Abstract

A precise way of optical frequency generation is demonstrated with direct use of the frequency comb of a mode-locked femtosecond laser. Only a single mode is extracted at a time on demand from the frequency comb through a composite filtering scheme and then amplified by means of optical injection locking with extremely low background noise. Generated output signals are found to preserve not only the narrow linewidths of the selected individual modes but also the absolute frequency positions of the original comb over a wide spectral range. These outstanding performances of optical frequency generation could find applications in high precision spectroscopy, frequency calibration, and length metrology.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2006 (6)

2005 (2)

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, F.-L. Hong, H. Inaba, Y. Bitou, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, "Phase-locked widely tunable optical single-frequency generator based on a femtosecond comb," Opt. Lett. 30, 2323-2325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (3)

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm," Opt. Lett. 25, 25-27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, "Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151-1161 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, "Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 784-793 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. Lang, "Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 976-983 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. Lang, "Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 976-983 (1982).
[CrossRef]

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, "Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 784-793 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, "Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151-1161 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquistk, "Single-atom optical clock with high accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, Y. Le Coq, J. E. Stalnaker, D. Ortega, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "Kilohertz-resolution spectroscopy of cold atoms with an optical frequency comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical frequency generation from a mode-locked femtosecond laser. (a) Frequency stabilized Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser oscillator. (b) Single-mode extraction filter. (c) Power amplification unit. (d) Procedure of mode extraction. Abbreviations are; APD: avalanche photodetector, DG: diffraction grating, DM: dichroic mirror, F: optical filter, LD: laser diode, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer, PCF: photonic crystal fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Data evaluation of optical frequency generation. (a-1) Two representative output monitored with an OSA(resolution: 7.5 MHz). One signal (red) shows successful extraction of a single mode, whereas the other (blue) contains multiple modes appearing as side peaks from no appropriate action of fine filtering. (a-2) Two previous signals observed using a rf-spectrum analyzer. The multi-peak signal (blue) exhibits a beat frequency of 81 MHz corresponding to the mode spacing of the frequency comb. On the other hand, the single-mode signal (red) shows no beat frequency at all, confirming successful extraction of a single mode. (b-1) A rf-spectrum for the beat signal of the final output shifted by 30 MHz using an AOM with respect to the original frequency comb. Due to no successful injection locking, the observed peaks are broad and unstable, affected by the free running of the laser diode in use. (b-2) Same rf-spectrum for the beat signal but with successful injection locking. The peaks are observed sharp and their positions become stable. (c) High resolution rf-spectrum of a peak of (b-2). Degradation in the linewidth is measured less than 1 Hz. (d) Factional frequency instabilities measured for (i) the frequency comb itself (blue triangles), and (ii) the beat frequency of injection locking (red circles).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Control for optical frequency generation. (a) Overall system configuration of the OFGenerator. Multiple diode lasers of different operating ranges are adopted along with the spectral partitioning using DG. TA1 and TA2 are tapered diode amplifiers (b) Multi-step control strategy for generation of the target frequency, ftarget .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Generated optical radiations under control. (a) Exemplary set of standard output radiations generated with a separation of 45.7 MHz from 370.2370097 THz(809.7 nm). The data was obtained using OSA. (b) Sequence of radiations with a step increment of 485 MHz over a frequency span of 3.5 GHz from an initial frequency set at 373.2214948 THz(803.3 nm) The data was obtained using a wavelength meter of 30 MHz accuracy.

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