Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) gratings made up of an array of differently twisted nematic structures are obtained by crossed assembling of 1D polarization holograms recorded at the photoaligning substrates. The rotating linear polarization pattern, produced by the interference of two opposite circularly polarized beams, is recorded on the azo-dye doped polyimide aligning layers. The 2D gratings diffract light in different directions with different polarization states, that can be optically controlled. Orthogonal circularly and linearly polarized diffraction orders are simultaneously obtained irradiating the grating with a linearly polarized beam. An external ac voltage allows to completely control the diffracted energy distribution.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vathana, L. Johnson "An electrically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 -2590 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Sarkissian, N. Tabirian, B. Park, B. Zeldovich "Periodically aligned liquid crystal: Potential application for projection displays," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 451, 1-19 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. J. Bunning, L.V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R.L. Sutherland "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, "Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid-crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material," Opt. Lett. 29, 1261-1263 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, "Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 -1188 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, "Optically generated liquid-crystal gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542-2544 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light," Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Zhou, D. M. Collard, and M. Srinivasarao "Switchable gratings by spatially periodic alignment of liquid crystals via patterned photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 31, 652-654 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Wen, R. G. Petschek, C. Rosenblatt, "Nematic liquid-crystal polarization gratings by modification of surface alignment," Appl. Opt. 41, 1246-1250 (2002).
  10. G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and A. Pelcovits "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. I. Senyuk, I. I. Smalyukh, and O. D. Lavrentovich, "Switchable two-dimensional gratings based on field-induced layer undulations in cholesteric liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 30, 349-351 (2006).
  12. S. P. Gorkhalim, S. G. Cloutier, and G. P. Crawford, "Two-dimensional vectorial photonic crystals formed in azo-dye-doped liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 31, 3336-3338 (2006).
  13. C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, "Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
  14. H. Sarkissian, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. B. Glebov, V. Rotar, and B. Ya. Zeldovich, "Polarization-controlled switching between diffraction orders in transverse-periodically aligned nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 31, 2248-2250 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Provenzano, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, "Photopolarimeter based on two gratings recorded in thin organic films," Appl. Opt. 45, 3929-3934 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Ono, A. Emoto, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, "Multiplex diffraction from functionalized polymer liquid crystals and polarization conversion," Opt. Express 11, 2379-2384 (2003).
  18. J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, G. P. Crawford, "Zero voltage Freedericksz transition in periodically aligned liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671-1673 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (7)

2005 (1)

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and A. Pelcovits "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, G. P. Crawford, "Zero voltage Freedericksz transition in periodically aligned liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671-1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, "Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid-crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material," Opt. Lett. 29, 1261-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, "Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 -1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. J. Bunning, L.V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R.L. Sutherland "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vathana, L. Johnson "An electrically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 -2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, "Optically generated liquid-crystal gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542-2544 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light," Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Arbuzov, A. V.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnik, M. I.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blinov, L. M.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vathana, L. Johnson "An electrically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 -2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

T. J. Bunning, L.V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R.L. Sutherland "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Callan-Jones, A.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and A. Pelcovits "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Caputo, R.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vathana, L. Johnson "An electrically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 -2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Provenzano, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, "Photopolarimeter based on two gratings recorded in thin organic films," Appl. Opt. 45, 3929-3934 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, "Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 -1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, "Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).

Cloutier, S. G.

Collard, D. M.

Crawford, G. P.

S. P. Gorkhalim, S. G. Cloutier, and G. P. Crawford, "Two-dimensional vectorial photonic crystals formed in azo-dye-doped liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 31, 3336-3338 (2006).

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and A. Pelcovits "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, G. P. Crawford, "Zero voltage Freedericksz transition in periodically aligned liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671-1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Sio, L.

Eakin, J. N.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and A. Pelcovits "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, G. P. Crawford, "Zero voltage Freedericksz transition in periodically aligned liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671-1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Emoto, A.

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, "Optically generated liquid-crystal gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542-2544 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light," Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L. B.

Gorkhalim, S. P.

Hasegawa, T.

Johnson, L.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vathana, L. Johnson "An electrically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 -2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kawatsuki, N.

Lavrentovich, O. D.

Mazzulla, A.

C. Provenzano, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, "Photopolarimeter based on two gratings recorded in thin organic films," Appl. Opt. 45, 3929-3934 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, "Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 -1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L.V.

T. J. Bunning, L.V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R.L. Sutherland "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

Pagliusi, P.

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, "Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).

Palto, S. P.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

H. Sarkissian, N. Tabirian, B. Park, B. Zeldovich "Periodically aligned liquid crystal: Potential application for projection displays," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 451, 1-19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pelcovits, A.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and A. Pelcovits "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pelcovits, R. A.

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, G. P. Crawford, "Zero voltage Freedericksz transition in periodically aligned liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671-1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petschek, R. G.

Provenzano, C.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Provenzano, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, "Photopolarimeter based on two gratings recorded in thin organic films," Appl. Opt. 45, 3929-3934 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, "Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).

Radcliffe, M. D.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and A. Pelcovits "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, G. P. Crawford, "Zero voltage Freedericksz transition in periodically aligned liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671-1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, C.

Rotar, V.

Russo, G.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, "Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 -1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sarkissian, H.

H. Sarkissian, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. B. Glebov, V. Rotar, and B. Ya. Zeldovich, "Polarization-controlled switching between diffraction orders in transverse-periodically aligned nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 31, 2248-2250 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Sarkissian, N. Tabirian, B. Park, B. Zeldovich "Periodically aligned liquid crystal: Potential application for projection displays," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 451, 1-19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Senyuk, B. I.

Serak, S. V.

Shannon, P. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light," Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smalyukh, I. I.

Srinivasarao, M.

Sun, S. T.

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, "Optically generated liquid-crystal gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542-2544 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light," Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R.L.

T. J. Bunning, L.V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R.L. Sutherland "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Swetlin, B. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light," Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tabirian, N.

H. Sarkissian, N. Tabirian, B. Park, B. Zeldovich "Periodically aligned liquid crystal: Potential application for projection displays," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 451, 1-19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

Tondiglia, V. P.

T. J. Bunning, L.V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R.L. Sutherland "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Umanski, B. A.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

Vathana, H.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vathana, L. Johnson "An electrically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 -2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Veltri, A.

Wen, B.

Xie, Y.

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, G. P. Crawford, "Zero voltage Freedericksz transition in periodically aligned liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671-1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zeldovich, B.

H. Sarkissian, N. Tabirian, B. Park, B. Zeldovich "Periodically aligned liquid crystal: Potential application for projection displays," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 451, 1-19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeldovich, B. Ya.

Zhou, J.

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

T. J. Bunning, L.V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R.L. Sutherland "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, G. P. Crawford, "Zero voltage Freedericksz transition in periodically aligned liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671-1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, "Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 -1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, "Optically generated liquid-crystal gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542-2544 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vathana, L. Johnson "An electrically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 -2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and A. Pelcovits "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (2)

H. Sarkissian, N. Tabirian, B. Park, B. Zeldovich "Periodically aligned liquid crystal: Potential application for projection displays," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 451, 1-19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light," Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (1)

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, "Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).

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