Abstract

We provide a theoretical description of the spatio-temporal dynamics of sequential filamentation in noble gases that can lead to pulse compression down to nearly single-cycle pulses. We show that the strong pulse compression occurs as a result of serially-generated on-axis filaments and spectral filtering of an extensive blue-shifted compressible spectra. We show that the dynamics of this sequential filamentation can be readily tuned by varying the gas pressure and can be scaled to various pulse energies.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (4)

2006 (9)

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M.J. Abel, D.M. Neumark, and S.R. Leone, “Circular phase mask for control and stabilization of single optical filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2326 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, H. Buersing, B. Eberle, M. Krenz, D. Seiffer, and O. Vasseur, “Spatial mode cleaning by femtosecond filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament,” Opt. Lett. 31, 274 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnurer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

A.J. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, and F. Krausz, “Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 513 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Moses and F.W. Wise, “Soliton compression in quadratic media: high-energy few-cycle pulses with a frequency-doubling crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1881 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Heck, J. Sloss, and R.J. Levis, “Adaptive control of the spatial position of white light filaments in an aqueous solution,” Opt. Commun. 259, 216 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Fibich, Y. Sivan, Y. Ehrlich, E. Louzon, M. Fraenkel, S. Eisenmann, Y. Katzir, and A. Zigler, “Control of the collapse in atmospheric propagation,” Opt. Express 14, 4946 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org.proxy.library.cornell.edu:2048/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-12-4946.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.D. Grow, A.A. Ishaaya, L.T. Vuong, A.L. Gaeta, N. Gavish, and G. Fibich, “Collapse of super-Gaussian beams,” Opt. Express 14, 5468 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org.proxy.library.cornell.edu:2048/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-12-5468.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

J.S. Liu, H. Schroeder, S.L. Chin, R.X. Li, and Z.Z. Li, “Ultrafast control of multiple filamentation by ultrafast laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1611 (2005).

N. Ishii, L. Turi, V.S. Yakovlev, T. Fuji, F. Krausz, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, G. Veitas, V. Smilgevicius, R. Danielius, and A. Piskarskas, “Multimillijoule chirped parametric amplification of few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Lett. 30, 567 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.O. Konorov, E.E. Serebryannikov, A.B. Fedotov, R.B. Miles, and A.M. Zheltikov, “Phase-matched waveguide four-wave mixing scaled to higher peak powers with large-core-area hollow photonic-crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 057603 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2657 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (8)

A. Dubietis, E. Gaizauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self-channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N.L Wagner, E.A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I.P. Christov, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, “Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatio-temporal reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “Interaction of femtosecond light filaments with obscurants in aerosols,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023901 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F.W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Sprangle, J.R. Penano, B. Hafizi, and C.A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Dubietis, G. Tamogauskas, G. Fibich, and B. Ilan, “Multiple filamentation induced by input-beam ellipticity,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1126 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik and J.V. Moloney, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation simulation: from Maxwell’s to unidirectional equations,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 036604 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic nonlinear X waves for femtosecond pulse propagation in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083902 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (8)

G. Fibich, W.Q. Ren, and X.P. Wang, “Numerical simulations of self-focusing of ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056603 (2003).
[Crossref]

K.D. Moll, A.L. Gaeta, and G. Fibich, “Self-similar optical wave collapse: observation of the Townes profile,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 203902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I.S. Golubtsov, V.P. Kandidov, and O.G. Kosareva, “Initial phase modulation of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse as a tool for controlling its filamentation and generation of a supercontinuum in air,” Quantum. Electron. 33, 525 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejean, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[Crossref]

A.L. Gaeta, “Collapsing light really shines,” Science 301, 54 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Infrared femtosecond light filaments in air: simulations and experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1117 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, “Femtosecond pulse compression in pressure-gas cells filled with argon” Phys. Rev. E 68, 066603 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Nurhuda, A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa,”Propagation dynamics of femtosecond laser pulses in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023811 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A.V. Sokolov, D.R. Walker, D.D. Yavuz, G.Y. Yin, and S.E. Harris, “Femtosecond light source for phase-controlled multi-photon ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 033402 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Fibich and A. L. Gaeta, “On the critical power for self-focusing in bulk media and in hollow waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 25, 335 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnurer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light propagation in field-ionizing media: extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2930 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

M. Mlejnek, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23, 382 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Mlejnek, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in argon: A pressure dependence study,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Q. Feng, J.V. Moloney, A.C. Newell, E.M. Wright, K. Cook, P.K. Kennedy, D.X. Hammer, B.A. Rockwell, and C.R. Thompson, “Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Quantum. Electron. 33, 127 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1979 (1)

M.B.S. Lima, C.A.S. Lima, and L.C.M. Miranda, “Screening effect on the plasma heating by inverse-bremsstrahlung,” Phys. Rev. A 19, 1796 (1979).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

M.D. Feit and J.A. Fleck Jr., “Effect of refraction on spot-size dependence of laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 169 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

J.F. Seely and E.G. Harris, “Heating of a plasma by multi-photon inverse-bremsstrahlung,” Phys. Rev. A 7, 1064 (1973).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

L.V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP-USSR 20, 1307 (1965).

1964 (1)

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C.H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[Crossref]

Abel, M.J.

Andre, Y.B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

Bergé, L.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnurer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “Interaction of femtosecond light filaments with obscurants in aerosols,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023901 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, “Femtosecond pulse compression in pressure-gas cells filled with argon” Phys. Rev. E 68, 066603 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon, S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Infrared femtosecond light filaments in air: simulations and experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1117 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bernhardt, J.

H.L. Xu, J. Bernhardt, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, “Understanding the advantage of remote femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic targets,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

Blaga, C.I.

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boutou, V.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejean, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brabec, T.

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnurer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light propagation in field-ionizing media: extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2930 (1999).
[Crossref]

Braun, A.

Brodeur, A.

A. Brodeur, F.A. Ilkov, and S.L. Chin, “Beam filamentation and the white light continuum divergence,” Opt. Commun. 129, 193 (1996).
[Crossref]

Buersing, H.

Butkus, R.

Canova, F.

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Power, E.

C.P. Hauri, T. Ruchon, F. Canova, E. Power, A. L’Huillier, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Self-compression by ultra-short pulses in filaments”, presented at the Joint Symposium of the Conference for Lasers and Electrooptics and Quantum Electronics and Lasers Symposium, Long Beach, California, JTuE5 May, 2006.

Power, E.P.

Prade,

Prade, B.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123 (2000).
[Crossref]

E.T.J. Nibbering, P.F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M.A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 21, 62 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, W.Q.

G. Fibich, W.Q. Ren, and X.P. Wang, “Numerical simulations of self-focusing of ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056603 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rockwell, B.A.

Q. Feng, J.V. Moloney, A.C. Newell, E.M. Wright, K. Cook, P.K. Kennedy, D.X. Hammer, B.A. Rockwell, and C.R. Thompson, “Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Quantum. Electron. 33, 127 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roedig, C.

Roy, G.

H.L. Xu, J. Bernhardt, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, “Understanding the advantage of remote femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic targets,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ruchon, T.

C.P. Hauri, T. Ruchon, F. Canova, E. Power, A. L’Huillier, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Self-compression by ultra-short pulses in filaments”, presented at the Joint Symposium of the Conference for Lasers and Electrooptics and Quantum Electronics and Lasers Symposium, Long Beach, California, JTuE5 May, 2006.

Salin, F.

Salmon, E.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejean, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schapper, F.

Schmid, K.

A.J. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, and F. Krausz, “Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 513 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schnurer, M.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnurer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnurer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light propagation in field-ionizing media: extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2930 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, H.

J.S. Liu, H. Schroeder, S.L. Chin, R.X. Li, and Z.Z. Li, “Ultrafast control of multiple filamentation by ultrafast laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1611 (2005).

Schultz, K.D.

Scrinzi, A.

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnurer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light propagation in field-ionizing media: extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2930 (1999).
[Crossref]

Seely, J.F.

J.F. Seely and E.G. Harris, “Heating of a plasma by multi-photon inverse-bremsstrahlung,” Phys. Rev. A 7, 1064 (1973).
[Crossref]

Seiffer, D.

Serebryannikov, E.E.

S.O. Konorov, E.E. Serebryannikov, A.B. Fedotov, R.B. Miles, and A.M. Zheltikov, “Phase-matched waveguide four-wave mixing scaled to higher peak powers with large-core-area hollow photonic-crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 057603 (2005).
[Crossref]

Seres, J.

A.J. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, and F. Krausz, “Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 513 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sistrunk, E.

Sivan, Y.

Skupin, S.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnurer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “Interaction of femtosecond light filaments with obscurants in aerosols,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023901 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sloss, J.

G. Heck, J. Sloss, and R.J. Levis, “Adaptive control of the spatial position of white light filaments in an aqueous solution,” Opt. Commun. 259, 216 (2006).
[Crossref]

Smilgevicius, V.

Sokollik, T.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnurer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sokolov, A.V.

A.V. Sokolov, D.R. Walker, D.D. Yavuz, G.Y. Yin, and S.E. Harris, “Femtosecond light source for phase-controlled multi-photon ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 033402 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sprangle, P.

P. Sprangle, J.R. Penano, B. Hafizi, and C.A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[Crossref]

Squier, J.

Steinmeyer, G.

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament,” Opt. Lett. 31, 274 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnurer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stibenz, G.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnurer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament,” Opt. Lett. 31, 274 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suda, A.

M. Nurhuda, A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa,”Propagation dynamics of femtosecond laser pulses in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023811 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tamogauskas, G.

Tamosauskas, G.

A. Dubietis, E. Gaizauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self-channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tate, J.

Tempea, G.

A.J. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, and F. Krausz, “Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 513 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnurer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light propagation in field-ionizing media: extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2930 (1999).
[Crossref]

Thompson, C.R.

Q. Feng, J.V. Moloney, A.C. Newell, E.M. Wright, K. Cook, P.K. Kennedy, D.X. Hammer, B.A. Rockwell, and C.R. Thompson, “Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Quantum. Electron. 33, 127 (1997).
[Crossref]

Townes, C.H.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C.H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[Crossref]

Trisorio, A.

Turi, L.

Tzortzakis, S.

A. Couairon, S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Infrared femtosecond light filaments in air: simulations and experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1117 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vasseur, O.

Veisz, L.

A.J. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, and F. Krausz, “Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 513 (2006).
[Crossref]

Veitas, G.

Verhoef, A.J.

A.J. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, and F. Krausz, “Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 513 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vuong, L.T.

Wagner, N.L

N.L Wagner, E.A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I.P. Christov, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, “Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatio-temporal reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walker, D.R.

A.V. Sokolov, D.R. Walker, D.D. Yavuz, G.Y. Yin, and S.E. Harris, “Femtosecond light source for phase-controlled multi-photon ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 033402 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.P.

G. Fibich, W.Q. Ren, and X.P. Wang, “Numerical simulations of self-focusing of ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056603 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wheeler, J.

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wise, F.W.

Wolf, J.P.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejean, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[Crossref]

Woste, L.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, E.M.

M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic nonlinear X waves for femtosecond pulse propagation in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083902 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Mlejnek, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in argon: A pressure dependence study,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Mlejnek, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23, 382 (1998).
[Crossref]

Q. Feng, J.V. Moloney, A.C. Newell, E.M. Wright, K. Cook, P.K. Kennedy, D.X. Hammer, B.A. Rockwell, and C.R. Thompson, “Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Quantum. Electron. 33, 127 (1997).
[Crossref]

G.G. Luther, A.C. Newell, J.V. Moloney, and E.M. Wright, “Short-pulse conical emission and spectral broadening in normally-dispersive media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 789 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.L.

H.L. Xu, J. Bernhardt, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, “Understanding the advantage of remote femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic targets,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, V.S.

Yavuz, D.D.

A.V. Sokolov, D.R. Walker, D.D. Yavuz, G.Y. Yin, and S.E. Harris, “Femtosecond light source for phase-controlled multi-photon ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 033402 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, G.Y.

A.V. Sokolov, D.R. Walker, D.D. Yavuz, G.Y. Yin, and S.E. Harris, “Femtosecond light source for phase-controlled multi-photon ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 033402 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejean, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zair, A.

Zhavoronkov, N.

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament,” Opt. Lett. 31, 274 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnurer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zheltikov, A.M.

S.O. Konorov, E.E. Serebryannikov, A.B. Fedotov, R.B. Miles, and A.M. Zheltikov, “Phase-matched waveguide four-wave mixing scaled to higher peak powers with large-core-area hollow photonic-crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 057603 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zigler, A.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

C.P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F.W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
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A.J. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, and F. Krausz, “Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 513 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J.S. Liu, H. Schroeder, S.L. Chin, R.X. Li, and Z.Z. Li, “Ultrafast control of multiple filamentation by ultrafast laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1611 (2005).

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejean, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
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M.D. Feit and J.A. Fleck Jr., “Effect of refraction on spot-size dependence of laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 169 (1974).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H.L. Xu, J. Bernhardt, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, “Understanding the advantage of remote femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic targets,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033124 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

Q. Feng, J.V. Moloney, A.C. Newell, E.M. Wright, K. Cook, P.K. Kennedy, D.X. Hammer, B.A. Rockwell, and C.R. Thompson, “Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Quantum. Electron. 33, 127 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

A. Brodeur, F.A. Ilkov, and S.L. Chin, “Beam filamentation and the white light continuum divergence,” Opt. Commun. 129, 193 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Heck, J. Sloss, and R.J. Levis, “Adaptive control of the spatial position of white light filaments in an aqueous solution,” Opt. Commun. 259, 216 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (14)

G.G. Luther, A.C. Newell, J.V. Moloney, and E.M. Wright, “Short-pulse conical emission and spectral broadening in normally-dispersive media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 789 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M.J. Abel, D.M. Neumark, and S.R. Leone, “Circular phase mask for control and stabilization of single optical filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2326 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Trisorio and C.P. Hauri, “Control and characterization of multiple circularly-polarized filaments in argon gas,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1650 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E.T.J. Nibbering, P.F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M.A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 21, 62 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak power femtosecond laser-pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dubietis, G. Tamogauskas, G. Fibich, and B. Ilan, “Multiple filamentation induced by input-beam ellipticity,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1126 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Moses and F.W. Wise, “Soliton compression in quadratic media: high-energy few-cycle pulses with a frequency-doubling crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1881 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Fibich and A. L. Gaeta, “On the critical power for self-focusing in bulk media and in hollow waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 25, 335 (2000).
[Crossref]

C.P. Hauri, R.B. Lopez-Martens, C.I. Blaga, K.D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A.M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L.R. Di Mauro, and E.P. Power, “Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2-mm from an optical filament,” Opt. Lett. 32, 868 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, H. Buersing, B. Eberle, M. Krenz, D. Seiffer, and O. Vasseur, “Spatial mode cleaning by femtosecond filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2657 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mlejnek, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23, 382 (1998).
[Crossref]

N. Ishii, L. Turi, V.S. Yakovlev, T. Fuji, F. Krausz, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, G. Veitas, V. Smilgevicius, R. Danielius, and A. Piskarskas, “Multimillijoule chirped parametric amplification of few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Lett. 30, 567 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament,” Opt. Lett. 31, 274 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

M. Nurhuda, A. Suda, M. Hatayama, K. Nagasaka, and K. Midorikawa,”Propagation dynamics of femtosecond laser pulses in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023811 (2002).
[Crossref]

J.F. Seely and E.G. Harris, “Heating of a plasma by multi-photon inverse-bremsstrahlung,” Phys. Rev. A 7, 1064 (1973).
[Crossref]

M.B.S. Lima, C.A.S. Lima, and L.C.M. Miranda, “Screening effect on the plasma heating by inverse-bremsstrahlung,” Phys. Rev. A 19, 1796 (1979).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (7)

M. Kolesik and J.V. Moloney, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation simulation: from Maxwell’s to unidirectional equations,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 036604 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Fibich, W.Q. Ren, and X.P. Wang, “Numerical simulations of self-focusing of ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 056603 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Mlejnek, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in argon: A pressure dependence study,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4903 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, “Femtosecond pulse compression in pressure-gas cells filled with argon” Phys. Rev. E 68, 066603 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnurer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

S.O. Konorov, E.E. Serebryannikov, A.B. Fedotov, R.B. Miles, and A.M. Zheltikov, “Phase-matched waveguide four-wave mixing scaled to higher peak powers with large-core-area hollow photonic-crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 057603 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Sprangle, J.R. Penano, B. Hafizi, and C.A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

N.L Wagner, E.A. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I.P. Christov, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, “Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatio-temporal reshaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A.V. Sokolov, D.R. Walker, D.D. Yavuz, G.Y. Yin, and S.E. Harris, “Femtosecond light source for phase-controlled multi-photon ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 033402 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “Interaction of femtosecond light filaments with obscurants in aerosols,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023901 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dubietis, E. Gaizauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Light filaments without self-channeling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnurer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light propagation in field-ionizing media: extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2930 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C.H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Predicted time-integrated and normalized plasma density as a function of propagation at different argon gas pressures: (a) 0.55 atm [P=0.95Pcr ] (b) 0.70 atm [P=1.2Pcr ] (c) 0.75 atm [P=1.3Pcr ] (d) 0.83 atm [P=1.35Pcr ] (e) 0.88 atm [P=1.42Pcr ]

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

On-axis peak intensity as a function of propagation with different material parameters. Lines [blue, green, red, cyan] correspond to P/Pcr =[0.95,1.3,1.8,2.2], Ldf /Lmp =[3×10-8,3×10-7,3×10-6,3×10-5] and Ldf /Lpl =[5.7×10-8,1.2×10-6,2.1×10-5,2.7×10-4].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Contour plot of fluence corresponding to Fig. 2 and P=1.3Pcr . Contour lines are equally-spaced on a linear scale. The position of the plasma filaments are dotted. (b) Lineout of spatial beam profile at z=40 cm. (c) Lineout of spatial beam profile at z=70 cm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Contours of spectrum vs. radius at various distances during the optimized sequential filament propagation (a) at the onset of the first plasma filament stage at z=36 cm, (b) in the middle of the first plasma filament at z=43 cm, (c) near the end of the first filament at z=51 cm, (d) at the onset of the second plasma filament stage at z=62 cm, and (e) near the end of the second plasma filament. Aperture-dependent (f) power spectra and (g) temporal profiles at the sequential filament output z=69 cm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spatial-spectral distributions after sequential filamentation with power P=1.3Pcr (a) at z=74 cm and (b) in the far-field when imaged by a 100-cm lens, assuming linear propagation after z=74 cm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Output on-axis power spectra corresponding to Fig 1, for different pressures at the propagation distance at which the normalized plasma density has by approximately 2=3 of its value at the peak. The maximal blue-shoulder corresponds with the most distinct double-filament plasma structure in Fig. 1(c).

Equations (8)

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u ζ = i 4 T 1 2 u iL df 2 L ds u tt + T iL df L nl u 2 u L df 2 L mp η t u u 2 iL df L pl ( 1 i ω 0 τ c ) [ u τ c τ p u t 1 i ω 0 τ c ] η ,
η t = η t = u 2 m .
L df L ds p ,
L df L nl p ,
L df L mp p m .
L df L pl p m 2 .
L df L pl L df L mp τ c 2 .
( L df L nl T u 2 u ) ( 2 T 1 u ) ω 2 ,

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