Abstract

We report on the femtosecond-laser micromachining of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films doped with nonlinear azoaromatic chromophores: Disperse Red 1, Disperse Red 13 and Disperse Orange 3. We study the conditions for controlling chromophore degradation during the micromachining of PMMA doped with each chromophore. Furthermore, we successfully used fs-micromachining to fabricate optical waveguides within a bulk sample of PMMA doped with these azochromophores.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  7. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. M. Kowalevicz, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultralow-threshold Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti: Al2O3 laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 2037-2039 (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, "Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit," Opt. Lett. 30, 723-725 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 109-111 (2003).
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  13. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
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  17. W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tunnermann, "Optical properties of waveguides fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Opt. 41, 4360-4364 (2002).
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Filamentary cavity formation in poly(methyl methacrylate) by single femtosecond pulse," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 81, 1587-1590 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Symmetric waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate) fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 291-297 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. B. Wolfe, J. B. Ashcom, J. C. Hwang, C. B. Schaffer, E. Mazur, and G. M. Whitesides, "Customization of poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps by micromachining using a femtosecond-pulsed laser," Adv. Mater. 15, 62-65 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000-1002 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, "Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Lett. 29, 1840-1842 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. L. Eldada, and L. W. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54-68 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, "Structure induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse in dyed polymeric materials," J. Polym. Sci. Part. B-Polym.Phys. 40, 2800-2806 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Photofabrication of periodic microstructures in azodye-doped polymers by interference of laser beams," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 847-851 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, "Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359-361 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. F. Zhai, Z. Q. Shen, J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "The fabrication of permanent holographic gratings in bulk polymer medium by a femtosecond laser," J. Phys. D 34, 3466-3469 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  32. Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, "Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781-788 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. Natansohn, S. Xie, and P. Rochon, "Azo Polymers for Reversible Optical Storage.2. Poly 4'- 2-(Acryloyloxy)Ethyl Ethylamino -2-Chloro-4-Nitroazobenzene," Macromolecules 25, 5531-5532 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  35. P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, "Optically Induced and Erased Birefringence and Dichroism in Azoaromatic Polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4-5 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  36. L. Antonov, K. Kamada, K. Ohta, and F. S. Kamounah, "A systematic femtosecond study on the two-photon absorbing D-pi-A molecules-pi-bridge nitrogen insertion and strength of the donor and acceptor groups," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 1193-1197 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  37. L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonca, "Degenerate Two-Photon Absorption Spectra in Azoaromatic Compounds," Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 1121-1125 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. L. De Boni, J. J. Rodrigues, D. S. dos Santos, C. Silva, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, "Two-photon absorption in azoaromatic compounds (vol 361, pg 209, 2002)," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 684-684 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  39. D. W. Fradin, and M. Bass, "Comparison of Laser-Induced Surface and Bulk Damage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 157-159 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  40. A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, L. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, and H. S. Lackritz, "Photodegradation of azobenzene nonlinear optical chromophores: the influence of structure and environment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 17, 1992-2000 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  41. A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, X. Q. Zhang, H. S. Lackritz, S. Marder, and S. Thayumanavan, "Systematic behavior of electro-optic chromophore photostability," Opt. Lett. 25, 332-334 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  42. A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, T. C. Kowalczyk, and H. S. Lackritz, "Effect of temperature and atmospheric environment an the photodegradation of some Disperse Red 1-type polymers," Opt. Lett. 24, 1741-1743 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2005 (4)

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, "Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit," Opt. Lett. 30, 723-725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Kowalevicz, V. Sharma, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Minoshima, "Three-dimensional photonic devices fabricated in glass by use of a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 30, 1060-1062 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonca, "Degenerate Two-Photon Absorption Spectra in Azoaromatic Compounds," Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 1121-1125 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Filamentary cavity formation in poly(methyl methacrylate) by single femtosecond pulse," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 81, 1587-1590 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

G. J. Wang, Y. N. He, X. G. Wang, and L. Jiang, "Self-assembly and optical properties of poly(acrylic acid)-based azo polyelectrolyte," Thin Solid Films 458, 143-148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, "Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Lett. 29, 1840-1842 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (8)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Kamada, K. Ohta, I. Yoichiro, and K. Kondo, "Two-photon absorption properties of symmetric substituted diacetylene: drastic enhancement of the cross section near the one-photon absorption peak," Chem. Phys. Lett. 372, 386-393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Wolfe, J. B. Ashcom, J. C. Hwang, C. B. Schaffer, E. Mazur, and G. M. Whitesides, "Customization of poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps by micromachining using a femtosecond-pulsed laser," Adv. Mater. 15, 62-65 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. De Boni, J. J. Rodrigues, D. S. dos Santos, C. Silva, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, "Two-photon absorption in azoaromatic compounds (vol 361, pg 209, 2002)," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 684-684 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Antonov, K. Kamada, K. Ohta, and F. S. Kamounah, "A systematic femtosecond study on the two-photon absorbing D-pi-A molecules-pi-bridge nitrogen insertion and strength of the donor and acceptor groups," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 1193-1197 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Scully, D. Jones, and D. A. Jaroszynski, "Femtosecond laser irradiation of polymethylmethacrylate for refractive index gratings," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S92-S96 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (6)

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tunnermann, "Optical properties of waveguides fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Opt. 41, 4360-4364 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, K. Yamada, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and Z. X. Zhou, "Single femtosecond pulse holography using polymethyl methacrylate," Opt. Express 10, 1173-1178 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. M. Kowalevicz, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultralow-threshold Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti: Al2O3 laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 2037-2039 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, "Structure induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse in dyed polymeric materials," J. Polym. Sci. Part. B-Polym.Phys. 40, 2800-2806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Photofabrication of periodic microstructures in azodye-doped polymers by interference of laser beams," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 847-851 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, "Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359-361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

2000 (6)

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, L. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, and H. S. Lackritz, "Photodegradation of azobenzene nonlinear optical chromophores: the influence of structure and environment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 17, 1992-2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000-1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, X. Q. Zhang, H. S. Lackritz, S. Marder, and S. Thayumanavan, "Systematic behavior of electro-optic chromophore photostability," Opt. Lett. 25, 332-334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, and L. W. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54-68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, T. C. Kowalczyk, and H. S. Lackritz, "Effect of temperature and atmospheric environment an the photodegradation of some Disperse Red 1-type polymers," Opt. Lett. 24, 1741-1743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, "Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781-788 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1992 (2)

A. Natansohn, S. Xie, and P. Rochon, "Azo Polymers for Reversible Optical Storage.2. Poly 4'- 2-(Acryloyloxy)Ethyl Ethylamino -2-Chloro-4-Nitroazobenzene," Macromolecules 25, 5531-5532 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, "Optically Induced and Erased Birefringence and Dichroism in Azoaromatic Polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4-5 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

D. W. Fradin, and M. Bass, "Comparison of Laser-Induced Surface and Bulk Damage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 157-159 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

D. B. Wolfe, J. B. Ashcom, J. C. Hwang, C. B. Schaffer, E. Mazur, and G. M. Whitesides, "Customization of poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps by micromachining using a femtosecond-pulsed laser," Adv. Mater. 15, 62-65 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Filamentary cavity formation in poly(methyl methacrylate) by single femtosecond pulse," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 81, 1587-1590 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Photofabrication of periodic microstructures in azodye-doped polymers by interference of laser beams," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 847-851 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, "Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359-361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, "Optically Induced and Erased Birefringence and Dichroism in Azoaromatic Polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4-5 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fradin, and M. Bass, "Comparison of Laser-Induced Surface and Bulk Damage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 157-159 (1973).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000-1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Chem. (1)

L. De Boni, L. Misoguti, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonca, "Degenerate Two-Photon Absorption Spectra in Azoaromatic Compounds," Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 1121-1125 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. De Boni, J. J. Rodrigues, D. S. dos Santos, C. Silva, D. T. Balogh, O. N. Oliveira, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, "Two-photon absorption in azoaromatic compounds (vol 361, pg 209, 2002)," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 684-684 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Kamada, K. Ohta, I. Yoichiro, and K. Kondo, "Two-photon absorption properties of symmetric substituted diacetylene: drastic enhancement of the cross section near the one-photon absorption peak," Chem. Phys. Lett. 372, 386-393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Eldada, and L. W. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54-68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

P. J. Scully, D. Jones, and D. A. Jaroszynski, "Femtosecond laser irradiation of polymethylmethacrylate for refractive index gratings," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S92-S96 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (3)

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, L. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, and H. S. Lackritz, "Photodegradation of azobenzene nonlinear optical chromophores: the influence of structure and environment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 17, 1992-2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, "Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 781-788 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

J. F. Zhai, Z. Q. Shen, J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "The fabrication of permanent holographic gratings in bulk polymer medium by a femtosecond laser," J. Phys. D 34, 3466-3469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

A. Natansohn, S. Xie, and P. Rochon, "Azo Polymers for Reversible Optical Storage.2. Poly 4'- 2-(Acryloyloxy)Ethyl Ethylamino -2-Chloro-4-Nitroazobenzene," Macromolecules 25, 5531-5532 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (12)

A. M. Kowalevicz, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultralow-threshold Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti: Al2O3 laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 2037-2039 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, "Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Lett. 29, 1840-1842 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, "Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit," Opt. Lett. 30, 723-725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Kowalevicz, V. Sharma, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Minoshima, "Three-dimensional photonic devices fabricated in glass by use of a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 30, 1060-1062 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, K. P. Chan, T. C. Kowalczyk, X. Q. Zhang, H. S. Lackritz, S. Marder, and S. Thayumanavan, "Systematic behavior of electro-optic chromophore photostability," Opt. Lett. 25, 332-334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Galvan-Gonzalez, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, R. Twieg, T. C. Kowalczyk, and H. S. Lackritz, "Effect of temperature and atmospheric environment an the photodegradation of some Disperse Red 1-type polymers," Opt. Lett. 24, 1741-1743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "In situ observation of photoinduced refractive-index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 19-21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Streltsov, and N. F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 26, 1516-1518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. (1)

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, "Structure induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse in dyed polymeric materials," J. Polym. Sci. Part. B-Polym.Phys. 40, 2800-2806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Antonov, K. Kamada, K. Ohta, and F. S. Kamounah, "A systematic femtosecond study on the two-photon absorbing D-pi-A molecules-pi-bridge nitrogen insertion and strength of the donor and acceptor groups," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 1193-1197 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

G. J. Wang, Y. N. He, X. G. Wang, and L. Jiang, "Self-assembly and optical properties of poly(acrylic acid)-based azo polyelectrolyte," Thin Solid Films 458, 143-148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Molecular structure of (a) DO3, (b) DR1, and (c) DR13.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorbance spectrum of PMMA films containing 3.5% by weight of (a) DO3, (b) DR1, and (c) DR13. The dashed lines show the absorbance after micromachining the films.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Threshold energy of PMMA films doped with DO3, DR1 and DR13 as a function of the azochromophore concentration. The solid lines are drawn to guide the eye.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Decrease in absorbance of PMMA films doped with DO3, DR1 and DR13 as a function of the writing speed of the waveguides.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Optical microscope image of the waveguides micromachined in PMMA doped with DR1 written at a speed of 20 µm/s, spaced by 200 µm to prevent crosstalk. (b) Cross-sectional view of the waveguides. (c) Output image of the single-mode profile of 632.8-nm light coupled through the waveguide, along with a graphical representation of the spatial intensity distribution of the profile along the two major axes.

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