D. Dini, C. Eichler, A. Lell, and U. T. Schwarz. "True blue InGaN laser for pico size projectors," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. H¨arle, "Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 16 (2007)
[CrossRef]

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, U. T. Schwarz, G. Feicht, W. Wegscheider, K. Engl, M. Furitsch, A. Leber, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Microscopic analysis of optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Observation of temperature-independent longitudinal-mode patterns in violet-blue InGaN-based laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1782 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwarz, W. Wegscheider, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Nitride-based in-plane laser diodes with vertical current path," Proc. SPIE 5365, 267 (2004)
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwarz, E. Sturm, W. Wegscheider, V. Kümmler, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Optical gain, carrier-induced phase shift, and linewidth enhancement factor in InGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, M. Seyboth, F. Habel, M. Scherer, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, V. Härle, and D. Hofstetter, "Time resolved study of laser diode characteristics during pulsed operation," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 2283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Braun, T. Meyer, D. Scholz, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Spectral and time resolved scanning near-field microscopy of broad area 405 nm InGaN laser diode dynamics,"Phys. Status Solidi C (to be published).

U. Strauss, C. Eichler, C. Rumbolz, A. Lell, S. Lutgen, S. Tautz, M. O. Schillgalies, and S. Brüninghoff, "Beam quality of blue InGaN lasers for projection," Phys. Status Solidi C (to be published).

Lu, T.-C.

T.-C. Lu, C.-C. Kao, H.-C. Kuo, G.-S. Huang, and S.-C. Wang, "CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luisier, M.

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, U. T. Schwarz, G. Feicht, W. Wegscheider, K. Engl, M. Furitsch, A. Leber, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Microscopic analysis of optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, F. Roemer, G. Feicht, and U. T. Schwarz, "Simulation and design of optical gain in In(Al)GaN/GaN short wavelength lasers," Proc. SPIE 6184, 61840E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lutgen, S.

U. Strau�?, S. Brüninghoff, M. Schillgalies, C. Vierheilig, N. Gmeinwieser, V. Kümmler, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, D. Dini, C. Eichler, A. Lell, and U. T. Schwarz. "True blue InGaN laser for pico size projectors," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Strauss, C. Eichler, C. Rumbolz, A. Lell, S. Lutgen, S. Tautz, M. O. Schillgalies, and S. Brüninghoff, "Beam quality of blue InGaN lasers for projection," Phys. Status Solidi C (to be published).

Masui, S.

K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Masui, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Stimulated emission at 474nm from an InGaN laser diode structure grown on a (11¯22) GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, D.

B. Corbett and D. McDonald, "Single longitudinal mode ridge waveguide 1.3�??m Fabry-Perot laser by modal perturbation," Electron. Lett. 31, 2181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T.

H. Braun, H.-M. Solowan, D. Scholz, T. Meyer, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Lateral and longitudinal mode pattern of broad ridge 405 nm (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Braun, T. Meyer, D. Scholz, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Spectral and time resolved scanning near-field microscopy of broad area 405 nm InGaN laser diode dynamics,"Phys. Status Solidi C (to be published).

Miller, S.

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Observation of temperature-independent longitudinal-mode patterns in violet-blue InGaN-based laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1782 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, M. Seyboth, F. Habel, M. Scherer, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, V. Härle, and D. Hofstetter, "Time resolved study of laser diode characteristics during pulsed operation," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 2283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miyoshi, T.

T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, "Recent status of white LEDs and nitride LDs," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Thrush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, "Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1600 (2000).
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Mukai, T.

T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, "Recent status of white LEDs and nitride LDs," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," Opt. Express 15, 7730 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Masui, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Stimulated emission at 474nm from an InGaN laser diode structure grown on a (11¯22) GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwarz, H. Braun, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Investigation and comparison of optical gain spectra of (Al,In)GaN laser diodes emitting in the 375 nm to 470 nm spectral range," Proc. SPIE 6485, 648506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, "Recent status of white LEDs and nitride LDs," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," Opt. Express 15, 7730 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. T. Schwarz, H. Braun, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Investigation and comparison of optical gain spectra of (Al,In)GaN laser diodes emitting in the 375 nm to 470 nm spectral range," Proc. SPIE 6485, 648506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Masui, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Stimulated emission at 474nm from an InGaN laser diode structure grown on a (11¯22) GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K.M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den-Baars, and S. Nakamura, "AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L284 (2007).
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Naoi, Y.

H. Sato, T. Sugahara, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, "Compositional inhomogeneity of InGaN grown on sapphire and bulk GaN substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2013 (1998).
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T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, "Recent status of white LEDs and nitride LDs," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Netzel, C.

C. Netzel, H. Bremers, L. Hoffmann, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, "Emission and recombination characteristics of Ga1�??xInxN/GaN quantum well structures with nonradiative recombination suppression by V- shaped pits," Phys. Rev. B 76, 155322 (2007).
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A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, "Suppression of non-radiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 127, 402 (2005).

O???Brien, S.

O???Reilly, E. P.

Oliver, R. A.

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, "Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121911 (2007).
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R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and G. A. D. Briggs, "Growth modes in heteroepitaxy of InGaN on GaN," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013707 (2005).
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Riesner, S.

B. Roycroft, P. Lambkin, S. Riesner, B. Corbett, and J. F. Donegan, "Transition from perturbed to coupled-cavity behavior with asymmetric spectral emission in ridge lasers emitting at 1.55?m," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 58 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roemer, F.

V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. H¨arle, "Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 16 (2007)
[CrossRef]

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, F. Roemer, G. Feicht, and U. T. Schwarz, "Simulation and design of optical gain in In(Al)GaN/GaN short wavelength lasers," Proc. SPIE 6184, 61840E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ropars, G.

G. Ropars, A. Le Floch, and G. P. Agrawal, "Spectral and spatial dynamics in InGaN blue-violet lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rosetti, M.

M. Rosetti, R. M. Smeeton, W.-S. Tan, M. Kauer, S. E. Hooper, J. Heffernan, H. Xiu, and C. J. Humphreys, "Degradation of InGaN/GaN laser diodes analyzed by micro-photoluminescence and micro-electroluminescence mappings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151110 (2008).
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Rossow, U.

C. Netzel, H. Bremers, L. Hoffmann, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, "Emission and recombination characteristics of Ga1�??xInxN/GaN quantum well structures with nonradiative recombination suppression by V- shaped pits," Phys. Rev. B 76, 155322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, "Suppression of non-radiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 127, 402 (2005).

Roycroft, B.

B. Roycroft, P. Lambkin, S. Riesner, B. Corbett, and J. F. Donegan, "Transition from perturbed to coupled-cavity behavior with asymmetric spectral emission in ridge lasers emitting at 1.55?m," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 58 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rumbolz, C.

V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. H¨arle, "Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 16 (2007)
[CrossRef]

U. Strauss, C. Eichler, C. Rumbolz, A. Lell, S. Lutgen, S. Tautz, M. O. Schillgalies, and S. Brüninghoff, "Beam quality of blue InGaN lasers for projection," Phys. Status Solidi C (to be published).

Saito, M.

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den-Baars, and S. Nakamura, "AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K.M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ahmed, M. Yamada, and M. Saito, "Numerical modeling of intensity and phase noise in semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, S.

H. Sato, T. Sugahara, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, "Compositional inhomogeneity of InGaN grown on sapphire and bulk GaN substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2013 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sano, M.

T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, "Recent status of white LEDs and nitride LDs," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

H. Sato, T. Sugahara, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, "Compositional inhomogeneity of InGaN grown on sapphire and bulk GaN substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2013 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schad, S.-S.

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Observation of temperature-independent longitudinal-mode patterns in violet-blue InGaN-based laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1782 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, M. Seyboth, F. Habel, M. Scherer, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, V. Härle, and D. Hofstetter, "Time resolved study of laser diode characteristics during pulsed operation," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 2283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, M.

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, M. Seyboth, F. Habel, M. Scherer, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, V. Härle, and D. Hofstetter, "Time resolved study of laser diode characteristics during pulsed operation," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 2283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schillgalies, M.

U. Strau�?, S. Brüninghoff, M. Schillgalies, C. Vierheilig, N. Gmeinwieser, V. Kümmler, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, D. Dini, C. Eichler, A. Lell, and U. T. Schwarz. "True blue InGaN laser for pico size projectors," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schillgalies, M. O.

V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. H¨arle, "Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 16 (2007)
[CrossRef]

U. Strauss, C. Eichler, C. Rumbolz, A. Lell, S. Lutgen, S. Tautz, M. O. Schillgalies, and S. Brüninghoff, "Beam quality of blue InGaN lasers for projection," Phys. Status Solidi C (to be published).

Schmidt, M. C.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K.M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den-Baars, and S. Nakamura, "AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, O.

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, "Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 123103 (2007).

Scholz, D.

H. Braun, H.-M. Solowan, D. Scholz, T. Meyer, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Lateral and longitudinal mode pattern of broad ridge 405 nm (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Braun, T. Meyer, D. Scholz, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Spectral and time resolved scanning near-field microscopy of broad area 405 nm InGaN laser diode dynamics,"Phys. Status Solidi C (to be published).

Scholz, F.

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Observation of temperature-independent longitudinal-mode patterns in violet-blue InGaN-based laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1782 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schowalter, L. J.

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, "Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 123103 (2007).

Schujman, S.

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, "Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 123103 (2007).

Schwarz, U. T.

U. Strau�?, S. Brüninghoff, M. Schillgalies, C. Vierheilig, N. Gmeinwieser, V. Kümmler, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, D. Dini, C. Eichler, A. Lell, and U. T. Schwarz. "True blue InGaN laser for pico size projectors," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Braun, H.-M. Solowan, D. Scholz, T. Meyer, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Lateral and longitudinal mode pattern of broad ridge 405 nm (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. H¨arle, "Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 16 (2007)
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwarz, H. Braun, K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Investigation and comparison of optical gain spectra of (Al,In)GaN laser diodes emitting in the 375 nm to 470 nm spectral range," Proc. SPIE 6485, 648506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," Opt. Express 15, 7730 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, U. T. Schwarz, G. Feicht, W. Wegscheider, K. Engl, M. Furitsch, A. Leber, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Microscopic analysis of optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, F. Roemer, G. Feicht, and U. T. Schwarz, "Simulation and design of optical gain in In(Al)GaN/GaN short wavelength lasers," Proc. SPIE 6184, 61840E (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwarz, W. Wegscheider, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Nitride-based in-plane laser diodes with vertical current path," Proc. SPIE 5365, 267 (2004)
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwarz, E. Sturm, W. Wegscheider, V. Kümmler, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Optical gain, carrier-induced phase shift, and linewidth enhancement factor in InGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Braun, T. Meyer, D. Scholz, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Spectral and time resolved scanning near-field microscopy of broad area 405 nm InGaN laser diode dynamics,"Phys. Status Solidi C (to be published).

Seyboth, M.

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, M. Seyboth, F. Habel, M. Scherer, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, V. Härle, and D. Hofstetter, "Time resolved study of laser diode characteristics during pulsed operation," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 2283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smeeton, R. M.

M. Rosetti, R. M. Smeeton, W.-S. Tan, M. Kauer, S. E. Hooper, J. Heffernan, H. Xiu, and C. J. Humphreys, "Degradation of InGaN/GaN laser diodes analyzed by micro-photoluminescence and micro-electroluminescence mappings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Solowan, H.-M.

H. Braun, H.-M. Solowan, D. Scholz, T. Meyer, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Lateral and longitudinal mode pattern of broad ridge 405 nm (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K.M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den-Baars, and S. Nakamura, "AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Strau??, U.

H. Braun, H.-M. Solowan, D. Scholz, T. Meyer, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Lateral and longitudinal mode pattern of broad ridge 405 nm (Al,In)GaN laser diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Strau�?, S. Brüninghoff, M. Schillgalies, C. Vierheilig, N. Gmeinwieser, V. Kümmler, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, D. Dini, C. Eichler, A. Lell, and U. T. Schwarz. "True blue InGaN laser for pico size projectors," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Braun, T. Meyer, D. Scholz, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, A. Lell, and U. Strau�?, "Spectral and time resolved scanning near-field microscopy of broad area 405 nm InGaN laser diode dynamics,"Phys. Status Solidi C (to be published).

Strauss, U.

U. Strauss, C. Eichler, C. Rumbolz, A. Lell, S. Lutgen, S. Tautz, M. O. Schillgalies, and S. Brüninghoff, "Beam quality of blue InGaN lasers for projection," Phys. Status Solidi C (to be published).

Sturm, E.

U. T. Schwarz, E. Sturm, W. Wegscheider, V. Kümmler, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Optical gain, carrier-induced phase shift, and linewidth enhancement factor in InGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suematsu, Y.

M. Yamada and Y. Suematsu, "Analysis of gain suppression in undoped injection lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 2653 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sugahara, T.

H. Sato, T. Sugahara, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, "Compositional inhomogeneity of InGaN grown on sapphire and bulk GaN substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2013 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tan, W.-S.

M. Rosetti, R. M. Smeeton, W.-S. Tan, M. Kauer, S. E. Hooper, J. Heffernan, H. Xiu, and C. J. Humphreys, "Degradation of InGaN/GaN laser diodes analyzed by micro-photoluminescence and micro-electroluminescence mappings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tautz, S.

U. Strauss, C. Eichler, C. Rumbolz, A. Lell, S. Lutgen, S. Tautz, M. O. Schillgalies, and S. Brüninghoff, "Beam quality of blue InGaN lasers for projection," Phys. Status Solidi C (to be published).

Teepe, M.

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, "Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 123103 (2007).

Thrush, E. J.

N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Thrush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, "Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van der Laak, N. K.

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, "Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van der Stricht, W.

N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Thrush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, "Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Varshni, Y. P.

Y. P. Varshni, "Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors," Physica 34, 149 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Vierheilig, C.

U. Strau�?, S. Brüninghoff, M. Schillgalies, C. Vierheilig, N. Gmeinwieser, V. Kümmler, G. Brüderl, S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, D. Dini, C. Eichler, A. Lell, and U. T. Schwarz. "True blue InGaN laser for pico size projectors," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.-C.

T.-C. Lu, C.-C. Kao, H.-C. Kuo, G.-S. Huang, and S.-C. Wang, "CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wegscheider, W.

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, U. T. Schwarz, G. Feicht, W. Wegscheider, K. Engl, M. Furitsch, A. Leber, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Microscopic analysis of optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwarz, W. Wegscheider, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Nitride-based in-plane laser diodes with vertical current path," Proc. SPIE 5365, 267 (2004)
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwarz, E. Sturm, W. Wegscheider, V. Kümmler, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Optical gain, carrier-induced phase shift, and linewidth enhancement factor in InGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weimar, A.

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Observation of temperature-independent longitudinal-mode patterns in violet-blue InGaN-based laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1782 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Eichler, S.-S. Schad, M. Seyboth, F. Habel, M. Scherer, S. Miller, A. Weimar, A. Lell, V. Härle, and D. Hofstetter, "Time resolved study of laser diode characteristics during pulsed operation," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 2283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Witzigmann, B.

V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. H¨arle, "Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 16 (2007)
[CrossRef]

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, U. T. Schwarz, G. Feicht, W. Wegscheider, K. Engl, M. Furitsch, A. Leber, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Microscopic analysis of optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, F. Roemer, G. Feicht, and U. T. Schwarz, "Simulation and design of optical gain in In(Al)GaN/GaN short wavelength lasers," Proc. SPIE 6184, 61840E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiu, H.

M. Rosetti, R. M. Smeeton, W.-S. Tan, M. Kauer, S. E. Hooper, J. Heffernan, H. Xiu, and C. J. Humphreys, "Degradation of InGaN/GaN laser diodes analyzed by micro-photoluminescence and micro-electroluminescence mappings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K.M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

M. Ahmed and M. Yamada, "Influence of instantaneous mode competition on the dynamics of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ahmed, M. Yamada, and S. Abdulrahmann, "A multimode simulation model of mode-competition low-frequency noise in semiconductor lasers," Fluctuation and Noise Letters 1, L163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ahmed, M. Yamada, and M. Saito, "Numerical modeling of intensity and phase noise in semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, "Theoretical analysis of nonlinear optical phenomena taking into account the beating vibration of the electron density in semiconductor lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada and Y. Suematsu, "Analysis of gain suppression in undoped injection lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 2653 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, "Recent status of white LEDs and nitride LDs," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yanamoto, T.

T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, "Recent status of white LEDs and nitride LDs," Proc. SPIE 6894, 689414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, "Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 123103 (2007).

Yoshizumi, Y.

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, "Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Optics (1)

F. H. Peters and D. T. Cassidy, "Strain and scattering related spectral output of 1.3-?m InGaAsP semiconductor diode lasers," Appl. Optics 30, 1036 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Masui, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, "Stimulated emission at 474nm from an InGaN laser diode structure grown on a (11¯22) GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Rosetti, R. M. Smeeton, W.-S. Tan, M. Kauer, S. E. Hooper, J. Heffernan, H. Xiu, and C. J. Humphreys, "Degradation of InGaN/GaN laser diodes analyzed by micro-photoluminescence and micro-electroluminescence mappings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Witzigmann, V. Laino, M. Luisier, U. T. Schwarz, G. Feicht, W. Wegscheider, K. Engl, M. Furitsch, A. Leber, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Microscopic analysis of optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. T. Schwarz, E. Sturm, W. Wegscheider, V. Kümmler, A. Lell, and V. Härle, "Optical gain, carrier-induced phase shift, and linewidth enhancement factor in InGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, "Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Thrush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, "Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Ropars, A. Le Floch, and G. P. Agrawal, "Spectral and spatial dynamics in InGaN blue-violet lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, "Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 123103 (2007).

T.-C. Lu, C.-C. Kao, H.-C. Kuo, G.-S. Huang, and S.-C. Wang, "CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Corbett and D. McDonald, "Single longitudinal mode ridge waveguide 1.3�??m Fabry-Perot laser by modal perturbation," Electron. Lett. 31, 2181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fluctuation and Noise Letters (1)

M. Ahmed, M. Yamada, and S. Abdulrahmann, "A multimode simulation model of mode-competition low-frequency noise in semiconductor lasers," Fluctuation and Noise Letters 1, L163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. Ahmed and M. Yamada, "Influence of instantaneous mode competition on the dynamics of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. H¨arle, "Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 16 (2007)
[CrossRef]

M. Ahmed, M. Yamada, and M. Saito, "Numerical modeling of intensity and phase noise in semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1600 (2001).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) The spectrum of a LD on GaN substrate at I=1.3×I th. (b) The spectrum of a LD on SiC substrate at I=1.3×I th.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The current dependency of the spectrum of a LD on GaN substrate. In this density plot color represents the intensity of the longitudinal modes (white: zero; blue: low; red: high intensity).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The current dependency of the spectrum of a LD on SiC substrate. Density plot in analogy to Fig. 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The spectrum of a GaN substrate LD (a) and a SiC substrate LD (b) slightly below threshold. Intensities are given in arbitrary units. (c) Magnification of a single longitudinal mode from (a).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Gain spectra for a LD on GaN and SiC substrate, respectively. Each point is the gain of an individual longitudinal mode.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The simulated current dependency of the spectrum of a LD on GaN substrate. Density plot in analogy to Fig. 2.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The simulated current dependency of the spectrum of a LD on SiC substrate. Density plot in analogy to Fig. 2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Common parameters for GaN and SiC substrate LDs

Tables Icon

Table 2. Parameters for GaN and SiC substrate LDs, respectively

Equations (13)

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dN dt = η inj I inj q e N τ s p g ~ p S p
d S p dt = ( g ~ p g ~ th ) S p + β p N τ r
g ~ th = c vac n gr [ α int 1 2 L ln ( 1 R 1 R 2 ) ] .
g ~ p = ζ p A p B S p q p ( D pq + H pq ) S q
A p = a Γ V [ N N g b V ( λ p λ g ) 2 ]
B = 9 2 π c vac ε 0 n gr 2 h ¯ λ 0 ( Γ τ in V ) 2 a R cv 2 ( N N s )
D pq = 4 3 B ( 2 π c vac τ in λ p 2 ) 2 ( λ p λ q ) 2 + 1
H pq 3 λ p 2 8 π c vac ( a Γ V ) 2 α ( N N g ) λ q λ p
N g = η inj I inj q e τ s V a Γ g ~ th .
β p = K en Γ λ p 4 4 π 2 n ref 2 n gr V δ λ sp ( λ p λ sp ) 2 + δ λ sp 2
λ p = λ 0 , th + p Δ λ + d λ p d I inj ( I inj I th )
λ g = λ 0 , th + d λ g d I inj ( I inj I th ) .
ζ p = 1 + δ ζ · r p

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