Abstract

We demonstrate an electroabsorption modulator on a silicon substrate based on the quantum confined Stark effect in strained germanium quantum wells with silicon-germanium barriers. The peak contrast ratio is 7.3 dB at 1457 nm for a 10 V swing, and exceeds 3 dB from 1441 nm to 1461 nm. The novel side-entry structure employs an asymmetric Fabry-Perot resonator at oblique incidence. Unlike waveguide modulators, the design is insensitive to positional misalignment, maintaining > 3 dB contrast while translating the incident beam 87 μm and 460 μm in orthogonal directions. Since the optical ports are on the substrate edges, the wafer top and bottom are left free for electrical interconnections and thermal management.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. A. B. Miller, "Physical reasons for optical interconnection," Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 155-168 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, "Metal-diffused optical waveguides in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458-460 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D'Asaro, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B.  Miller "GaAs MQW Modulators Integrated with Silicon CMOS" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Deboeck and G. Borghs, "III-V on Si: heteroepitaxy versus lift-off techniques," J. Cryst. Growth 127, 85 -92 (1993).
  8. A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electrooptic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Q. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. L. Gu, X. N. Chen, and R. T. Chen, "80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221105-1-3 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Page-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Yu, J. Wu, and B. Zhu, "Enhanced quantum-confined Pockels effect in SiGe superlattices," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235328-1-7 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. HarrisJr., "Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503-1513 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. O. Qasaimeh and P. Bhattacharya, "SiGe-Si quantum-well electroabsorption modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10807 - 809 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Miyake, J. Y. Kim, Y. Shiraki, and S. Fukatsu, "Absence of Stark shift in strained Si1-xGex/Si type-I quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2097-2099 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Whitehead and G. Parry, "High-contrast reflection modulation at normal incidence in asymmetric multiple quantum well Fabry-Perot structure," Electron. Lett. 25, 566-568 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. C. Helman, J. E. Roth, D. P. Bour, H. Altug, and D. A. B. Miller, "Misalignment-tolerant surface-normal low-voltage modulator for optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 338-342 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, "High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2125-2127 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, "Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2815-2817 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Adachi, "Model dielectric constants of Si and Ge," Phys. Rev. B 38, 12966-12976 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. J. Godbey, A. H. Krist, K. D. Hobart, and M. E. Twigg, "Selective removal of Si1-xGex from (100) Si using HNO3 and HF," J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 2943-2947 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

D. Marris-Morini, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, M. Halbwax, S. Maine, S. Laval, J. M. Fedeli, and J. F. Damlencourt, "Optical modulation by carrier depletion in a silicon PIN diode," Opt. Express 14, 10838-10843 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. HarrisJr., "Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503-1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Page-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

N. C. Helman, J. E. Roth, D. P. Bour, H. Altug, and D. A. B. Miller, "Misalignment-tolerant surface-normal low-voltage modulator for optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 338-342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electrooptic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, "Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2815-2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, "High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2125-2127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Qasaimeh and P. Bhattacharya, "SiGe-Si quantum-well electroabsorption modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10807 - 809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, "Physical reasons for optical interconnection," Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 155-168 (1997).

1996 (1)

Y. Miyake, J. Y. Kim, Y. Shiraki, and S. Fukatsu, "Absence of Stark shift in strained Si1-xGex/Si type-I quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2097-2099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D'Asaro, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B.  Miller "GaAs MQW Modulators Integrated with Silicon CMOS" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Deboeck and G. Borghs, "III-V on Si: heteroepitaxy versus lift-off techniques," J. Cryst. Growth 127, 85 -92 (1993).

1992 (1)

D. J. Godbey, A. H. Krist, K. D. Hobart, and M. E. Twigg, "Selective removal of Si1-xGex from (100) Si using HNO3 and HF," J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 2943-2947 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. Whitehead and G. Parry, "High-contrast reflection modulation at normal incidence in asymmetric multiple quantum well Fabry-Perot structure," Electron. Lett. 25, 566-568 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Adachi, "Model dielectric constants of Si and Ge," Phys. Rev. B 38, 12966-12976 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, "Electro optical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, "Metal-diffused optical waveguides in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458-460 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

S. Adachi, "Model dielectric constants of Si and Ge," Phys. Rev. B 38, 12966-12976 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

N. C. Helman, J. E. Roth, D. P. Bour, H. Altug, and D. A. B. Miller, "Misalignment-tolerant surface-normal low-voltage modulator for optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 338-342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, K. N.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Page-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bacon, D. D.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D'Asaro, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B.  Miller "GaAs MQW Modulators Integrated with Silicon CMOS" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, "Electro optical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

O. Qasaimeh and P. Bhattacharya, "SiGe-Si quantum-well electroabsorption modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10807 - 809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Page-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borel, P. I.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Page-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borghs, G.

J. Deboeck and G. Borghs, "III-V on Si: heteroepitaxy versus lift-off techniques," J. Cryst. Growth 127, 85 -92 (1993).

Bour, D. P.

N. C. Helman, J. E. Roth, D. P. Bour, H. Altug, and D. A. B. Miller, "Misalignment-tolerant surface-normal low-voltage modulator for optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 338-342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chemla, D. S.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. M.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

Y. Q. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. L. Gu, X. N. Chen, and R. T. Chen, "80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221105-1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. N.

Y. Q. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. L. Gu, X. N. Chen, and R. T. Chen, "80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221105-1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D'Asaro, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B.  Miller "GaAs MQW Modulators Integrated with Silicon CMOS" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chui, C. O.

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, "Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2815-2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Currie, M. T.

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, "High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2125-2127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dahringer, D.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D'Asaro, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B.  Miller "GaAs MQW Modulators Integrated with Silicon CMOS" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Damlencourt, J. F.

D'Asaro, L. A.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D'Asaro, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B.  Miller "GaAs MQW Modulators Integrated with Silicon CMOS" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deboeck, J.

J. Deboeck and G. Borghs, "III-V on Si: heteroepitaxy versus lift-off techniques," J. Cryst. Growth 127, 85 -92 (1993).

Fedeli, J. M.

Fitzgerald, E. A.

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, "High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2125-2127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L. H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Page-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukatsu, S.

Y. Miyake, J. Y. Kim, Y. Shiraki, and S. Fukatsu, "Absence of Stark shift in strained Si1-xGex/Si type-I quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2097-2099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. HarrisJr., "Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503-1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godbey, D. J.

D. J. Godbey, A. H. Krist, K. D. Hobart, and M. E. Twigg, "Selective removal of Si1-xGex from (100) Si using HNO3 and HF," J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 2943-2947 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K. W.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D'Asaro, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B.  Miller "GaAs MQW Modulators Integrated with Silicon CMOS" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gu, L. L.

Y. Q. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. L. Gu, X. N. Chen, and R. T. Chen, "80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221105-1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Halbwax, M.

Hansen, O.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Page-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, J. S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. HarrisJr., "Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503-1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helman, N. C.

N. C. Helman, J. E. Roth, D. P. Bour, H. Altug, and D. A. B. Miller, "Misalignment-tolerant surface-normal low-voltage modulator for optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 338-342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hobart, K. D.

D. J. Godbey, A. H. Krist, K. D. Hobart, and M. E. Twigg, "Selective removal of Si1-xGex from (100) Si using HNO3 and HF," J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 2943-2947 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. S.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Page-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, W.

Y. Q. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. L. Gu, X. N. Chen, and R. T. Chen, "80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221105-1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. L. Gu, X. N. Chen, and R. T. Chen, "80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221105-1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jongthammanurak, S.

Kaminow, I. P.

R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, "Metal-diffused optical waveguides in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458-460 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kamins, T. I.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. HarrisJr., "Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503-1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. Y.

Y. Miyake, J. Y. Kim, Y. Shiraki, and S. Fukatsu, "Absence of Stark shift in strained Si1-xGex/Si type-I quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2097-2099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on an SOI platform," Opt. Express 15, 623-628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kossives, D.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D'Asaro, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B.  Miller "GaAs MQW Modulators Integrated with Silicon CMOS" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krist, A. H.

D. J. Godbey, A. H. Krist, K. D. Hobart, and M. E. Twigg, "Selective removal of Si1-xGex from (100) Si using HNO3 and HF," J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 2943-2947 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Page-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. HarrisJr., "Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503-1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langdo, T. A.

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, "High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2125-2127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

Lavrinenko, A. V.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Page-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Roux, X.

Lee, K. K.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. HarrisJr., "Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503-1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D'Asaro, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B.  Miller "GaAs MQW Modulators Integrated with Silicon CMOS" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D'Asaro, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B.  Miller "GaAs MQW Modulators Integrated with Silicon CMOS" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, D. R.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electrooptic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A. S.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Luan, H.-C.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maine, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Michel, J.

Miller, D. A. B.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. HarrisJr., "Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503-1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Helman, J. E. Roth, D. P. Bour, H. Altug, and D. A. B. Miller, "Misalignment-tolerant surface-normal low-voltage modulator for optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 338-342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, "Physical reasons for optical interconnection," Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 155-168 (1997).

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D'Asaro, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B.  Miller "GaAs MQW Modulators Integrated with Silicon CMOS" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, Y.

Y. Miyake, J. Y. Kim, Y. Shiraki, and S. Fukatsu, "Absence of Stark shift in strained Si1-xGex/Si type-I quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2097-2099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, G.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Page-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nayfeh, A.

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, "Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2815-2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ou, H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Page-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Page-Pedersen, J.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Page-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, D.

Paniccia, M.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parry, G.

M. Whitehead and G. Parry, "High-contrast reflection modulation at normal incidence in asymmetric multiple quantum well Fabry-Perot structure," Electron. Lett. 25, 566-568 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pascal, D.

Peucheret, C.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Page-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electrooptic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qasaimeh, O.

O. Qasaimeh and P. Bhattacharya, "SiGe-Si quantum-well electroabsorption modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10807 - 809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. HarrisJr., "Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503-1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, J. E.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. HarrisJr., "Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503-1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Helman, J. E. Roth, D. P. Bour, H. Altug, and D. A. B. Miller, "Misalignment-tolerant surface-normal low-voltage modulator for optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 338-342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samavedam, S. B.

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, "High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2125-2127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandland, J. G.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K. C.

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, "Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2815-2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electrooptic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, R. V.

R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, "Metal-diffused optical waveguides in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458-460 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Shiraki, Y.

Y. Miyake, J. Y. Kim, Y. Shiraki, and S. Fukatsu, "Absence of Stark shift in strained Si1-xGex/Si type-I quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2097-2099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, "Electro optical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D'Asaro, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B.  Miller "GaAs MQW Modulators Integrated with Silicon CMOS" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Twigg, M. E.

D. J. Godbey, A. H. Krist, K. D. Hobart, and M. E. Twigg, "Selective removal of Si1-xGex from (100) Si using HNO3 and HF," J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 2943-2947 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Wada, K.

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on an SOI platform," Opt. Express 15, 623-628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. A.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D'Asaro, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B.  Miller "GaAs MQW Modulators Integrated with Silicon CMOS" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, M.

M. Whitehead and G. Parry, "High-contrast reflection modulation at normal incidence in asymmetric multiple quantum well Fabry-Perot structure," Electron. Lett. 25, 566-568 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wood, T. H.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

P. Yu, J. Wu, and B. Zhu, "Enhanced quantum-confined Pockels effect in SiGe superlattices," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235328-1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electrooptic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yonehara, T.

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, "Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2815-2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

P. Yu, J. Wu, and B. Zhu, "Enhanced quantum-confined Pockels effect in SiGe superlattices," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235328-1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

P. Yu, J. Wu, and B. Zhu, "Enhanced quantum-confined Pockels effect in SiGe superlattices," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235328-1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zsidri, B.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Page-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, "Metal-diffused optical waveguides in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458-460 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, "High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2125-2127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, "Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2815-2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyake, J. Y. Kim, Y. Shiraki, and S. Fukatsu, "Absence of Stark shift in strained Si1-xGex/Si type-I quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2097-2099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Whitehead and G. Parry, "High-contrast reflection modulation at normal incidence in asymmetric multiple quantum well Fabry-Perot structure," Electron. Lett. 25, 566-568 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, "Electro optical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. HarrisJr., "Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503-1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Helman, J. E. Roth, D. P. Bour, H. Altug, and D. A. B. Miller, "Misalignment-tolerant surface-normal low-voltage modulator for optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 338-342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

O. Qasaimeh and P. Bhattacharya, "SiGe-Si quantum-well electroabsorption modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10807 - 809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Side-entry optoelectronic modulator schematic. The thickness of the optically active material is exaggerated here. In the actual device, beams reflecting within the resonant cavity overlap with one another.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diagram of the PIN diode mesa fabricated in a sample with 40 quantum wells for side-entry modulation, not to scale.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Diagram of side-entry modulator in experimental setup, not to scale. All unlabelled units are microns.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission of a 60 QW sample for applied reverse biases from 0.5 V to 18.5 V in 2 V increments, measured in the “surface normal” configuration with anti-reflection coatings on both sides.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Contrast ratio from 40 QW sample for 0 V - 10 V reverse bias.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Percentage of light transmitted through side-entry modulator. Blue “+” points and red “x” points show transmission for 0 V and 10 V reverse bias, respectively, and black lines are simulated transmission. The loss from the two uncoated air/Si interfaces is ~ 68%, indicating that antireflection-coating will greatly increase the transmission.

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