Abstract

In this paper we address efficient conversion between a Gaussian beam (a truncated plane wave) and a truncated Bessel beam of a given order, using cylindrical optical waveguides and whispering gallery mode resonators. Utilizing a generator based on waveguides combined with whispering gallery mode resonators, we have realized Bessel beams of the order of 200 with a conversion efficiency exceeding 10 %.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Gaussian beams with very high orbital angular momentum," Opt. Commun. 144, 210-213 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Sundbeck, I. Gruzberg, and D. G. Grier, "Structure and scaling of helical modes of light," Opt. Lett. 30, 477-479 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Durnin, "Exact solutions for nondiffracting beams. I. The scalar theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 651654 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. J. R. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, "Annular pupils, radial polarization, and superresolution," Appl. Opt. 43, 43224327 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Lopez-Mariscal, J. C. Gutierrez-Vega, and S. Chavez-Cerda, "Production of High-Order Bessel Beams with a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer," Appl. Opt. 43, 5060-5063 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. H. McLeod, "The axicon: a new type of optical element," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 592-597 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Indebetouw, "Nondiffracting optical fields: some remarks on their analysis and synthesis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 150-152 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. M. Herman and T. A. Wiggins, "Production and uses of diffractionless beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 932-942 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Scott and N. McArdle, "Efficient generation of nearly diffraction-free beams using an axicon," Opt. Eng. 31, 2640- 2643 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, "Generation of high-order Bessel beams by use of an axicon," Opt. Commun. 177, 297-301 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. N. Khilo, E. G. Katranji and A. A. Ryzhevich, "Axicon-based Bessel resonator: analytical description and environment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1986-1992 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. C. Gutierrez-Vega, R. Rodriguez-Masegosa, and S. Chavez- Cerda, "BesselGauss resonator with spherical output mirror: geometrical- and wave-optics analysis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2113-2122 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, "Programmable axicon for variable inclination of the focal segment," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185-2190 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Turunen, A. Vasara, and A. T. Friberg, "Holographic generation of diffraction-free beams," Appl. Opt. 27, 3959-3962 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Vasara, J. Turunen, and A. T. Friberg, "Realization of general nondiffracting beams with computer-generated holograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1748-1754 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Paterson and R. Smith, "Higher-order Bessel waves produced by axicon-type computer-generated holograms," Opt. Commun. 124, 121-130 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Yu Popov, A. T. Friberg, M. Honkanen, J. Lautanen, J. Turunen, and B. Schnabel, "Apodized annular-aperture diffractive axicons fabricated by continuous-path-control electron beam lithography," Opt. Commun. 154, 359- 367 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Paakkonen, J. Simonen, M. Honkanen, and J. Turunen, "Two-element diffractive systems for generation of Bessel fields," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1943-1953 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Uehara and H. Kikuchi, "Generation of nearly diffraction-free laser beams," Appl. Phys. B 48, 125-129 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. K. Jabczynski, "A diffraction-free resonator," Opt. Commun. 77, 292-294 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, "Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Paakkonen and J. Turunen, "Resonators with BesselGauss modes," Opt. Commun. 156, 359-366 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Rogel-Salazar, G. H. C. New, and S. Chavez-Cerda, "Bessel- Gauss beam optical resonator," Opt. Commun. 190, 117-122 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstrom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "BesselGauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 335-340 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, "Whispering gallery resonators for studying orbital angular momentum of a photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143904 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, "Pigtailing the high-Q microsphere cavity: a simple fiber coupler for optical whispering-gallery modes", Opt. Lett. 24, 723-725 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, I. Grudinin, E. A. Savchenkova, D. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, "Optical vortices with large orbital momentum: generation and interference," Opt. Express 14, 2888-2897 (2006)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. L. M. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, "High-Q optical whispering-gallery microresonators: precession approach for spherical mode analysis and emission patterns with prism couplers," Opt. Commun. 113, 133-143 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

S. Sundbeck, I. Gruzberg, and D. G. Grier, "Structure and scaling of helical modes of light," Opt. Lett. 30, 477-479 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, "Whispering gallery resonators for studying orbital angular momentum of a photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstrom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "BesselGauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 335-340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Lopez-Mariscal, J. C. Gutierrez-Vega, and S. Chavez-Cerda, "Production of High-Order Bessel Beams with a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer," Appl. Opt. 43, 5060-5063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. R. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, "Annular pupils, radial polarization, and superresolution," Appl. Opt. 43, 43224327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, "Programmable axicon for variable inclination of the focal segment," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185-2190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. C. Gutierrez-Vega, R. Rodriguez-Masegosa, and S. Chavez- Cerda, "BesselGauss resonator with spherical output mirror: geometrical- and wave-optics analysis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2113-2122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Paakkonen, J. Simonen, M. Honkanen, and J. Turunen, "Two-element diffractive systems for generation of Bessel fields," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1943-1953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. Rogel-Salazar, G. H. C. New, and S. Chavez-Cerda, "Bessel- Gauss beam optical resonator," Opt. Commun. 190, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Khilo, E. G. Katranji and A. A. Ryzhevich, "Axicon-based Bessel resonator: analytical description and environment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1986-1992 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, "Generation of high-order Bessel beams by use of an axicon," Opt. Commun. 177, 297-301 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

S. Yu Popov, A. T. Friberg, M. Honkanen, J. Lautanen, J. Turunen, and B. Schnabel, "Apodized annular-aperture diffractive axicons fabricated by continuous-path-control electron beam lithography," Opt. Commun. 154, 359- 367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Paakkonen and J. Turunen, "Resonators with BesselGauss modes," Opt. Commun. 156, 359-366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Gaussian beams with very high orbital angular momentum," Opt. Commun. 144, 210-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Paterson and R. Smith, "Higher-order Bessel waves produced by axicon-type computer-generated holograms," Opt. Commun. 124, 121-130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. M. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, "High-Q optical whispering-gallery microresonators: precession approach for spherical mode analysis and emission patterns with prism couplers," Opt. Commun. 113, 133-143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

G. Scott and N. McArdle, "Efficient generation of nearly diffraction-free beams using an axicon," Opt. Eng. 31, 2640- 2643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, "Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

J. K. Jabczynski, "A diffraction-free resonator," Opt. Commun. 77, 292-294 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Durnin, "Exact solutions for nondiffracting beams. I. The scalar theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 651654 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

Allen, L.

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Gaussian beams with very high orbital angular momentum," Opt. Commun. 144, 210-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, "Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Arlt, J.

J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, "Generation of high-order Bessel beams by use of an axicon," Opt. Commun. 177, 297-301 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buchter, S. C.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstrom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "BesselGauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 335-340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burvall, A.

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, "Programmable axicon for variable inclination of the focal segment," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185-2190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chavez-Cerda, S.

Choudhury, A.

C. J. R. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, "Annular pupils, radial polarization, and superresolution," Appl. Opt. 43, 43224327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Climent, V.

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, "Programmable axicon for variable inclination of the focal segment," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185-2190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Courtial, J.

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Gaussian beams with very high orbital angular momentum," Opt. Commun. 144, 210-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, J. E.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, "Generation of high-order Bessel beams by use of an axicon," Opt. Commun. 177, 297-301 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Gaussian beams with very high orbital angular momentum," Opt. Commun. 144, 210-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duran, V.

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, "Programmable axicon for variable inclination of the focal segment," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185-2190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Durnin, "Exact solutions for nondiffracting beams. I. The scalar theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 651654 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elfstrom, H.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstrom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "BesselGauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 335-340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, "Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Friberg, A. T.

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, "Programmable axicon for variable inclination of the focal segment," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185-2190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Yu Popov, A. T. Friberg, M. Honkanen, J. Lautanen, J. Turunen, and B. Schnabel, "Apodized annular-aperture diffractive axicons fabricated by continuous-path-control electron beam lithography," Opt. Commun. 154, 359- 367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasara, J. Turunen, and A. T. Friberg, "Realization of general nondiffracting beams with computer-generated holograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1748-1754 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, and A. T. Friberg, "Holographic generation of diffraction-free beams," Appl. Opt. 27, 3959-3962 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorodetsky, L. M.

L. M. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, "High-Q optical whispering-gallery microresonators: precession approach for spherical mode analysis and emission patterns with prism couplers," Opt. Commun. 113, 133-143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

S. Sundbeck, I. Gruzberg, and D. G. Grier, "Structure and scaling of helical modes of light," Opt. Lett. 30, 477-479 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, I.

Gruzberg, I.

Gutierrez-Vega, J. C.

Hakola, A.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstrom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "BesselGauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 335-340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, "Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Herman, R. M.

Honkanen, M.

P. Paakkonen, J. Simonen, M. Honkanen, and J. Turunen, "Two-element diffractive systems for generation of Bessel fields," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1943-1953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Yu Popov, A. T. Friberg, M. Honkanen, J. Lautanen, J. Turunen, and B. Schnabel, "Apodized annular-aperture diffractive axicons fabricated by continuous-path-control electron beam lithography," Opt. Commun. 154, 359- 367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, "Pigtailing the high-Q microsphere cavity: a simple fiber coupler for optical whispering-gallery modes", Opt. Lett. 24, 723-725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, "High-Q optical whispering-gallery microresonators: precession approach for spherical mode analysis and emission patterns with prism couplers," Opt. Commun. 113, 133-143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Indebetouw, G.

Jabczynski, J. K.

J. K. Jabczynski, "A diffraction-free resonator," Opt. Commun. 77, 292-294 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jaroszewicz, Z.

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, "Programmable axicon for variable inclination of the focal segment," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185-2190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kajava, T.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstrom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "BesselGauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 335-340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Katranji, E. G.

Khilo, A. N.

Kikuchi, H.

K. Uehara and H. Kikuchi, "Generation of nearly diffraction-free laser beams," Appl. Phys. B 48, 125-129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

King, O.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, "Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolodziejczyk, A.

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, "Programmable axicon for variable inclination of the focal segment," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185-2190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koss, B. A.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lancis, J.

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, "Programmable axicon for variable inclination of the focal segment," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185-2190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lautanen, J.

S. Yu Popov, A. T. Friberg, M. Honkanen, J. Lautanen, J. Turunen, and B. Schnabel, "Apodized annular-aperture diffractive axicons fabricated by continuous-path-control electron beam lithography," Opt. Commun. 154, 359- 367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Mariscal, C.

Maleki, L.

Matsko, A. B.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, I. Grudinin, E. A. Savchenkova, D. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, "Optical vortices with large orbital momentum: generation and interference," Opt. Express 14, 2888-2897 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, "Whispering gallery resonators for studying orbital angular momentum of a photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McArdle, N.

G. Scott and N. McArdle, "Efficient generation of nearly diffraction-free beams using an axicon," Opt. Eng. 31, 2640- 2643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McLeod, J. H.

Miceli, J. J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New, G. H. C.

J. Rogel-Salazar, G. H. C. New, and S. Chavez-Cerda, "Bessel- Gauss beam optical resonator," Opt. Commun. 190, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Paakkonen, P.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstrom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "BesselGauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 335-340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Paakkonen, J. Simonen, M. Honkanen, and J. Turunen, "Two-element diffractive systems for generation of Bessel fields," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1943-1953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Paakkonen and J. Turunen, "Resonators with BesselGauss modes," Opt. Commun. 156, 359-366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Gaussian beams with very high orbital angular momentum," Opt. Commun. 144, 210-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paterson, C.

C. Paterson and R. Smith, "Higher-order Bessel waves produced by axicon-type computer-generated holograms," Opt. Commun. 124, 121-130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Masegosa, R.

Rogel-Salazar, J.

J. Rogel-Salazar, G. H. C. New, and S. Chavez-Cerda, "Bessel- Gauss beam optical resonator," Opt. Commun. 190, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, "Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ryzhevich, A. A.

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, I. Grudinin, E. A. Savchenkova, D. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, "Optical vortices with large orbital momentum: generation and interference," Opt. Express 14, 2888-2897 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, "Whispering gallery resonators for studying orbital angular momentum of a photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savchenkova, E. A.

Schnabel, B.

S. Yu Popov, A. T. Friberg, M. Honkanen, J. Lautanen, J. Turunen, and B. Schnabel, "Apodized annular-aperture diffractive axicons fabricated by continuous-path-control electron beam lithography," Opt. Commun. 154, 359- 367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scott, G.

G. Scott and N. McArdle, "Efficient generation of nearly diffraction-free beams using an axicon," Opt. Eng. 31, 2640- 2643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

C. J. R. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, "Annular pupils, radial polarization, and superresolution," Appl. Opt. 43, 43224327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simonen, J.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstrom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "BesselGauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 335-340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Paakkonen, J. Simonen, M. Honkanen, and J. Turunen, "Two-element diffractive systems for generation of Bessel fields," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1943-1953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.

C. Paterson and R. Smith, "Higher-order Bessel waves produced by axicon-type computer-generated holograms," Opt. Commun. 124, 121-130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strekalov, D.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, I. Grudinin, E. A. Savchenkova, D. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, "Optical vortices with large orbital momentum: generation and interference," Opt. Express 14, 2888-2897 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, "Whispering gallery resonators for studying orbital angular momentum of a photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundbeck, S.

Turunen, J.

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstrom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "BesselGauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 335-340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Paakkonen, J. Simonen, M. Honkanen, and J. Turunen, "Two-element diffractive systems for generation of Bessel fields," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1943-1953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Paakkonen and J. Turunen, "Resonators with BesselGauss modes," Opt. Commun. 156, 359-366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Yu Popov, A. T. Friberg, M. Honkanen, J. Lautanen, J. Turunen, and B. Schnabel, "Apodized annular-aperture diffractive axicons fabricated by continuous-path-control electron beam lithography," Opt. Commun. 154, 359- 367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasara, J. Turunen, and A. T. Friberg, "Realization of general nondiffracting beams with computer-generated holograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1748-1754 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, and A. T. Friberg, "Holographic generation of diffraction-free beams," Appl. Opt. 27, 3959-3962 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uehara, K.

K. Uehara and H. Kikuchi, "Generation of nearly diffraction-free laser beams," Appl. Phys. B 48, 125-129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasara, A.

Wicks, G. W.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, "Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wiggins, T. A.

Yao, X. S.

Yu Popov, S.

S. Yu Popov, A. T. Friberg, M. Honkanen, J. Lautanen, J. Turunen, and B. Schnabel, "Apodized annular-aperture diffractive axicons fabricated by continuous-path-control electron beam lithography," Opt. Commun. 154, 359- 367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K. Uehara and H. Kikuchi, "Generation of nearly diffraction-free laser beams," Appl. Phys. B 48, 125-129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, "Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

P. Paakkonen, J. Simonen, M. Honkanen, and J. Turunen, "Two-element diffractive systems for generation of Bessel fields," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1943-1953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jaroszewicz, V. Climent, V. Duran, J. Lancis, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Burvall, and A. T. Friberg, "Programmable axicon for variable inclination of the focal segment," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2185-2190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (6)

Opt. Commun. (10)

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Gaussian beams with very high orbital angular momentum," Opt. Commun. 144, 210-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Paterson and R. Smith, "Higher-order Bessel waves produced by axicon-type computer-generated holograms," Opt. Commun. 124, 121-130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Yu Popov, A. T. Friberg, M. Honkanen, J. Lautanen, J. Turunen, and B. Schnabel, "Apodized annular-aperture diffractive axicons fabricated by continuous-path-control electron beam lithography," Opt. Commun. 154, 359- 367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, "Generation of high-order Bessel beams by use of an axicon," Opt. Commun. 177, 297-301 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Jabczynski, "A diffraction-free resonator," Opt. Commun. 77, 292-294 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Paakkonen and J. Turunen, "Resonators with BesselGauss modes," Opt. Commun. 156, 359-366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Rogel-Salazar, G. H. C. New, and S. Chavez-Cerda, "Bessel- Gauss beam optical resonator," Opt. Commun. 190, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Hakola, S. C. Buchter, T. Kajava, H. Elfstrom, J. Simonen, P. Paakkonen, and J. Turunen, "BesselGauss output beam from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Commun. 238, 335-340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, "High-Q optical whispering-gallery microresonators: precession approach for spherical mode analysis and emission patterns with prism couplers," Opt. Commun. 113, 133-143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. Scott and N. McArdle, "Efficient generation of nearly diffraction-free beams using an axicon," Opt. Eng. 31, 2640- 2643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, "Whispering gallery resonators for studying orbital angular momentum of a photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic of the orbital momentum generator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Left: Scanning electron microscope images of the experimental realization of the generator shown in Fig. (1). Pictures (a) and (b) show different projections of the generator. Picture (c) shows a side image of the entire generator. Right: Power spectra of the WGM resonator (top) and Bessel mode (bottom) normalized to the input power. The efficiency of transmission of the input Gaussian beam into the Bessel mode (A’) through WGM (A) is 9% for the particular plot. The coupling of the WGM to the Bessel mode is nearly critical (11% of the input power is absorbed from the input light, 9% is emitted into the Bessel mode).

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ψ WGM = Ψ ˉ WGM r P l m ( cos θ ) J l + 1 2 ( k l , q , r ) e im ϕ ,
k l , m , q 1 R WGM [ 1 + α q ( l 2 ) 1 3 ] ,
Ψ W = Ψ ̅ W J v ( k v , q ̅ r ) e iv ϕ e i β z ,
k v , q ̅ 1 R W [ v + α q ̅ ( v 2 ) 1 3 ] ,
ε 0 = ( ω c ) 2 = k l , m , q 2 = k v , q ̅ 2 + β 2 .
m l R W R WGM .
E out = ξ [ η γ in γ out γ + i ( ω ω 0 ) γ in + γ out + γ i ( ω ω 0 ) + 1 η 2 e i ϕ ] E in ,
E BB = η 2 γ in γ out γ in + γ out + γ i ( ω ω 0 ) E in ,

Metrics