Abstract

A new transparent conducting indium vanadium oxide (IVO) thin film is developed by using a modification-specific reactive thermal co-evaporation method. Electrical and optical characteristics of IVO films were studied with different vanadium doping concentration, which shows good optical transmittance in the visible spectra range and a minimum electrical resistivity of 7.95×10-4 Ω·cm corresponding to a carrier density of 2.28×1020 cm-3 and a Hall mobility of 34.5 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. Using IVO film as the anode, OLED shows a reduced turn-on voltage and significantly enhanced luminance and electroluminescence efficiency with respect to the device with an ITO anode. Our results indicate that IVO is a promising transparent conducting oxide material, and a suitable electrical contact for hole injection in OLEDs.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Minami, “New n-type transparent conducting oxides,” MRS Bulletin 25, 38–44 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Major, A. Banerjee, and K. L. Chopra, “Annealing studies of undoped and indium-doped films of zinc oxide,” Thin Solid Films 122, 31–43 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  3. K. Bädeker, “Über die elektrische Leitfähigkeit und die thermoelektrische Kraft einiger Schwermetallverbindungen,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 22, 749–766 (1907).
  4. D. D. Edwards, T. O. Mason, F. Goutenoire, and K. R. Poeppelmeier, “A new transparent conducting oxide in the Ga2O3-In2O3-SnO2 system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1706–1708 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. J. Exarhos and X. D. Zhou, “Discovery-based design of transparent conducting oxide films,” Thin solid films 515, 7025–7052 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. B. H. Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, and Y. Takahashi, “Tin doped indium oxide thin films: Electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2631–2645 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. L. Dawar and J. C. Joshi, “Semiconducting transparent thin films: their properties and applications,” J. Mater. Sci. 19, 1–23 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. G. Lewis and D. C. Paine, “Applications and processing of transparent conducting oxides,” MRS Bulletin 25, 22–27 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. Park, V. Choong, Y. Gao, B. R. Hsieh, and C. W. Tang, “Work function of indium tin oxide transparent conductor measured by photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2699–2701 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science 267, 1332–1334 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. Chen, C. Huang, X. Y. Gao, L. Wang, C. G. Zhen, D. Qi, S. Chen, H. L. Zhang, K. P. Loh, Z. K. Chen, and A. T. S. Wee, “Tuning the hole injection barrier at the organic/metal interface with self-assembled functionalized aromatic thiols,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 26075–26080 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. S. Kato, “Designing interfaces that function to facilitate charge injection in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 11538–11539 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Z. Z. You and J. Y. Dong, “Surface properties of treated ITO anodes for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 249, 271–276 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  15. L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, “Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. and Eng. R 39, 143–222 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamadab, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met. 151, 141–146 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. J. Ho, C. Y. Chen, R. Y. Hsiao, and O. L. Ho, “The work function improvement on indium-tin-oxide epitaxial layers by doping treatment for organic light-emitting device applications,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 8372–8376 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  19. C. M. Hsu, J. W. Lee, T. H. Meen, and W. T. Wu, “Preparation and characterization of Ni-indium tin oxide cosputtered thin films for organic light-emitting diode application,” Thin Solid Films 474, 19–24 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2007 (2)

G. J. Exarhos and X. D. Zhou, “Discovery-based design of transparent conducting oxide films,” Thin solid films 515, 7025–7052 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. J. Ho, C. Y. Chen, R. Y. Hsiao, and O. L. Ho, “The work function improvement on indium-tin-oxide epitaxial layers by doping treatment for organic light-emitting device applications,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 8372–8376 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

W. Chen, C. Huang, X. Y. Gao, L. Wang, C. G. Zhen, D. Qi, S. Chen, H. L. Zhang, K. P. Loh, Z. K. Chen, and A. T. S. Wee, “Tuning the hole injection barrier at the organic/metal interface with self-assembled functionalized aromatic thiols,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 26075–26080 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

S. Kato, “Designing interfaces that function to facilitate charge injection in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 11538–11539 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Z. You and J. Y. Dong, “Surface properties of treated ITO anodes for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 249, 271–276 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamadab, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met. 151, 141–146 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. M. Hsu, J. W. Lee, T. H. Meen, and W. T. Wu, “Preparation and characterization of Ni-indium tin oxide cosputtered thin films for organic light-emitting diode application,” Thin Solid Films 474, 19–24 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, “Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. and Eng. R 39, 143–222 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Minami, “New n-type transparent conducting oxides,” MRS Bulletin 25, 38–44 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. G. Lewis and D. C. Paine, “Applications and processing of transparent conducting oxides,” MRS Bulletin 25, 22–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. B. H. Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, and Y. Takahashi, “Tin doped indium oxide thin films: Electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2631–2645 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

D. D. Edwards, T. O. Mason, F. Goutenoire, and K. R. Poeppelmeier, “A new transparent conducting oxide in the Ga2O3-In2O3-SnO2 system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1706–1708 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Y. Park, V. Choong, Y. Gao, B. R. Hsieh, and C. W. Tang, “Work function of indium tin oxide transparent conductor measured by photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2699–2701 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science 267, 1332–1334 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

A. L. Dawar and J. C. Joshi, “Semiconducting transparent thin films: their properties and applications,” J. Mater. Sci. 19, 1–23 (1984).
[Crossref]

S. Major, A. Banerjee, and K. L. Chopra, “Annealing studies of undoped and indium-doped films of zinc oxide,” Thin Solid Films 122, 31–43 (1984).
[Crossref]

1907 (1)

K. Bädeker, “Über die elektrische Leitfähigkeit und die thermoelektrische Kraft einiger Schwermetallverbindungen,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 22, 749–766 (1907).

Bädeker, K.

K. Bädeker, “Über die elektrische Leitfähigkeit und die thermoelektrische Kraft einiger Schwermetallverbindungen,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 22, 749–766 (1907).

Ban, T.

R. B. H. Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, and Y. Takahashi, “Tin doped indium oxide thin films: Electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2631–2645 (1998).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, A.

S. Major, A. Banerjee, and K. L. Chopra, “Annealing studies of undoped and indium-doped films of zinc oxide,” Thin Solid Films 122, 31–43 (1984).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, “Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. and Eng. R 39, 143–222 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

J. J. Ho, C. Y. Chen, R. Y. Hsiao, and O. L. Ho, “The work function improvement on indium-tin-oxide epitaxial layers by doping treatment for organic light-emitting device applications,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 8372–8376 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

W. Chen, C. Huang, X. Y. Gao, L. Wang, C. G. Zhen, D. Qi, S. Chen, H. L. Zhang, K. P. Loh, Z. K. Chen, and A. T. S. Wee, “Tuning the hole injection barrier at the organic/metal interface with self-assembled functionalized aromatic thiols,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 26075–26080 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, C. Huang, X. Y. Gao, L. Wang, C. G. Zhen, D. Qi, S. Chen, H. L. Zhang, K. P. Loh, Z. K. Chen, and A. T. S. Wee, “Tuning the hole injection barrier at the organic/metal interface with self-assembled functionalized aromatic thiols,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 26075–26080 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. K.

W. Chen, C. Huang, X. Y. Gao, L. Wang, C. G. Zhen, D. Qi, S. Chen, H. L. Zhang, K. P. Loh, Z. K. Chen, and A. T. S. Wee, “Tuning the hole injection barrier at the organic/metal interface with self-assembled functionalized aromatic thiols,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 26075–26080 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choong, V.

Y. Park, V. Choong, Y. Gao, B. R. Hsieh, and C. W. Tang, “Work function of indium tin oxide transparent conductor measured by photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2699–2701 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chopra, K. L.

S. Major, A. Banerjee, and K. L. Chopra, “Annealing studies of undoped and indium-doped films of zinc oxide,” Thin Solid Films 122, 31–43 (1984).
[Crossref]

Chrisey, D. B.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dawar, A. L.

A. L. Dawar and J. C. Joshi, “Semiconducting transparent thin films: their properties and applications,” J. Mater. Sci. 19, 1–23 (1984).
[Crossref]

Dong, J. Y.

Z. Z. You and J. Y. Dong, “Surface properties of treated ITO anodes for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 249, 271–276 (2005).
[Crossref]

Edwards, D. D.

D. D. Edwards, T. O. Mason, F. Goutenoire, and K. R. Poeppelmeier, “A new transparent conducting oxide in the Ga2O3-In2O3-SnO2 system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1706–1708 (1997).
[Crossref]

Exarhos, G. J.

G. J. Exarhos and X. D. Zhou, “Discovery-based design of transparent conducting oxide films,” Thin solid films 515, 7025–7052 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gao, X. Y.

W. Chen, C. Huang, X. Y. Gao, L. Wang, C. G. Zhen, D. Qi, S. Chen, H. L. Zhang, K. P. Loh, Z. K. Chen, and A. T. S. Wee, “Tuning the hole injection barrier at the organic/metal interface with self-assembled functionalized aromatic thiols,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 26075–26080 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

Y. Park, V. Choong, Y. Gao, B. R. Hsieh, and C. W. Tang, “Work function of indium tin oxide transparent conductor measured by photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2699–2701 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gilmore, C. M.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Goutenoire, F.

D. D. Edwards, T. O. Mason, F. Goutenoire, and K. R. Poeppelmeier, “A new transparent conducting oxide in the Ga2O3-In2O3-SnO2 system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1706–1708 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ho, J. J.

J. J. Ho, C. Y. Chen, R. Y. Hsiao, and O. L. Ho, “The work function improvement on indium-tin-oxide epitaxial layers by doping treatment for organic light-emitting device applications,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 8372–8376 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ho, O. L.

J. J. Ho, C. Y. Chen, R. Y. Hsiao, and O. L. Ho, “The work function improvement on indium-tin-oxide epitaxial layers by doping treatment for organic light-emitting device applications,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 8372–8376 (2007).
[Crossref]

Horwitz, J. S.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, R. Y.

J. J. Ho, C. Y. Chen, R. Y. Hsiao, and O. L. Ho, “The work function improvement on indium-tin-oxide epitaxial layers by doping treatment for organic light-emitting device applications,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 8372–8376 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, B. R.

Y. Park, V. Choong, Y. Gao, B. R. Hsieh, and C. W. Tang, “Work function of indium tin oxide transparent conductor measured by photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2699–2701 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C. M.

C. M. Hsu, J. W. Lee, T. H. Meen, and W. T. Wu, “Preparation and characterization of Ni-indium tin oxide cosputtered thin films for organic light-emitting diode application,” Thin Solid Films 474, 19–24 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.

W. Chen, C. Huang, X. Y. Gao, L. Wang, C. G. Zhen, D. Qi, S. Chen, H. L. Zhang, K. P. Loh, Z. K. Chen, and A. T. S. Wee, “Tuning the hole injection barrier at the organic/metal interface with self-assembled functionalized aromatic thiols,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 26075–26080 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hung, L. S.

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, “Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. and Eng. R 39, 143–222 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ishida, K.

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamadab, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met. 151, 141–146 (2005).
[Crossref]

Joshi, J. C.

A. L. Dawar and J. C. Joshi, “Semiconducting transparent thin films: their properties and applications,” J. Mater. Sci. 19, 1–23 (1984).
[Crossref]

Kafafi, Z. H.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kato, S.

S. Kato, “Designing interfaces that function to facilitate charge injection in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 11538–11539 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kido, J.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science 267, 1332–1334 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kimura, M.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science 267, 1332–1334 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kushto, G. P.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. W.

C. M. Hsu, J. W. Lee, T. H. Meen, and W. T. Wu, “Preparation and characterization of Ni-indium tin oxide cosputtered thin films for organic light-emitting diode application,” Thin Solid Films 474, 19–24 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lewis, B. G.

B. G. Lewis and D. C. Paine, “Applications and processing of transparent conducting oxides,” MRS Bulletin 25, 22–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamadab, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met. 151, 141–146 (2005).
[Crossref]

Loh, K. P.

W. Chen, C. Huang, X. Y. Gao, L. Wang, C. G. Zhen, D. Qi, S. Chen, H. L. Zhang, K. P. Loh, Z. K. Chen, and A. T. S. Wee, “Tuning the hole injection barrier at the organic/metal interface with self-assembled functionalized aromatic thiols,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 26075–26080 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Major, S.

S. Major, A. Banerjee, and K. L. Chopra, “Annealing studies of undoped and indium-doped films of zinc oxide,” Thin Solid Films 122, 31–43 (1984).
[Crossref]

Mason, T. O.

D. D. Edwards, T. O. Mason, F. Goutenoire, and K. R. Poeppelmeier, “A new transparent conducting oxide in the Ga2O3-In2O3-SnO2 system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1706–1708 (1997).
[Crossref]

Matsushige, K.

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamadab, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met. 151, 141–146 (2005).
[Crossref]

Meen, T. H.

C. M. Hsu, J. W. Lee, T. H. Meen, and W. T. Wu, “Preparation and characterization of Ni-indium tin oxide cosputtered thin films for organic light-emitting diode application,” Thin Solid Films 474, 19–24 (2005).
[Crossref]

Minami, T.

T. Minami, “New n-type transparent conducting oxides,” MRS Bulletin 25, 38–44 (2000).
[Crossref]

Murata, H.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nagai, K.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science 267, 1332–1334 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohya, Y.

R. B. H. Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, and Y. Takahashi, “Tin doped indium oxide thin films: Electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2631–2645 (1998).
[Crossref]

Paine, D. C.

B. G. Lewis and D. C. Paine, “Applications and processing of transparent conducting oxides,” MRS Bulletin 25, 22–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

Y. Park, V. Choong, Y. Gao, B. R. Hsieh, and C. W. Tang, “Work function of indium tin oxide transparent conductor measured by photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2699–2701 (1996).
[Crossref]

Piqué, A.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Poeppelmeier, K. R.

D. D. Edwards, T. O. Mason, F. Goutenoire, and K. R. Poeppelmeier, “A new transparent conducting oxide in the Ga2O3-In2O3-SnO2 system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1706–1708 (1997).
[Crossref]

Qi, D.

W. Chen, C. Huang, X. Y. Gao, L. Wang, C. G. Zhen, D. Qi, S. Chen, H. L. Zhang, K. P. Loh, Z. K. Chen, and A. T. S. Wee, “Tuning the hole injection barrier at the organic/metal interface with self-assembled functionalized aromatic thiols,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 26075–26080 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlaf, R.

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[Crossref]

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C. M. Hsu, J. W. Lee, T. H. Meen, and W. T. Wu, “Preparation and characterization of Ni-indium tin oxide cosputtered thin films for organic light-emitting diode application,” Thin Solid Films 474, 19–24 (2005).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM images of IVO films. Part (a) to (c) corresponding to sample A, sample B and sample C.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The transmittance spectra of IVO films.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The current density-voltage characteristics of the OLEDs based on IVO anode (triangle) in comparison with ITO anode (square).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The luminance-current density curves of the OLEDs fabricated on the IVO (triangle) and ITO (square) glass substrates.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The EL efficiency-current density characteristics of the OLEDs fabricated on the IVO (triangle) and ITO (square) glass substrates.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Resistivity, carrier density and Hall mobility of IVO samples with different V doping content

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