Abstract

We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of III-nitride quantum-well waveguides optimized for nonlinear-optical switching via intersubband transitions. A dielectric structure consisting of an AlN lower cladding and a GaN cap layer allows minimizing the propagation losses while maintaining a large modal overlap with the quantum-well active layer. A strong nonlinear saturation of the intersubband absorption near 1.55 μm is demonstrated at record low input powers for these materials; in particular, a 3-dB saturation pulse energy of less than 10 pJ with 240-fs pulses is measured. Combined with the well established sub-picosecond recovery lifetimes of intersubband absorption in III-nitride quantum wells, these results are very promising for all-optical switching applications in future ultrafast fiber-optic communication networks.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Akimoto, B. S. Li, K. Akita, and T. Hasama, "Subpicosecond saturation of intersubband absorption in (CdS/ZnSe)/BeTe quantum well waveguides at telecommunication wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, "Intersubband absorption at λ ~ 1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722-3724 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803-1805 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Zhou, J. Chen, B. Pattada, M. O. Manasreh, F. Xiu, S. Puntigan, L. He, and K. S. Ramaiah, and H. Morkoç, "Infrared optical absorbance of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 10140-10142 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 387-392 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, S. Leconte, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "New developments for nitride unipolar devices at 1.3-1.5 μm wavelengths," Superlattices Microstruct. 40, 412-417 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W.J. Schaff, and L.F. Eastman, "GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572-574 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "Sub-picosecond all-optical gate utilizing an intersubband transition," Opt. Express 13, 3835-3840 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 765-771 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Nevou, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, "Room-temperature intersubband emission of GaN/AlN quantum wells at λ=2.3 μm," Electron. Lett. 42, 1308-1309 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, "Nonlinear all-optical GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-well devices for 100 Gb/s applications at λ = 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Li and R. Paiella, "Intersubband all-optical switching based on Coulomb-induced optical nonlinearities in GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1105-1110 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 100-110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. J. Sierakowski, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, "Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334-344 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2006

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, S. Leconte, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "New developments for nitride unipolar devices at 1.3-1.5 μm wavelengths," Superlattices Microstruct. 40, 412-417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 765-771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, "Room-temperature intersubband emission of GaN/AlN quantum wells at λ=2.3 μm," Electron. Lett. 42, 1308-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li and R. Paiella, "Intersubband all-optical switching based on Coulomb-induced optical nonlinearities in GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1105-1110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 100-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "Sub-picosecond all-optical gate utilizing an intersubband transition," Opt. Express 13, 3835-3840 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, "Nonlinear all-optical GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-well devices for 100 Gb/s applications at λ = 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Akimoto, B. S. Li, K. Akita, and T. Hasama, "Subpicosecond saturation of intersubband absorption in (CdS/ZnSe)/BeTe quantum well waveguides at telecommunication wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Q. Zhou, J. Chen, B. Pattada, M. O. Manasreh, F. Xiu, S. Puntigan, L. He, and K. S. Ramaiah, and H. Morkoç, "Infrared optical absorbance of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 10140-10142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W.J. Schaff, and L.F. Eastman, "GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803-1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, "Intersubband absorption at λ ~ 1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722-3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. J. Sierakowski, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, "Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334-344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Akimoto, R.

R. Akimoto, B. S. Li, K. Akita, and T. Hasama, "Subpicosecond saturation of intersubband absorption in (CdS/ZnSe)/BeTe quantum well waveguides at telecommunication wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akita, K.

R. Akimoto, B. S. Li, K. Akita, and T. Hasama, "Subpicosecond saturation of intersubband absorption in (CdS/ZnSe)/BeTe quantum well waveguides at telecommunication wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, M.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, S. Leconte, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "New developments for nitride unipolar devices at 1.3-1.5 μm wavelengths," Superlattices Microstruct. 40, 412-417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ambacher, O.

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. J. Sierakowski, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, "Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334-344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Q. Zhou, J. Chen, B. Pattada, M. O. Manasreh, F. Xiu, S. Puntigan, L. He, and K. S. Ramaiah, and H. Morkoç, "Infrared optical absorbance of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 10140-10142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, "Intersubband absorption at λ ~ 1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722-3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, K.

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. J. Sierakowski, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, "Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334-344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. N. G.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.-N. G.

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, "Intersubband absorption at λ ~ 1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722-3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, S. Leconte, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "New developments for nitride unipolar devices at 1.3-1.5 μm wavelengths," Superlattices Microstruct. 40, 412-417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, "Room-temperature intersubband emission of GaN/AlN quantum wells at λ=2.3 μm," Electron. Lett. 42, 1308-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrov, R.

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. J. Sierakowski, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, "Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334-344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Doyennette, L.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, S. Leconte, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "New developments for nitride unipolar devices at 1.3-1.5 μm wavelengths," Superlattices Microstruct. 40, 412-417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, K.

I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, M.

I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eastman, L. F.

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. J. Sierakowski, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, "Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334-344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eastman, L.F.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W.J. Schaff, and L.F. Eastman, "GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ema, K.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Foutz, B.

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. J. Sierakowski, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, "Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334-344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Friel, I.

I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Georgiev, N.

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, "Intersubband absorption at λ ~ 1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722-3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gopal, A. V.

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guillot, F.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, S. Leconte, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "New developments for nitride unipolar devices at 1.3-1.5 μm wavelengths," Superlattices Microstruct. 40, 412-417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, "Room-temperature intersubband emission of GaN/AlN quantum wells at λ=2.3 μm," Electron. Lett. 42, 1308-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hamazaki, J.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hasama, T.

R. Akimoto, B. S. Li, K. Akita, and T. Hasama, "Subpicosecond saturation of intersubband absorption in (CdS/ZnSe)/BeTe quantum well waveguides at telecommunication wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

Q. Zhou, J. Chen, B. Pattada, M. O. Manasreh, F. Xiu, S. Puntigan, L. He, and K. S. Ramaiah, and H. Morkoç, "Infrared optical absorbance of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 10140-10142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W.J. Schaff, and L.F. Eastman, "GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hui, R.

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 100-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iizuka, N.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 765-771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "Sub-picosecond all-optical gate utilizing an intersubband transition," Opt. Express 13, 3835-3840 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803-1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 100-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S. X.

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 100-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Julien, F. H.

L. Nevou, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, "Room-temperature intersubband emission of GaN/AlN quantum wells at λ=2.3 μm," Electron. Lett. 42, 1308-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, S. Leconte, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "New developments for nitride unipolar devices at 1.3-1.5 μm wavelengths," Superlattices Microstruct. 40, 412-417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kanazawa, H.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, K.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 765-771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "Sub-picosecond all-optical gate utilizing an intersubband transition," Opt. Express 13, 3835-3840 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803-1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, "Nonlinear all-optical GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-well devices for 100 Gb/s applications at λ = 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, A.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, K.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kulenica, E.

I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kunugita, H.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leconte, S.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, S. Leconte, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "New developments for nitride unipolar devices at 1.3-1.5 μm wavelengths," Superlattices Microstruct. 40, 412-417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, B. S.

R. Akimoto, B. S. Li, K. Akita, and T. Hasama, "Subpicosecond saturation of intersubband absorption in (CdS/ZnSe)/BeTe quantum well waveguides at telecommunication wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 100-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li and R. Paiella, "Intersubband all-optical switching based on Coulomb-induced optical nonlinearities in GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1105-1110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 100-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Manasreh, M. O.

Q. Zhou, J. Chen, B. Pattada, M. O. Manasreh, F. Xiu, S. Puntigan, L. He, and K. S. Ramaiah, and H. Morkoç, "Infrared optical absorbance of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 10140-10142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, S.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, A.

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. J. Sierakowski, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, "Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334-344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mitrofanov, O.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, E.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, S. Leconte, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "New developments for nitride unipolar devices at 1.3-1.5 μm wavelengths," Superlattices Microstruct. 40, 412-417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, "Room-temperature intersubband emission of GaN/AlN quantum wells at λ=2.3 μm," Electron. Lett. 42, 1308-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

Q. Zhou, J. Chen, B. Pattada, M. O. Manasreh, F. Xiu, S. Puntigan, L. He, and K. S. Ramaiah, and H. Morkoç, "Infrared optical absorbance of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 10140-10142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moustakas, T. D.

I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mozume, T.

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, M.

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. J. Sierakowski, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, "Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334-344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neogi, A.

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nevou, L.

L. Nevou, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, "Room-temperature intersubband emission of GaN/AlN quantum wells at λ=2.3 μm," Electron. Lett. 42, 1308-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, S. Leconte, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "New developments for nitride unipolar devices at 1.3-1.5 μm wavelengths," Superlattices Microstruct. 40, 412-417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ng, H. M.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, "Intersubband absorption at λ ~ 1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722-3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

Y. Li and R. Paiella, "Intersubband all-optical switching based on Coulomb-induced optical nonlinearities in GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1105-1110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pattada, B.

Q. Zhou, J. Chen, B. Pattada, M. O. Manasreh, F. Xiu, S. Puntigan, L. He, and K. S. Ramaiah, and H. Morkoç, "Infrared optical absorbance of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 10140-10142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Puntigan, S.

Q. Zhou, J. Chen, B. Pattada, M. O. Manasreh, F. Xiu, S. Puntigan, L. He, and K. S. Ramaiah, and H. Morkoç, "Infrared optical absorbance of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 10140-10142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramaiah, K. S.

Q. Zhou, J. Chen, B. Pattada, M. O. Manasreh, F. Xiu, S. Puntigan, L. He, and K. S. Ramaiah, and H. Morkoç, "Infrared optical absorbance of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 10140-10142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rapaport, R.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Remmele, T.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, S. Leconte, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "New developments for nitride unipolar devices at 1.3-1.5 μm wavelengths," Superlattices Microstruct. 40, 412-417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schad, S.-S.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W.J. Schaff, and L.F. Eastman, "GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. J.

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. J. Sierakowski, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, "Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334-344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W.J.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W.J. Schaff, and L.F. Eastman, "GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shealy, J. R.

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. J. Sierakowski, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, "Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334-344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sierakowski, A. J.

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. J. Sierakowski, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, "Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334-344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simoyama, T.

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J.

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. J. Sierakowski, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, "Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334-344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, "Nonlinear all-optical GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-well devices for 100 Gb/s applications at λ = 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stutzmann, M.

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. J. Sierakowski, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, "Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334-344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, G.

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, "Nonlinear all-optical GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-well devices for 100 Gb/s applications at λ = 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, N.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 765-771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "Sub-picosecond all-optical gate utilizing an intersubband transition," Opt. Express 13, 3835-3840 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803-1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tachibana, T.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tchernycheva, M.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, S. Leconte, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "New developments for nitride unipolar devices at 1.3-1.5 μm wavelengths," Superlattices Microstruct. 40, 412-417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wada, O.

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wan, Y.

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 100-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Warde, E.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, S. Leconte, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "New developments for nitride unipolar devices at 1.3-1.5 μm wavelengths," Superlattices Microstruct. 40, 412-417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, N. G.

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. J. Sierakowski, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, "Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334-344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W.J. Schaff, and L.F. Eastman, "GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xiu, F.

Q. Zhou, J. Chen, B. Pattada, M. O. Manasreh, F. Xiu, S. Puntigan, L. He, and K. S. Ramaiah, and H. Morkoç, "Infrared optical absorbance of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 10140-10142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

Q. Zhou, J. Chen, B. Pattada, M. O. Manasreh, F. Xiu, S. Puntigan, L. He, and K. S. Ramaiah, and H. Morkoç, "Infrared optical absorbance of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 10140-10142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Akimoto, B. S. Li, K. Akita, and T. Hasama, "Subpicosecond saturation of intersubband absorption in (CdS/ZnSe)/BeTe quantum well waveguides at telecommunication wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, "Intersubband absorption at λ ~ 1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722-3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803-1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 μm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W.J. Schaff, and L.F. Eastman, "GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, "Nonlinear all-optical GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-well devices for 100 Gb/s applications at λ = 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

L. Nevou, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, "Room-temperature intersubband emission of GaN/AlN quantum wells at λ=2.3 μm," Electron. Lett. 42, 1308-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 765-771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 100-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. J. Sierakowski, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, "Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334-344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhou, J. Chen, B. Pattada, M. O. Manasreh, F. Xiu, S. Puntigan, L. He, and K. S. Ramaiah, and H. Morkoç, "Infrared optical absorbance of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well structures," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 10140-10142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

Y. Li and R. Paiella, "Intersubband all-optical switching based on Coulomb-induced optical nonlinearities in GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1105-1110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Superlattices Microstruct.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, S. Leconte, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "New developments for nitride unipolar devices at 1.3-1.5 μm wavelengths," Superlattices Microstruct. 40, 412-417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). SEM image of the facet of a GaN/AlN QW waveguide. (b) Intensity profile of the fundamental TM mode along the dashed line of (a), for different thicknesses of the GaN cap.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured ISB absorption spectrum of the QW active material used in this work. Right inset: QW conduction-band structure. Left inset: experimental sample geometry.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured TE (circles) and TM (squares) transmittance versus waveguide length.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

TE (a) and TM (b-d) transmittance versus in-fiber input average power for a 3-μm (b), 5-μm (a, c), and 7-μm (d) wide waveguide.

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