Abstract

We report on the femtosecond-laser micromachining of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films doped with nonlinear azoaromatic chromophores: Disperse Red 1, Disperse Red 13 and Disperse Orange 3. We study the conditions for controlling chromophore degradation during the micromachining of PMMA doped with each chromophore. Furthermore, we successfully used fs-micromachining to fabricate optical waveguides within a bulk sample of PMMA doped with these azochromophores.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  7. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. M. Kowalevicz, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultralow-threshold Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti: Al2O3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2037–2039 (2002).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, “Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit,” Opt. Lett. 30, 723–725 (2005).
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    [Crossref]
  13. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559–1567 (2003).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  25. K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000–1002 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Opt. Lett. 29, 1840–1842 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, “Structure induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse in dyed polymeric materials,” J. Polym. Sci. Pt. B-Polym. Phys. 40, 2800–2806 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  29. J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Photofabrication of periodic microstructures in azodye-doped polymers by interference of laser beams,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 847–851 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, “Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359–361 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  31. J. F. Zhai, Z. Q. Shen, J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “The fabrication of permanent holographic gratings in bulk polymer medium by a femtosecond laser,” J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 34, 3466–3469 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  32. Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  33. M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781–788 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  34. A. Natansohn, S. Xie, and P. Rochon, “Azo Polymers for Reversible Optical Storage.2. Poly 4′- 2-(Acryloyloxy)Ethyl Ethylamino -2-Chloro-4-Nitroazobenzene,” Macromolecules 25, 5531–5532 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  35. P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, “Optically Induced and Erased Birefringence and Dichroism in Azoaromatic Polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4–5 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  36. L. Antonov, K. Kamada, K. Ohta, and F. S. Kamounah, “A systematic femtosecond study on the two-photon absorbing D-pi-A molecules-pi-bridge nitrogen insertion and strength of the donor and acceptor groups,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 1193–1197 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  37. L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonca, “Degenerate Two-Photon Absorption Spectra in Azoaromatic Compounds,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 1121–1125 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. L. De Boni, J. J. Rodrigues, D. S. dos Santos, C. Silva, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Two-photon absorption in azoaromatic compounds (vol 361, pg 209, 2002),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 684–684 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  39. D. W. Fradin and M. Bass, “Comparison of Laser-Induced Surface and Bulk Damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 157–159 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  40. A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, L. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, and H. S. Lackritz, “Photodegradation of azobenzene nonlinear optical chromophores: the influence of structure and environment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 17, 1992–2000 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  41. A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, X. Q. Zhang, H. S. Lackritz, S. Marder, and S. Thayumanavan, “Systematic behavior of electro-optic chromophore photostability,” Opt. Lett. 25, 332–334 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  42. A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, T. C. Kowalczyk, and H. S. Lackritz, “Effect of temperature and atmospheric environment an the photodegradation of some Disperse Red 1-type polymers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1741–1743 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2005 (4)

S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Filamentary cavity formation in poly(methyl methacrylate) by single femtosecond pulse,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 81, 1587–1590 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. M. Kowalevicz, V. Sharma, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Minoshima, “Three-dimensional photonic devices fabricated in glass by use of a femtosecond laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1060–1062 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, “Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit,” Opt. Lett. 30, 723–725 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonca, “Degenerate Two-Photon Absorption Spectra in Azoaromatic Compounds,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 1121–1125 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

G. J. Wang, Y. N. He, X. G. Wang, and L. Jiang, “Self-assembly and optical properties of poly(acrylic acid)-based azo polyelectrolyte,” Thin Solid Films 458, 143–148 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Opt. Lett. 29, 1840–1842 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (8)

L. Antonov, K. Kamada, K. Ohta, and F. S. Kamounah, “A systematic femtosecond study on the two-photon absorbing D-pi-A molecules-pi-bridge nitrogen insertion and strength of the donor and acceptor groups,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 1193–1197 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. B. Wolfe, J. B. Ashcom, J. C. Hwang, C. B. Schaffer, E. Mazur, and G. M. Whitesides, “Customization of poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps by micromachining using a femtosecond-pulsed laser,” Adv. Mater. 15, 62–65 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. J. Scully, D. Jones, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Femtosecond laser irradiation of polymethylmethacrylate for refractive index gratings,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S92–S96 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2491–2493 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Kamada, K. Ohta, I. Yoichiro, and K. Kondo, “Two-photon absorption properties of symmetric substituted diacetylene: drastic enhancement of the cross section near the one-photon absorption peak,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 372, 386–393 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. De Boni, J. J. Rodrigues, D. S. dos Santos, C. Silva, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Two-photon absorption in azoaromatic compounds (vol 361, pg 209, 2002),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 684–684 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (6)

A. M. Kowalevicz, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultralow-threshold Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti: Al2O3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2037–2039 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tunnermann, “Optical properties of waveguides fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4360–4364 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, K. Yamada, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and Z. X. Zhou, “Single femtosecond pulse holography using polymethyl methacrylate,” Opt. Express 10, 1173–1178 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, “Structure induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse in dyed polymeric materials,” J. Polym. Sci. Pt. B-Polym. Phys. 40, 2800–2806 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Photofabrication of periodic microstructures in azodye-doped polymers by interference of laser beams,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 847–851 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, “Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (5)

2000 (6)

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000–1002 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, L. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, and H. S. Lackritz, “Photodegradation of azobenzene nonlinear optical chromophores: the influence of structure and environment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 17, 1992–2000 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, X. Q. Zhang, H. S. Lackritz, S. Marder, and S. Thayumanavan, “Systematic behavior of electro-optic chromophore photostability,” Opt. Lett. 25, 332–334 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, T. C. Kowalczyk, and H. S. Lackritz, “Effect of temperature and atmospheric environment an the photodegradation of some Disperse Red 1-type polymers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1741–1743 (1999).
[Crossref]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781–788 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1992 (2)

A. Natansohn, S. Xie, and P. Rochon, “Azo Polymers for Reversible Optical Storage.2. Poly 4′- 2-(Acryloyloxy)Ethyl Ethylamino -2-Chloro-4-Nitroazobenzene,” Macromolecules 25, 5531–5532 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, “Optically Induced and Erased Birefringence and Dichroism in Azoaromatic Polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4–5 (1992).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

D. W. Fradin and M. Bass, “Comparison of Laser-Induced Surface and Bulk Damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 157–159 (1973).
[Crossref]

Ahlheim, M.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781–788 (1998).
[Crossref]

Antonov, L.

L. Antonov, K. Kamada, K. Ohta, and F. S. Kamounah, “A systematic femtosecond study on the two-photon absorbing D-pi-A molecules-pi-bridge nitrogen insertion and strength of the donor and acceptor groups,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 1193–1197 (2003).
[Crossref]

Asano, T.

Ashcom, J. B.

D. B. Wolfe, J. B. Ashcom, J. C. Hwang, C. B. Schaffer, E. Mazur, and G. M. Whitesides, “Customization of poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps by micromachining using a femtosecond-pulsed laser,” Adv. Mater. 15, 62–65 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bado, P.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000).
[Crossref]

Balogh, D. T.

L. De Boni, J. J. Rodrigues, D. S. dos Santos, C. Silva, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Two-photon absorption in azoaromatic compounds (vol 361, pg 209, 2002),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 684–684 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bass, M.

D. W. Fradin and M. Bass, “Comparison of Laser-Induced Surface and Bulk Damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 157–159 (1973).
[Crossref]

Bauer, S.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781–788 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bauer-Gogonea, S.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781–788 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Borrelli, N. F.

Brinker, W.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781–788 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brodeur, A.

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Canva, M.

Cerami, L. R.

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chan, K. P.

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, X. Q. Zhang, H. S. Lackritz, S. Marder, and S. Thayumanavan, “Systematic behavior of electro-optic chromophore photostability,” Opt. Lett. 25, 332–334 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, L. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, and H. S. Lackritz, “Photodegradation of azobenzene nonlinear optical chromophores: the influence of structure and environment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 17, 1992–2000 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chichkov, B. N.

Dalton, L. R.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Davis, K. M.

De Boni, L.

L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonca, “Degenerate Two-Photon Absorption Spectra in Azoaromatic Compounds,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 1121–1125 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. De Boni, J. J. Rodrigues, D. S. dos Santos, C. Silva, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Two-photon absorption in azoaromatic compounds (vol 361, pg 209, 2002),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 684–684 (2003).
[Crossref]

De Silvestri, S.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559–1567 (2003).
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Diemeer, M.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781–788 (1998).
[Crossref]

dos Santos, D. S.

L. De Boni, J. J. Rodrigues, D. S. dos Santos, C. Silva, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Two-photon absorption in azoaromatic compounds (vol 361, pg 209, 2002),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 684–684 (2003).
[Crossref]

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[Crossref]

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M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781–788 (1998).
[Crossref]

Florea, C.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000).
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D. W. Fradin and M. Bass, “Comparison of Laser-Induced Surface and Bulk Damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 157–159 (1973).
[Crossref]

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L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Galvan-Gonzalez, A.

Garcia, J. F.

Gattass, R. R.

Gosselin, J.

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, “Optically Induced and Erased Birefringence and Dichroism in Azoaromatic Polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4–5 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hartl, I.

He, Y. N.

G. J. Wang, Y. N. He, X. G. Wang, and L. Jiang, “Self-assembly and optical properties of poly(acrylic acid)-based azo polyelectrolyte,” Thin Solid Films 458, 143–148 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hibino, Y.

Hirao, K.

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, “Structure induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse in dyed polymeric materials,” J. Polym. Sci. Pt. B-Polym. Phys. 40, 2800–2806 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Photofabrication of periodic microstructures in azodye-doped polymers by interference of laser beams,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 847–851 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, “Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. F. Zhai, Z. Q. Shen, J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “The fabrication of permanent holographic gratings in bulk polymer medium by a femtosecond laser,” J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 34, 3466–3469 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horiike, M.

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, “Structure induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse in dyed polymeric materials,” J. Polym. Sci. Pt. B-Polym. Phys. 40, 2800–2806 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J. C.

D. B. Wolfe, J. B. Ashcom, J. C. Hwang, C. B. Schaffer, E. Mazur, and G. M. Whitesides, “Customization of poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps by micromachining using a femtosecond-pulsed laser,” Adv. Mater. 15, 62–65 (2003).
[Crossref]

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

Ishizuka, T.

Itoh, K.

Jager, M.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781–788 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jaroszynski, D. A.

P. J. Scully, D. Jones, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Femtosecond laser irradiation of polymethylmethacrylate for refractive index gratings,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S92–S96 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L.

G. J. Wang, Y. N. He, X. G. Wang, and L. Jiang, “Self-assembly and optical properties of poly(acrylic acid)-based azo polyelectrolyte,” Thin Solid Films 458, 143–148 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jones, D.

P. J. Scully, D. Jones, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Femtosecond laser irradiation of polymethylmethacrylate for refractive index gratings,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S92–S96 (2003).
[Crossref]

Juodkazis, S.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000–1002 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kamada, K.

K. Kamada, K. Ohta, I. Yoichiro, and K. Kondo, “Two-photon absorption properties of symmetric substituted diacetylene: drastic enhancement of the cross section near the one-photon absorption peak,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 372, 386–393 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Antonov, K. Kamada, K. Ohta, and F. S. Kamounah, “A systematic femtosecond study on the two-photon absorbing D-pi-A molecules-pi-bridge nitrogen insertion and strength of the donor and acceptor groups,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 1193–1197 (2003).
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Kamounah, F. S.

L. Antonov, K. Kamada, K. Ohta, and F. S. Kamounah, “A systematic femtosecond study on the two-photon absorbing D-pi-A molecules-pi-bridge nitrogen insertion and strength of the donor and acceptor groups,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 1193–1197 (2003).
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Kartner, F. X.

Katayama, S.

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, “Structure induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse in dyed polymeric materials,” J. Polym. Sci. Pt. B-Polym. Phys. 40, 2800–2806 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kohtoku, M.

Kondo, K.

K. Kamada, K. Ohta, I. Yoichiro, and K. Kondo, “Two-photon absorption properties of symmetric substituted diacetylene: drastic enhancement of the cross section near the one-photon absorption peak,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 372, 386–393 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kowalczyk, T. C.

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Lackritz, H. S.

Laporta, P.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lehr, F.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781–788 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Lopez, C.

Marangoni, M.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Marder, S.

Matsuo, S.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000–1002 (2000).
[Crossref]

Maynard, R.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mazur, E.

Mendonca, C. R.

T. Shih, R. R. Gattass, C. R. Mendonca, and E. Mazur, “Faraday rotation in femtosecond laser micromachined waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 5809–5814 (2007).
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L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonca, “Degenerate Two-Photon Absorption Spectra in Azoaromatic Compounds,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 1121–1125 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. De Boni, J. J. Rodrigues, D. S. dos Santos, C. Silva, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Two-photon absorption in azoaromatic compounds (vol 361, pg 209, 2002),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 684–684 (2003).
[Crossref]

Minoshima, K.

Misawa, H.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000–1002 (2000).
[Crossref]

Misoguti, L.

L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonca, “Degenerate Two-Photon Absorption Spectra in Azoaromatic Compounds,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 1121–1125 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. De Boni, J. J. Rodrigues, D. S. dos Santos, C. Silva, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Two-photon absorption in azoaromatic compounds (vol 361, pg 209, 2002),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 684–684 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mysyrewicz, A.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nasu, Y.

Natansohn, A.

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, “Optically Induced and Erased Birefringence and Dichroism in Azoaromatic Polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4–5 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. Natansohn, S. Xie, and P. Rochon, “Azo Polymers for Reversible Optical Storage.2. Poly 4′- 2-(Acryloyloxy)Ethyl Ethylamino -2-Chloro-4-Nitroazobenzene,” Macromolecules 25, 5531–5532 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nishii, J.

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 109–111 (2003).
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M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tunnermann, “Optical properties of waveguides fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4360–4364 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohta, K.

K. Kamada, K. Ohta, I. Yoichiro, and K. Kondo, “Two-photon absorption properties of symmetric substituted diacetylene: drastic enhancement of the cross section near the one-photon absorption peak,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 372, 386–393 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Antonov, K. Kamada, K. Ohta, and F. S. Kamounah, “A systematic femtosecond study on the two-photon absorbing D-pi-A molecules-pi-bridge nitrogen insertion and strength of the donor and acceptor groups,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 1193–1197 (2003).
[Crossref]

Oliveira, O. N.

L. De Boni, J. J. Rodrigues, D. S. dos Santos, C. Silva, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Two-photon absorption in azoaromatic compounds (vol 361, pg 209, 2002),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 684–684 (2003).
[Crossref]

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Polli, D.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J. R.

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, “Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Photofabrication of periodic microstructures in azodye-doped polymers by interference of laser beams,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 847–851 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. F. Zhai, Z. Q. Shen, J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “The fabrication of permanent holographic gratings in bulk polymer medium by a femtosecond laser,” J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 34, 3466–3469 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Richardson, K.

Richardson, M.

Robinson, B. H.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rochon, P.

A. Natansohn, S. Xie, and P. Rochon, “Azo Polymers for Reversible Optical Storage.2. Poly 4′- 2-(Acryloyloxy)Ethyl Ethylamino -2-Chloro-4-Nitroazobenzene,” Macromolecules 25, 5531–5532 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, “Optically Induced and Erased Birefringence and Dichroism in Azoaromatic Polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4–5 (1992).
[Crossref]

Rodrigues, J. J.

L. De Boni, J. J. Rodrigues, D. S. dos Santos, C. Silva, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Two-photon absorption in azoaromatic compounds (vol 361, pg 209, 2002),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 684–684 (2003).
[Crossref]

Said, A. A.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schaffer, C. B.

D. B. Wolfe, J. B. Ashcom, J. C. Hwang, C. B. Schaffer, E. Mazur, and G. M. Whitesides, “Customization of poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps by micromachining using a femtosecond-pulsed laser,” Adv. Mater. 15, 62–65 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26, 93–95 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schibli, T. R.

Scully, P. J.

P. J. Scully, D. Jones, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Femtosecond laser irradiation of polymethylmethacrylate for refractive index gratings,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S92–S96 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shacklette, L. W.

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sharma, V.

Shen, Y. Q.

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, “Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z. Q.

J. F. Zhai, Z. Q. Shen, J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “The fabrication of permanent holographic gratings in bulk polymer medium by a femtosecond laser,” J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 34, 3466–3469 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shih, T.

Si, J. H.

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Photofabrication of periodic microstructures in azodye-doped polymers by interference of laser beams,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 847–851 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, “Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. F. Zhai, Z. Q. Shen, J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “The fabrication of permanent holographic gratings in bulk polymer medium by a femtosecond laser,” J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 34, 3466–3469 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sikorski, Y.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000).
[Crossref]

Silva, C.

L. De Boni, J. J. Rodrigues, D. S. dos Santos, C. Silva, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Two-photon absorption in azoaromatic compounds (vol 361, pg 209, 2002),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 684–684 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sowa, S.

S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Symmetric waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate) fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 14, 291–297 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Filamentary cavity formation in poly(methyl methacrylate) by single femtosecond pulse,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 81, 1587–1590 (2005).
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Stahelin, M.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781–788 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stegeman, G. I.

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, L. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, and H. S. Lackritz, “Photodegradation of azobenzene nonlinear optical chromophores: the influence of structure and environment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 17, 1992–2000 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, X. Q. Zhang, H. S. Lackritz, S. Marder, and S. Thayumanavan, “Systematic behavior of electro-optic chromophore photostability,” Opt. Lett. 25, 332–334 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, T. C. Kowalczyk, and H. S. Lackritz, “Effect of temperature and atmospheric environment an the photodegradation of some Disperse Red 1-type polymers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1741–1743 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781–788 (1998).
[Crossref]

Steier, W. H.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Streltsov, A. M.

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sugimoto, N.

Sukhomlinova, L.

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, L. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, and H. S. Lackritz, “Photodegradation of azobenzene nonlinear optical chromophores: the influence of structure and environment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 17, 1992–2000 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sun, H. B.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000–1002 (2000).
[Crossref]

Taccheo, S.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tamaki, T.

Thayumanavan, S.

Toma, T.

Tsutsumi, N.

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, “Structure induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse in dyed polymeric materials,” J. Polym. Sci. Pt. B-Polym. Phys. 40, 2800–2806 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tunnermann, A.

Twieg, R.

Twieg, R. J.

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, L. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, and H. S. Lackritz, “Photodegradation of azobenzene nonlinear optical chromophores: the influence of structure and environment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 17, 1992–2000 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, G. J.

G. J. Wang, Y. N. He, X. G. Wang, and L. Jiang, “Self-assembly and optical properties of poly(acrylic acid)-based azo polyelectrolyte,” Thin Solid Films 458, 143–148 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. G.

G. J. Wang, Y. N. He, X. G. Wang, and L. Jiang, “Self-assembly and optical properties of poly(acrylic acid)-based azo polyelectrolyte,” Thin Solid Films 458, 143–148 (2004).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, M.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000–1002 (2000).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, W.

Whitesides, G. M.

D. B. Wolfe, J. B. Ashcom, J. C. Hwang, C. B. Schaffer, E. Mazur, and G. M. Whitesides, “Customization of poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps by micromachining using a femtosecond-pulsed laser,” Adv. Mater. 15, 62–65 (2003).
[Crossref]

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tunnermann, “Optical properties of waveguides fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4360–4364 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winick, K. A.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wirges, W.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781–788 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wolfe, D. B.

D. B. Wolfe, J. B. Ashcom, J. C. Hwang, C. B. Schaffer, E. Mazur, and G. M. Whitesides, “Customization of poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps by micromachining using a femtosecond-pulsed laser,” Adv. Mater. 15, 62–65 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xie, S.

A. Natansohn, S. Xie, and P. Rochon, “Azo Polymers for Reversible Optical Storage.2. Poly 4′- 2-(Acryloyloxy)Ethyl Ethylamino -2-Chloro-4-Nitroazobenzene,” Macromolecules 25, 5531–5532 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, “Optically Induced and Erased Birefringence and Dichroism in Azoaromatic Polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4–5 (1992).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K.

Yamasaki, K.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000–1002 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yilmaz, S.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781–788 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yoichiro, I.

K. Kamada, K. Ohta, I. Yoichiro, and K. Kondo, “Two-photon absorption properties of symmetric substituted diacetylene: drastic enhancement of the cross section near the one-photon absorption peak,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 372, 386–393 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhai, J. F.

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, “Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. F. Zhai, Z. Q. Shen, J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “The fabrication of permanent holographic gratings in bulk polymer medium by a femtosecond laser,” J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 34, 3466–3469 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. Q.

Zhou, Z. X.

Zilio, S. C.

L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonca, “Degenerate Two-Photon Absorption Spectra in Azoaromatic Compounds,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 1121–1125 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. De Boni, J. J. Rodrigues, D. S. dos Santos, C. Silva, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Two-photon absorption in azoaromatic compounds (vol 361, pg 209, 2002),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 684–684 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zoubir, A.

Zysset, B.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781–788 (1998).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

D. B. Wolfe, J. B. Ashcom, J. C. Hwang, C. B. Schaffer, E. Mazur, and G. M. Whitesides, “Customization of poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps by micromachining using a femtosecond-pulsed laser,” Adv. Mater. 15, 62–65 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Filamentary cavity formation in poly(methyl methacrylate) by single femtosecond pulse,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 81, 1587–1590 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Photofabrication of periodic microstructures in azodye-doped polymers by interference of laser beams,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 847–851 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, “Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, “Optically Induced and Erased Birefringence and Dichroism in Azoaromatic Polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4–5 (1992).
[Crossref]

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000–1002 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. W. Fradin and M. Bass, “Comparison of Laser-Induced Surface and Bulk Damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 157–159 (1973).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Chem. (1)

L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonca, “Degenerate Two-Photon Absorption Spectra in Azoaromatic Compounds,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 1121–1125 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. De Boni, J. J. Rodrigues, D. S. dos Santos, C. Silva, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Two-photon absorption in azoaromatic compounds (vol 361, pg 209, 2002),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 684–684 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Kamada, K. Ohta, I. Yoichiro, and K. Kondo, “Two-photon absorption properties of symmetric substituted diacetylene: drastic enhancement of the cross section near the one-photon absorption peak,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 372, 386–393 (2003).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

P. J. Scully, D. Jones, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Femtosecond laser irradiation of polymethylmethacrylate for refractive index gratings,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S92–S96 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (3)

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, L. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, and H. S. Lackritz, “Photodegradation of azobenzene nonlinear optical chromophores: the influence of structure and environment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 17, 1992–2000 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781–788 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. (1)

J. F. Zhai, Z. Q. Shen, J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “The fabrication of permanent holographic gratings in bulk polymer medium by a femtosecond laser,” J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 34, 3466–3469 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Polym. Sci. Pt. B-Polym. Phys. (1)

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, “Structure induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse in dyed polymeric materials,” J. Polym. Sci. Pt. B-Polym. Phys. 40, 2800–2806 (2002).
[Crossref]

Macromolecules (1)

A. Natansohn, S. Xie, and P. Rochon, “Azo Polymers for Reversible Optical Storage.2. Poly 4′- 2-(Acryloyloxy)Ethyl Ethylamino -2-Chloro-4-Nitroazobenzene,” Macromolecules 25, 5531–5532 (1992).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (12)

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2491–2493 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Opt. Lett. 29, 1840–1842 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, “Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 42–43 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, “Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit,” Opt. Lett. 30, 723–725 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “In situ observation of photoinduced refractive-index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 19–21 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1516–1518 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26, 93–95 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. M. Kowalevicz, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultralow-threshold Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti: Al2O3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2037–2039 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. M. Kowalevicz, V. Sharma, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Minoshima, “Three-dimensional photonic devices fabricated in glass by use of a femtosecond laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1060–1062 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, X. Q. Zhang, H. S. Lackritz, S. Marder, and S. Thayumanavan, “Systematic behavior of electro-optic chromophore photostability,” Opt. Lett. 25, 332–334 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, T. C. Kowalczyk, and H. S. Lackritz, “Effect of temperature and atmospheric environment an the photodegradation of some Disperse Red 1-type polymers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1741–1743 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Antonov, K. Kamada, K. Ohta, and F. S. Kamounah, “A systematic femtosecond study on the two-photon absorbing D-pi-A molecules-pi-bridge nitrogen insertion and strength of the donor and acceptor groups,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 1193–1197 (2003).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

G. J. Wang, Y. N. He, X. G. Wang, and L. Jiang, “Self-assembly and optical properties of poly(acrylic acid)-based azo polyelectrolyte,” Thin Solid Films 458, 143–148 (2004).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Molecular structure of (a) DO3, (b) DR1, and (c) DR13.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorbance spectrum of PMMA films containing 3.5% by weight of (a) DO3, (b) DR1, and (c) DR13. The dashed lines show the absorbance after micromachining the films.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Threshold energy of PMMA films doped with DO3, DR1 and DR13 as a function of the azochromophore concentration. The solid lines are drawn to guide the eye.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Decrease in absorbance of PMMA films doped with DO3, DR1 and DR13 as a function of the writing speed of the waveguides.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Optical microscope image of the waveguides micromachined in PMMA doped with DR1 written at a speed of 20 µm/s, spaced by 200 µm to prevent crosstalk. (b) Cross-sectional view of the waveguides. (c) Output image of the single-mode profile of 632.8-nm light coupled through the waveguide, along with a graphical representation of the spatial intensity distribution of the profile along the two major axes.

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