Abstract

We review the properties and applications of ultrashort laser pulses in the atmosphere, with a particular focus on filamentation. Filamentation is a non-linear propagation regime specific of ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses in the atmosphere. Typical applications include remote sensing of atmospheric gases and aerosols, lightning control, laser-induced spectroscopy, coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering, and the generation of sub-THz radiation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (16)

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Spatio-temporal reshaping and X Wave dynamics in optical filaments," Opt. Express 15, 13077-13095 (2007)
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Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Physics Reports 441, 47-189 (2007)
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L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, "Ultrashort laments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007)
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P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J.P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E.  Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P.  Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V.  Prevot, D. Raffestin, J. Ribolzi, "32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007)

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, "Spectral correlation and noise reduction in laser filaments," Applied Phsics B. 87, 1-4 (2007)
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P. Béjot, C. Bonnet, V. Boutou, J.-P. Wolf, "Laser Noise Compression by Filamentation at 400 nm in Argon," Opt. Express 15, 13295-13309 (2007)
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D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lobhreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, C. Spielmann, "Spatial optimization of filaments," Appl. Phys. B 88, 175-178 (2007)
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Luigi Bonacina, Jérôme Extermann, Ariana Rondi, Véronique Boutou, Jean-Pierre Wolf, "Multiobjective genetic approach for optimal control of photoinduced processes," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023408 (2007)
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R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, "Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007)
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D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A.V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V.  Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu,Y. Huang, M. O. Scully, "Optimizing the Laser-Pulse Configuration for Coherent Raman Spectroscopy," Science 316, 265-268 (2007)
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H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, W. Liu, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J.-R.  Simard, S. L. Chin, "Remote detection of similar biological materials using femtosecond filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B,  87, 151-156 (2007)
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, S. L.  Chin, "Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample," Spectrochimica Acta B-Atomic Spectroscopy 62,76-81 (2007)
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R.  Simard, S. L. Chin, "Simultaneous detection and identification of multigas pollutants using filament-induced nonlinear spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101106 (2007)
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, J. Bernardt, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, "Understanding the advantage of remote femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic targets," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033124 (2007)
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Daigle, G. Méjean, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, J. Bernardt, A. Azarm, A. Sun, P.  Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, S. L. Chin, "Long range trace detection in aqueous aerosol using remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 87, 749-754 (2007)
[CrossRef]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Conical Forward THz Emission from Femtosecond-Laser-Beam Filamentation in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  98, 235002 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (13)

C. D’Amico, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filament amplification in liquids," Appl. Phys. B 85, 49-53 (2006)
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P.  Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, "Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006)
[CrossRef]

R. Ackermann, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Bourayou, M. Rodriguez, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Kasparian, J.  Yu, E. Salmon, S. Tzortzakis, Y.-B. André, J.-F. Bourrillon, L. Tamin, J.-P. Cascelli, C. Campo, C.  Davoise, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, J.-P. "Wolf, Influence of negative leader propagation on the triggering and guiding of high voltage discharges by laser filaments," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 561-566 (2006)
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J.P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Fréjafon, P. Laloi, "Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063901 (2006)
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M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Fréjafon, P. Laloi, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Escherichia Coli: Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopic Markers of the Bacterium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 053901 (2006)

M. Baudelet, J. Yu, M. Bossu, J. Jovelet, J.-P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Fréjafon, P. Laloi, "Discrimination of Microbiological Samples using Femtosecond Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163903 (2006)
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Q. Luo, H.L. Xu, S.A. Hosseini, J.-F. Daigle, F. Théberge, M. Sharifi, S.L. Chin, "Remote sensing of pollutants using femtosecond laser pulse fluorescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys.B-Lasers and Optics. 82, 105-109 (2006)
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R. Ackermann, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J.-P. Wolf, "Laser filaments generated and transmitted in highly turbulent air," Opt. Lett. 31, 86-88 (2006)
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Y. Shverdin, S. N. Goda, G. Y. Yin, S. E. Harris, "Coherent control of laser-induced breakdown," Opt. Lett. 31, 1331-1333 (2006)
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R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A.  Lindinger, L. Wöste, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J.-P. Wolf, "Optimal control of filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006)
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G. Heck, J. Sloss, R.J. Levis, "Adaptative control of the spatial position of white light filaments in an aqueous solution," Optics Communication. 259, 216-222 (2006)
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Pierre Béjot, Jérôme Kasparian, Estelle Salmon, Roland Ackermann, Nicolas Gisin, Jean-Pierre Wolf, "Laser Noise Reduction in Air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251112 (2006)
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G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, J.P. Wolf, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, "UV-Supercontinuum generated by long-range filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 341-345 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005 (14)

V. P. Kandidov, N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, O. G. Kosareva, A. V. Nyakk, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, S. L.  Chin, "Towards a control of multiple filamentation by spatial regularization of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B 80, 267-275 (2005)
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S.A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G.  Kosareva, H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005)
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G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S.  Champeaux, and L. Bergé, "Multifilamentation transmission through fog," Phys. Rev. E. 72, 026611 (2005)
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V.P. Kandidov, N. Akosbek, M. Scarola, O.G. Kosareva, A.V. Nyakk, Q. Luo, S.A. Hosseini, S. L.  Chin, "Towards a control of multiple filamentation by spatial regularization of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B. 80, 267-275 (2005)
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Z. Hao, Y. Li, Z. Zheng, Z. Wang, Q.-L. Dong, X. Lu, Z. Wei, Z.-M.  Sheng, J. Yu, W. Yu, "Polarization-dependent supercontinuum generation from light filaments in air," Opt. Lett. 30, 534-536 (2005)
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G. Méchain, C. D'Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A.  Couairon, E. Salmon, R. Sauerbrey, "Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser," Opt. Commun. 247, 171-180 (2005)
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W. Liu, J.F. Gravel, F. Théberge, A. Becker, S.L. Chin, "Background reservoir: its crucial role for long-distance propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in air," Appl. Phys. B 80, 857-860 (2005)
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G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B. 80, 785-789 (2005)
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R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, E. Salmon, J. Yu, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U.  Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, A.P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, J.-P. Wolf, "White-light filaments for multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 22, 369-377 (2005)
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P. Rosch, M. Harz, M. Schmitt, K-D Peschke, O. Ronneberger, H. Burkhardt, H-W Motzkus, M.  Lankers, S. Hofer, H. Thiele, J. Popp, "Chemotaxonomic Identification of Single Bacteria by Micro-Raman Spectroscopy: Application to Clean-Room-Relevant Biological Contaminations," Applied and environmental microbiology 71, 1626-1637 (2005); and references therein
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Ph. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, L. Wöste, R. Ackermann, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. Yu and J.P. Wolf, "Filament-induced Remote Ablation for Long Range LIBS Operation," Spectrochimica Acta B 60,1025-1033 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y.T. Li, X. Lu, X.H. Yuan, Z.Y. Zheng, Z.H. Wang, W.J. Ling, Z.Y. Wei, "Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Applied Phsics B 80, 627-630 (2005)
[CrossRef]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, V. Wood, J.P. Wolf, A. Bartelt, M. Roth, H. Rabitz, "Femtosecond laser pulses distinguish bacteria from background urban aerosols," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 063901 (2005)
[CrossRef]

B. Q. Li, H. Rabitz, J. P. Wolf, "Optimal dynamic discrimination of similar quantum systems with time series data," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 154103 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (25)

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, Y. L. Pan, R. K. Chang, "Fluorescence spectra of atmospheric aerosol at Adelphi, Maryland, USA: measurement and classification of single particles containing organic carbon," Atmospheric Environment 38, 1657-1672 (2004)
[CrossRef]

R. Ackermann, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, G. Méchain, V.  Bergmann, S. Schaper, B. Weise, T. Kumm, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J.P. Wolf, and L.  Wöste, "Triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges by laser-induced filaments under rain conditions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5781-5783 (2004)
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lagatsky, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, "Highly efficient and low threshold diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:KYW laser," Opt. Express 12, 3928-3933 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ph. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.P. Wolf, L. Wöste, "Remote LIBS with Ultra-Short Pulses: Characteristics in Picosecond and Femtosecond Regimes," J. of Anal. Atomic Spect. 19, 437-444 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, B. Ferland and S. L. Chin, "Backward time-resolved spectroscopy from filament induced by ultrafast intense laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 233, 411-416 (2004)
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, S. L. Chin, "Sensing of Halocarbons Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 76, 4799-4805 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Kim, Y. Iwasaka, G. Y. Shi, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, D. Trochkin, A. Matsuki, M. Yamada, B.  Chen, D. Zhang, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, "Dust particles in the free atmosphere over desert areas on the Asian continent: Measurements from summer 2001 to summer 2002 with balloon-borne optical particle counter and lidar, Dunhuang, China," J. Geophys. Res.-Atmospheres 109 (D19), D9S26 (2004)
[CrossRef]

S. Bendersky, N. S. Kopeika, N. Blaunstein, "Atmospheric optical turbulence over land in Middle-East coastal environments: prediction modeling and measurements," Appl. Opt. 43, 4070-4079 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Shlyonov and V. P. Kandidov, "Filament bunch formation upon femtosecond laser pulse propagation through the turbulent atmosphere. Part 1. Method," Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 17, 565-570 (2004)

S. A. Shlyonov and V. P. Kandidov, "Filament bunch formation upon femtosecond laser pulse propagation through the turbulent atmosphere. Part 2. Statistical characteristics," Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 17, 571-575 (2004)

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, and F. Luderer, "Interaction of femtosecond light filaments with obscurants in aerosols," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023901 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, "Self-healing femtosecond light filaments," Opt. Lett. 29, 590-590 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Luderer, "Interaction of femtosecond light filaments with obscurants in aerosols," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023901 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.A. Hosseini, J. Yu, Q. Luo, and S.L. Chin, "Multi-parameter characterization of the longitudinal plasma profile of a filament: a comparative study," Appl. Phys. B. 79, 519-523 (2004)
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J.-P. Wolf, "Remote Detection and Identification of Biological Aerosols using a Femtosecond Terawatt Lidar System," Appl. Phys. B. 78, 535-537 (2004)
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, L.  Wöste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004)
[CrossRef]

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Méjean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "Remote LIBS with ultra-short pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes," Journal of analytical atomic spectrometry. 19, 437-444 (2004)
[CrossRef]

M. Dantus, V. V. Lozovoy, "Experimental coherent laser control of physicochemical processes," Chemical Reviews 104, 1813-1859 (2004), and references therein
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J.P. Wolf, M.  Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, "Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters," Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004)
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A.P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E. 69,036607 (2004)
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D'amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, "Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization," Appl. Phys. B. 79, 379-382 (2004)
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L.  Wöste, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, "Multiple filamentation of TW laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P.  Kandidov, "Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A,  70, 033802 (2004)
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, "Nonlinear optical pulse propagation simulation: From Maxwell's to unidirectional equations," Phys. Rev. E 70, 036604 (2004)
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S.A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, S.L. Chin, O.G. Kosareva, N.A. Panov, and V. P.  Kandidov, "Experimental observation and simulations of the self-action of white-light laser propagating in air," New Journal of Physics. 6, 1-22 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2003 (14)

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y.  Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu and Z. M. Sheng, "Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Golubtsov, V. P. Kandidov, and O. G. Kosareva, "Initial phase modulation of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse as a tool for controlling its filamentation and generation of a supercontinuum in air," Quantum Electronics. 33, 525-530 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B.  André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, J.P. Wolf, "Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air," Appl. Opt. 42, 7117-7120 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Y.T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Teng, K. Li, X.Y. Peng, Z. Jin, X. Lu, Z.Y. Zheng, and Q.Z. Yu, "Blast wave produced by interactions of femtosecond laser pulses with water," Phys. Rev. E. 67, 056403 (2003)
[CrossRef]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu et J. P. Wolf, "Light filaments transmitted through clouds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213-215 (2003)
[CrossRef]

D. Goswami, "Optical pulse shaping approaches to coherent control," Phys. Rep. 374, 385-481 (2003), and references therein
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L.  Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, and A.P. Hatzes, "Towards a supercontinuum-based infrared Lidar," Appl. Phys. B. 77, 357-359 (2003)
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C.  Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P.  Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P.  Varanasi and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 Including Updates of 2001," Journal of quantitative spectroscopy and radiation transfer 82, 5 (2003)
[CrossRef]

A. Iwasaki, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C.M. Bowden, S.L. Chin, "A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air," Appl. Phys. B 76, 231-236 (2003)
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, B. Leriche, "Calorimetric detection of THz radiation from femtosecond filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 77, 707-709 (2003)
[CrossRef]

M. J. Guardalben, J. Keegan, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Puth, J. D. Zuegel, "Design of a highly stable, high-conversion-efficiency, optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification system with good beam quality," Opt. Express 11, 2511-2524, (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Patalano, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, "Concatenation of plasma filaments created in air by femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 76, 609-612 (2003)
[CrossRef]

S.A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akösbek, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, "Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules," Appl. Phys. B. 77, 697-702 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2002 (21)

S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Patalano, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J.-M.  Munier, M. Gheudin, G. Beaudin, P. Encrenaz, "Coherent subterahertz radiation from femtosecond infrared filaments in air," Opt. Lett. 27, 1944-1946 (2002)
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K.  Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, "Megavolt discharges triggered and guided with laser filaments," Opt. Lett. 27, 772-774 (2002)
[CrossRef]

L. Sobolewski, W. Domcke, C. Dedonder-Lardeux, C. Jouvet, "Excited-state hydrogen detachment and hydrogen transfer driven by repulsive (1)pi sigma* states: A new paradigm for nonradiative decay in aromatic biomolecules," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 1093-1100 (2002)
[CrossRef]

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. PIlloff, A. Z. Sokolov, M. S. Zubairy, "FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99, 10994-11001 (2002)
[CrossRef]

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, Y. Silberberg, "Quantum control of coherent anti-Stokes Raman processes" Phys. Rev. A 65, 043408 (2002)
[CrossRef]

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse phase-contrast nonlinear Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89273001 (2002)
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418 (6897): 512-514 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.C. Galvez, M. Fujita, N. Inoue, R. Moriki, Y. Izawa, C. Yamanaka, "Three-wavelength backscatter measurement of clouds and aerosols using a white light Lidar system," Jap. J. App. Phys. 41, 284 (2002)
[CrossRef]

L. Méès, J.P. Wolf, G. Gouesbet, G. Gréhan, "Two-photon absorption and fluorescence in a spherical micro-cavity illuminated by using two laser pulses: numerical simulations," Opt. Commun. 208, 371-375 (2002)
[CrossRef]

V. Boutou, C. Favre, S.C. Hill, Y.L. Pan, R.K. Chang, J.-P. Wolf, "Backward enhanced emission from multiphoton processes in aerosols," Appl. Phys. B 75, 145-152 (2002)
[CrossRef]

C. Favre, V. Boutou, S. C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R. K. Chang, L. Wöste, J.-P.  Wolf, "White-light nanosource with directional emission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89035002 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, S. C. Hill, J.P. Wolf, S. Holler, R.K. Chang, J.R. Bottiger, "Backward-enhanced fluorescence from clusters of microspheres and particles of tryptophan," Appl. Opt. 41, 2994-2999 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, A. Talebpour, J. Yang, S. Petit, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamarov, "Filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in turbulent air," Appl. Phys. B 74, 67-76 (2002)
[CrossRef]

L. Iorio, H. Lichtenegger, B. Mashhoon, "An alternative derivation of the gravitomagnetic clock effect," Classical and Quantum Gravity 19, 39-49 (2002)
[CrossRef]

D. Schumacher, "Controlling continuum generation," Opt. Lett. 27, 451-453 (2002)
[CrossRef]

M. Fiorentino, J. E. Sharping, P. Kumar, A. Porzio, R. S. Windeler, "Soliton squeezing in microstructured fiber," Opt. Lett. 27, 649-651 (2002)
[CrossRef]

T. Opatrny, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, "Mode Structure and Photon Number Correlations in Squeezed Quantum Pulses," Phys. Rev. A 66, 053813 (2002)
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano and B. Hafizi, "Propagation of intense short laser pulses in the atmosphere," Phys. Rev. E 66, 046418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," European Physical Journal - Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002)
[CrossRef]

O. Duclaux, E. Frejafon, H. Schmidt, A. Thomasson, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, C. Guillaumond, C. Puel, F.  Savoie, P. Ritter, J. P. Boch, J. P. Wolf, "3D-air quality model evaluation using the Lidar technique," Atmos. Environ. 36, 5081-5095 (2002)
[CrossRef]

2001 (13)

G. Fibich, B. Ilan, "Deterministic vectorial effect lead to multiple filamentation," Opt. Lett. 26, 840-842 (2001)
[CrossRef]

L. Hovhannisyan, "Analytic solution of the wave equation describing dispersion-free propagation of a femtosecond laser pulse in a medium with cubic and fifth-order nonlinearity," Optics Commun. 196, 103-107 (2001)
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, A. Couairon, "Gas-induced solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003-1006 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C.M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B. 73, 287-290 (2001)
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J.-P. Wolf, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, "Backward supercontinuum emission from a filament generated by ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 26, 533-535 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartelt, S. Minemoto, C. Lupulescu, S. Vajda, L. Wöste, "Control of wavepacket dynamics in mixed alkali metal clusters by optimally shaped fs pulses," European Physical Journal D 16, 127-131 (2001)
[CrossRef]

P. Rambo, J. Schwartz, J.-C. Diels, "High-voltage electrical discharges induced by an ultrashort-pulse UV laser system," J. Opt. A: Pure and Appl. Opt. 3, 146-158 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Y. Pan, S. Holler, R.G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, S. Niles, J.R. Bottiger, J.P. Wolf, R. K. Chang, "Dynamics of photon-induced degradation and fluorescence in riboflavin microparticles," App. Phys. B 72, 449-454 (2001)
[CrossRef]

G. Faye, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, "Modifications to the Lidar equation due to nonlinear propagation in air," Appl. Phys. B 73, 157-163 (2001)
[CrossRef]

V. Korolev, G. A. Isaac, I. P. Mazin, H. W. Barker, "Microphysical properties of continental clouds from in situ measurements," Quaterly Journal of the Royal meteorological society 127, 2117-2151 (2001)

J.-P. Wolf, Y-L. Pan, G. Turner, M.C. Beard, C.A. Schmuttenmaer, S. Holler, R.K. Chang, "Ballistic trajectories of optical wave packets within microcavities," Phys. Rev. A 64, 023808 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B.  La Fontaine, F.  Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, I.  Gallimberti, "Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Plasmas 8, 2532-2539 (2001)
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Cheng, E. M. Wright, J. V. Moloney, "Generation of electromagnetic pulses from plasma channels induced by femtosecond light strings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213001 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (12)

D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Gérin, G. Jarry, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B.  La Fontaine, F.  Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, C. Potvin, A.  Bondiou-Clergerie, I. Gallimberti, "Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser," Appl. Phys. Letters 76, 819-821 (2000)
[CrossRef]

L. Miles, J. Verlinde, E. E. Clothiaux, "Cloud droplet size distributions in low-level stratiform clouds," Journal of the atmospheric sciences 57, 295-311 (2000)
[CrossRef]

S.C. Hill, V. Boutou, J. Yu, S. Ramstein, J-P. Wolf, Y-L. Pan, S. Holler, R.K. Chang, "Enhanced backward-directed multiphoton-excited fluorescence from dielectric microspheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 54-57 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Self-focusing of elliptic beams: an example of the failure of the aberrationless approximation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 17, 1749-1758 (2000)
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, S.L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B. 71, 877-879 (2000)
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, A. Talepbour, S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond pulse propagation in air : variational analysis," Phys. Rev. E 61, 4540-4549 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Ren, R. G. Hemker, R. A. Fonseca, B. J. Duda, W. B. Mori, "Mutual attraction of laser beams in plasmas: braided light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2124-2127 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. André, M. Franco, B.  Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Tzortzakis, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, L. Wöste, "Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by fs-TW-laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere," Opt. Lett. 25, 1397-1399 (2000)
[CrossRef]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D.  Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, C. Ziener, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," App. Phys. B 71, 573-580 (2000)
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, "Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air," Optics Commun. 181, 123-127 (2000)
[CrossRef]

A. L. Gaeta, "Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses, Phys. Rev. Lett."  84, 3582-3585 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Proulx, A. Talebpour, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, "Fast pulsed electric field created from the self-generated filament of a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 174, 305-309 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1999 (16)

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, "Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505-R3507 (1999)
[CrossRef]

H. Schillinger, R. Sauerbrey, "Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 68, 753-756 (1999)
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, "Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637-650 (1999)
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, J. Yang, S.L. Chin, "Semi-empirical model for the rate of tunnel ionization of N2 and O2 molecules in an intense Ti:sapphire laser pulse," Optics Commun. 163, 29-32 (1999)
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, E. M. Wright, "Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938-2941 (1999)
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. Petit, F. Borne, K. Miyazaki, "The white light supercontinuum is indeed an ultrafast white light laser," Japanese journal of Appl. Phys. 38, L126-L128 (1999)
[CrossRef]

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, A.  Mysyrowicz, "Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases," The European Physical Journal D 6, 383-396 (1999)
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C.Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T.W. Johnson, J.-C.  Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Physics of plasmas 6, 1615-1621 (1999)
[CrossRef]

V. Schmidt, L. Knöll, D.-G. Welsch, "Cumulant expansion for studying damped quantum solitons," Phys. Rev. A 59, 2442-2457 (1999)
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, J. V. Moloney, "Power dependence of dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propgating in air," Opt. Express 4, 223-228 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, "Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser)," Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics and Materials 8, 121-146 (1999)
[CrossRef]

S.C. Hill, R. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y.L. Pan, S. Holler, R.K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B.T. Chen, C.S. Orr, G.  Feather, "Real-time measurement of fluorescence spectra from single airborne biological particles," Field Analytical Chemistry and Technology 3, 221-239 (1999)
[CrossRef]

J. Noack, A. Vogel, "Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: Calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156-1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Palanco, L.M. Cabalin, D. Romero, J. J. Laserna, "Infrared laser ablation and atomic emission spectrometry of stainless steel at high temperatures," J. Anal. At. Spectrom.,  14, 1883-1887 (1999)
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, M.A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B.S. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, "Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E. 60, R3505-R3507 (1999)
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A.  Braun, G.A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, U. Keller, "Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B 69, 3-17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (9)

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, R. F. Pueschel, M. A. Fenn, E. V. Browell, W. B. Grant, "A multi-instrument approach for characterizing the vertical structure of aerosol properties: case studies in the Pacific Basin troposphere," J. Geophys. Res. -Atmospheres 103 (D18): 23287-23298 (1998)
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, "A new transient SRS analysis method of aerosols and application to a non-linear femtosecond Lidar," Opt. Commun. 152, 355-360 (1998)
[CrossRef]

S. Spälter, N. Korolkova, F. König, A. Sizmann, G. Leuchs, "Observation of Multimode Quantum Correlations in Fiber Optical Solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 786-789, (1998)
[CrossRef]

S. Spälter, M. Burk, U. Strößner, A. Sizmann, G. Leuchs, "Propagation of quantum properties of sub-picosecond solitons in a fiber," Opt. Express,  2, 77-83 (1998)
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, A. L. Gaeta, "Breakdown of the slowly varying envelope approximation in the self-focusing of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 23, 534-536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, J. V. Moloney, "Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air," Opt. Lett. 23, 382-384 (1998)
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, E. Fréjafon, P. Rambaldi, J. Yu, P. Ritter, P. Viscardi, J.P. Wolf, "Characterization of urban aerosols using SEM-microscopy, X-Ray analysis, and Lidar measurements," Atmospheric Environment 32, 2957-2967 (1998)
[CrossRef]

E. Fréjafon, J. Kasparian, P. Rambaldi, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, J. Yu, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, B.  Ottobrini, E. de Saeger, B. Krämer, T. Leisner, P. Rairoux, L. Wöste, and J.P. Wolf, "Laser applications for atmospheric pollution monitoring," European Physical Journal D. 4, 231-238 (1998)

H.L. Walmsley, S.J. O'Connor, "The accuracy and sensitivity of infrared differential absorption lidar measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from process units," Pure and Appl. Opt. 7,907-925 (1998)
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F.  Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser und Optoelektronik, E 2688, (1997)

O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, S. L. Chin, "Conical emission from laser-plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air," Chin. Opt. Lett. 22, 1332-1334 (1997).

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, G. Gerber, "Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback," Appl. Phys. B 65, 779-782 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Mecozzi and P. Kumar, "Linearized quantum-fluctuation theory of spectrally-filtered optical solitons," Opt. Lett. 22, 1232-1234 (1997)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.W. Faris, R. A. Copeland, K. Mortelmans, B. V. Bronk, "Spectrally resolved absolute fluorescence cross sections for bacillus spores," Appl. Opt. 36, 958-967 (1997)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (4)

L. R. Bissonnette, "Multiple-scattering Lidar equation," Appl. Opt. 35, 6449-6465 (1996)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Friberg, S. Machida, M. J. Werner, A. Levanon, T. Mukai, "Observation of Optical Soliton Photon-Number Squeezing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3775-3778 (1996)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, A. Mysyrowicz, "Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 21, 62-64 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ranka, R. W. Schirmer, A. L. Gaeta, "Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783-3786 (1996)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (5)

1994 (6)

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen and M. Shirasaki, "Squeezing in a fiber interferometer with a gigahertz pump," Opt. Lett. 19, 290-292 (1994)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nishizawa, S. Kume, M. Mori, T. Goto and A. Miyauchi, "Squeezed light generation with 1.064 m Nd:YAG laser and 0.85 μm single-mode fiber," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys, Part 1  33, 138-143 (1994)
[CrossRef]

L. Boivin, F. X. Kärtner, H. A. Haus, "Analytical Solution to the Quantum Field Theory of Self-Phase Modulation with a Finite Response Time," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  73, 240-243, (1994)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, B. Stein, J. Kolenda, P. Rairoux, J.P. Wolf, R. Matthey, E.  Kyrö, "Multiwavelength lidar observation of thin cirrus at the base of the Pinatubo stratospheric layer during the EASOE campaign," Geophys. Res. Lett.,  21, 1339-1342 (1994);
[CrossRef]

M. del Guasta, M. Morandi, L. Stefanutti, B. Stein, J.P. Wolf, "Derivation of mount Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol mean size distribution by means of a multiwavelength Lidar," App.Optics 33, 5690-5697 (1994)
[CrossRef]

B. Stein, M. Delgusta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, "Stratospheric aerosol-size distributions from multispectral Lidar measurements at Sodankyla during EASOE," Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311-1314 (1994)
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

K. Bergman, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus and M. Shirasaki, "Sub-shot-noise measurement with fiber squezzed optical pulses," Opt. Lett. 18, 643-645 (1993)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Back, H.P. Schwefel, "An overview of evolutionary algorithms for parameter optimization," Evolutionary Computing 1, 1-23 (1993)
[CrossRef]

M. Miki, Y. Aihara, T. Shindo, "Development of long gap discharges guided by a pulsed CO2 laser," J. Phys. D - Appl. Phys. 26, 1244-1252 (1993)
[CrossRef]

1992 (5)

A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, A. Piskarskas, "Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal," Opt. Commun. 88, 437-440 (1992)
[CrossRef]

S. Judson and H. Rabitz, "Teaching lasers to control molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500-1503 (1992)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Stefanutti, M. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J.  Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, "A four wavelength depolarization backscattering Lidar for polar stratospheric cloud monitoring," Appl. Phys. B 55, 13-17 (1992)
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kölsch, P. Rairoux, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, "Comparative study of nitric-oxyde immission in the cities of Lyon, Geneva and Stuttgart using a mobile differential absorption Lidar system," Appl. Phys. B 54, 89-94 (1992)
[CrossRef]

P. M. Goorjian, A. Taflove, R. M. Joseph, S. C. Hagness, "Computational modeling of femtosecond optical solutions from Maxwell equations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2416-2422 (1992)
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

M. Rosenbluh and R. M. Shelby, "Squeezed optical solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 153-156 (1991)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bergman and H. A. Haus, "Squeezing in fibers with optical pulses," Opt.Lett. 16, 663-665 (1991)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

M. Beniston, J.-P. Wolf, M. Beniston-Rebetez, H. J. Kölsch, P. Rairoux, L. Wöste, "Use of Lidar Measurements and numerical models in air-pollution research," J. Geophys. Res. -Atmospheres 95 (D7), 9879-9894 (1990)
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, G. Mourou, "Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398-403 (1988)
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. J. Carter, P. D. Drummond, M. D. Reid, R. M. Shelby, "Squeezing of quantum solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett,  58,1841-1844 (1987)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (3)

H. Müller, H. Quenzel, "Information content of multispectral Lidar measurements with respet to the aerosol size distribution," Appl. Opt. 24, 648-654 (1985)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Strickland, G. Mourou, "Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses," Opt. Commun. 56, 219-221 (1985)
[CrossRef]

L. Roso-Franco, "Self-reflected wave insid a very dense saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2149-2151 (1985)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

1976 (2)

S. R. Pal and A. I. Carswell, "Multiple scattering in atmospheric clouds: Lidar observations," Appl. Opt. 15, 1990-1995 (1976)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Williams, D.P. Warma, S. Hillenius, "Liquid water as a lone-pair amorphous semiconductor," J. Chem. Phys. 64, 1549-1554 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (3)

H. B. Steen, "Wavelength dependence of quantum yield of fluorescence and photoionization of indoles," J. Chem. Phys. 61, 3997-4002 (1974)
[CrossRef]

L. M. Ball, "The laser lightning rod system: thunderstorm domestication," Appl. Opt. 13, 2292-2296 (1974)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Askar’yan, "The self-focusing effect," Sov. Phys. J. 16680 (1974)
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

D.W. Koopman, T. D. Wilkerson, "Channeling of an ionizing electrical streamer by a laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1883 (1971)
[CrossRef]

1970 (3)

R. R. Alfano, S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 Å," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584-587 (1970)
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, S. L. Shapiro, "Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filaments in crystals and glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592-595 (1970)
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, S. L. Shapiro, "Direct distortion of electric clouds of rare-gas atoms in intense electric fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1217-1220 (1970)
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E.L. Dawes, J.H. Marburger, "Computer studies in self-focusing," Phys. Rev. 179, 862-868 (1969)
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

J. H. Marburger, E. L. Dawes, "Dynamical formation of a small-scale filament," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 556-558 (1968). Note that the radius considered in the classical writing of Marburger’s formula is the half-width at e-1/2, not 1/e or 1/e2 as usually.
[CrossRef]

W. G. Wagner, H. A. Haus, J. H. Marburger, "Large-scale self-trapping of optical beams in the paraxial ray approximation," Phys. Rev. 175, 256-266 (1968); Erratum in Phys. Rev. A, 3, 2150 (1971)
[CrossRef]

1965 (2)

P. L. Kelley, "Self-focusing of optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 1005-1008 (1965); Erratum in Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 384 (1965)
[CrossRef]

L.V. Keldysh, "Ionization in field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965)

Anal. Chem. (1)

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, S. L. Chin, "Sensing of Halocarbons Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 76, 4799-4805 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

App. Phys. B (2)

Y. Pan, S. Holler, R.G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, S. Niles, J.R. Bottiger, J.P. Wolf, R. K. Chang, "Dynamics of photon-induced degradation and fluorescence in riboflavin microparticles," App. Phys. B 72, 449-454 (2001)
[CrossRef]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D.  Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, C. Ziener, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," App. Phys. B 71, 573-580 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (12)

H. J. Kölsch, P. Rairoux, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, "Simultaneous NO and NO2 measurement using BBO crystals," Appl. Opt. 28, 2052-2056 (1989)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Strong, R.L. Jones, "Remote measurements of vertical profiles of atmospheric constituents with a UV-visible ranging spectrometer," Appl. Opt. 34, 6223-6235 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, J.P. Wolf, "Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air," Appl. Opt. 42, 7117-7120 (2003)
[CrossRef]

S. Bendersky, N. S. Kopeika, N. Blaunstein, "Atmospheric optical turbulence over land in Middle-East coastal environments: prediction modeling and measurements," Appl. Opt. 43, 4070-4079 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.W. Faris, R. A. Copeland, K. Mortelmans, B. V. Bronk, "Spectrally resolved absolute fluorescence cross sections for bacillus spores," Appl. Opt. 36, 958-967 (1997)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, S. C. Hill, J.P. Wolf, S. Holler, R.K. Chang, J.R. Bottiger, "Backward-enhanced fluorescence from clusters of microspheres and particles of tryptophan," Appl. Opt. 41, 2994-2999 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mégie, "Mesure de la pression et de la température atmosphériques par absorption différentielle lidar: influence de la largeur d'émission laser," Appl. Opt. 19, 34-43 (1980)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Müller, H. Quenzel, "Information content of multispectral Lidar measurements with respet to the aerosol size distribution," Appl. Opt. 24, 648-654 (1985)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Pal and A. I. Carswell, "Multiple scattering in atmospheric clouds: Lidar observations," Appl. Opt. 15, 1990-1995 (1976)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Bissonnette and D. L. Hutt, "Multiply scattered aerosol lidar returns: inversion method and comparison with in-situ measurements," Appl. Opt. 34, 6959-6975 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Bissonnette, "Multiple-scattering Lidar equation," Appl. Opt. 35, 6449-6465 (1996)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Ball, "The laser lightning rod system: thunderstorm domestication," Appl. Opt. 13, 2292-2296 (1974)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. (1)

Q. Luo, H.L. Xu, S.A. Hosseini, J.-F. Daigle, F. Théberge, M. Sharifi, S.L. Chin, "Remote sensing of pollutants using femtosecond laser pulse fluorescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys.B-Lasers and Optics. 82, 105-109 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (18)

A. Iwasaki, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C.M. Bowden, S.L. Chin, "A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air," Appl. Phys. B 76, 231-236 (2003)
[CrossRef]

V. Boutou, C. Favre, S.C. Hill, Y.L. Pan, R.K. Chang, J.-P. Wolf, "Backward enhanced emission from multiphoton processes in aerosols," Appl. Phys. B 75, 145-152 (2002)
[CrossRef]

L. Stefanutti, M. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J.  Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, "A four wavelength depolarization backscattering Lidar for polar stratospheric cloud monitoring," Appl. Phys. B 55, 13-17 (1992)
[CrossRef]

G. Faye, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, "Modifications to the Lidar equation due to nonlinear propagation in air," Appl. Phys. B 73, 157-163 (2001)
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, B. Leriche, "Calorimetric detection of THz radiation from femtosecond filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 77, 707-709 (2003)
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, W. Liu, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J.-R.  Simard, S. L. Chin, "Remote detection of similar biological materials using femtosecond filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B,  87, 151-156 (2007)
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Daigle, G. Méjean, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, J. Bernardt, A. Azarm, A. Sun, P.  Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, S. L. Chin, "Long range trace detection in aqueous aerosol using remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 87, 749-754 (2007)
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Patalano, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, "Concatenation of plasma filaments created in air by femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 76, 609-612 (2003)
[CrossRef]

C. D’Amico, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filament amplification in liquids," Appl. Phys. B 85, 49-53 (2006)
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A.  Braun, G.A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, U. Keller, "Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B 69, 3-17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, A. Talebpour, J. Yang, S. Petit, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamarov, "Filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in turbulent air," Appl. Phys. B 74, 67-76 (2002)
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, J.F. Gravel, F. Théberge, A. Becker, S.L. Chin, "Background reservoir: its crucial role for long-distance propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in air," Appl. Phys. B 80, 857-860 (2005)
[CrossRef]

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, G. Gerber, "Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback," Appl. Phys. B 65, 779-782 (1997)
[CrossRef]

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lobhreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, C. Spielmann, "Spatial optimization of filaments," Appl. Phys. B 88, 175-178 (2007)
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kölsch, P. Rairoux, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, "Comparative study of nitric-oxyde immission in the cities of Lyon, Geneva and Stuttgart using a mobile differential absorption Lidar system," Appl. Phys. B 54, 89-94 (1992)
[CrossRef]

P. Rambaldi, M. Douard, J.-P. Wolf, "New UV tunable solid-state lasers for Lidar applications," Appl. Phys. B 61, 117-120 (1995)
[CrossRef]

H. Schillinger, R. Sauerbrey, "Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 68, 753-756 (1999)
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, O. G. Kosareva, A. V. Nyakk, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, S. L.  Chin, "Towards a control of multiple filamentation by spatial regularization of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B 80, 267-275 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B. (11)

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, J.P. Wolf, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, "UV-Supercontinuum generated by long-range filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 341-345 (2006)
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C.M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B. 73, 287-290 (2001)
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, S.L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B. 71, 877-879 (2000)
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D'amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, "Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization," Appl. Phys. B. 79, 379-382 (2004)
[CrossRef]

V.P. Kandidov, N. Akosbek, M. Scarola, O.G. Kosareva, A.V. Nyakk, Q. Luo, S.A. Hosseini, S. L.  Chin, "Towards a control of multiple filamentation by spatial regularization of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B. 80, 267-275 (2005)
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B. 80, 785-789 (2005)
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L.  Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, and A.P. Hatzes, "Towards a supercontinuum-based infrared Lidar," Appl. Phys. B. 77, 357-359 (2003)
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J.-P. Wolf, "Remote Detection and Identification of Biological Aerosols using a Femtosecond Terawatt Lidar System," Appl. Phys. B. 78, 535-537 (2004)
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S.A. Hosseini, J. Yu, Q. Luo, and S.L. Chin, "Multi-parameter characterization of the longitudinal plasma profile of a filament: a comparative study," Appl. Phys. B. 79, 519-523 (2004)
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S.A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akösbek, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, "Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules," Appl. Phys. B. 77, 697-702 (2003)
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R. Ackermann, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Bourayou, M. Rodriguez, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Kasparian, J.  Yu, E. Salmon, S. Tzortzakis, Y.-B. André, J.-F. Bourrillon, L. Tamin, J.-P. Cascelli, C. Campo, C.  Davoise, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, J.-P. "Wolf, Influence of negative leader propagation on the triggering and guiding of high voltage discharges by laser filaments," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 561-566 (2006)
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (13)

R. Ackermann, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, G. Méchain, V.  Bergmann, S. Schaper, B. Weise, T. Kumm, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J.P. Wolf, and L.  Wöste, "Triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges by laser-induced filaments under rain conditions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5781-5783 (2004)
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G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P.  Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, "Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006)
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F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, V. Wood, J.P. Wolf, A. Bartelt, M. Roth, H. Rabitz, "Femtosecond laser pulses distinguish bacteria from background urban aerosols," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 063901 (2005)
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H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R.  Simard, S. L. Chin, "Simultaneous detection and identification of multigas pollutants using filament-induced nonlinear spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101106 (2007)
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M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J.P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Fréjafon, P. Laloi, "Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063901 (2006)
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M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Fréjafon, P. Laloi, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Escherichia Coli: Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopic Markers of the Bacterium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 053901 (2006)

M. Baudelet, J. Yu, M. Bossu, J. Jovelet, J.-P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Fréjafon, P. Laloi, "Discrimination of Microbiological Samples using Femtosecond Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163903 (2006)
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K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, L.  Wöste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004)
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R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, "Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007)
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F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu et J. P. Wolf, "Light filaments transmitted through clouds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213-215 (2003)
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R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A.  Lindinger, L. Wöste, P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J.-P. Wolf, "Optimal control of filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006)
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Pierre Béjot, Jérôme Kasparian, Estelle Salmon, Roland Ackermann, Nicolas Gisin, Jean-Pierre Wolf, "Laser Noise Reduction in Air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251112 (2006)
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P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J.P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E.  Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P.  Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V.  Prevot, D. Raffestin, J. Ribolzi, "32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007)

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of filamentation. (a) Self-focus and collapse of the beam due to the Kerr effect. (b) Ionization at the non-linear focus then defocuses the beam. [39]

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Conical emission observed on a screen; (b) Multifilament pattern on a screen [51].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrum of the white light continuum. Absorption bands of some atmospheric species are indicated. [52]

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of the linearly backscattered light (Rayleigh-Mie) from a weak laser beam and the non-linear emission from a filament, for both s- (left) and p- (right) polarizations

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Principle of temporal focusing. Left: an initially Fourier-limited pulse is chirped by group-velocity dispersion in the air. Right: an initially anti-chirped pulse is recompressed (temporally focused) by GVD during its propagation in the atmosphere.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Pictures of the Teramobile fs-laser beam propagating vertically, and imaged from the ground. (a) Fundamental wavelength. (b, c, d) White-light (385–485 nm) emitted by the femtosecond laser beam: (b) With GVD precompensation. (c) Without GVD precompensation. (d) With slight GVD precompensation. Notice the conical emission imaged on a haze layer. [95]

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Correlation maps within the white-light spectrum at the fixed peak power of 6.5 GW (~twice the critical power for filamentation). (a) Before filamentation (z=2 m); (b) Filamentation onset (z =3.5 m); (c) Filament end (z=8 m) [91]

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Percentage of filaments surviving the turbulence as a function of C 2 n ×L, (L being the turbulence length and C 2 n the structure parameter for the refractive index), in the case of localized (squares) and extended turbulent regions (triangles) located after the filament onset. [140]

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Schematic of the fs-Lidar experimental setup. Before being launched into the atmosphere, the pulse is given a chirp to compensate for GVD during its propagation in air. Hence, the pulse recombines temporally at a predetermined altitude, where white-light continuum is produced, and then backscattered and detected by the Lidar receiver. [95]

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

High-resolution atmospheric absorption spectrum from an altitude of 4.5 km measured with the femtosecond white-light Lidar [95]

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Fit of (a) the O2 A band in the 760–766 nm region and (b) the water vapor absorption spectrum in the 4ν-overtone band at 813–816 nm. Black solid line: measurement; grey dotted line: fit [After Ref. 143]

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Remote detection and identification of bioaerosols. The femtosecond laser illuminates a plume of riboflavin (RBF) containing microparticles 45 m away (left). The backward emitted 2-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF), recorded as a function of distance and wavelength, exhibits the specific RBF fluorescence signature for the bioaerosols (middle) but not for pure water droplets (simulating haze, right) [120]

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Femtosecond pump-probe depletion (PPD) technique to distinguish biomolecules from organic interferents (a) Spectroscopic principle of the PPD [195]; (b) PPD applied to the distinction of Trp from traffic related PAH’s

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Laser control of high-voltage discharges. (A) Free discharge over 3 m, without laser filaments. Note the erratic path. (B) Straight discharge guided along laser filaments. [95]

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