Abstract

We report the generation of ultrabroadband pulses spanning the 50-130 THz frequency range via phase-matched difference frequency mixing within the broad spectrum of sub-10 fs pulses in LiIO3. Model calculations reproduce the octave-spanning spectra and predict few-cycle THz pulse durations less than 20 fs. The broad applicability of this scheme is demonstrated with 9-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire oscillator and with 7-fs amplified pulses from a hollow fiber compressor as pump sources.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, and H. J. Bakker, "Femtosecond mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy of liquid water: Evidence for a two-component structure," Science 278, 658-660 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, D. C. Smith, J. F. Ryan, G. A. Farnan, M. P. McCurry, and D. G. Walmsley, "Ultrafast mid-infrared response of YBa2Cu3O7−δ," Science 287, 470-473 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, "Femtosecond formation of phonon-plasmon coupled modes in InP: ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under Femtosecond intersubband excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047402 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, Ch. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, "Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187403 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, "Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1-18 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Sugita, K. Yokoyama, H. Yamada, N. Inoue, M. Aoyama, and K. Yamakawa, "Generation of broadband mid-infrared pulses by noncollinear difference frequency mixing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 226-228 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. A. Kaindl, M. Wurm, K. Reimann, P. Hamm, A. M. Weiner, M. Woerner, "Generation, shaping, and characterization of intense femtosecond pulses tunable from 3 to 20μm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 2086-2094 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J.-L. Martin, and A. Migus, "Generation of ultrabroadband femtosecond pulses in the mid-infrared by optical rectification of 15 fs pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907-2909 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Joffre, A. Bonvalet, A. Migus, and J.-L. Martin, "Femtosecond diffracting Fourier-transform infrared interferometer," Opt. Lett. 21, 964-966 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. A. Kaindl, D. C. Smith, M. Joschko, M. P. Hasselbeck, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Femtosecond infrared pulses tunable from 9 to 18 μm at an 88-MHz repetition rate," Opt. Lett. 23, 861-863 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1060-1062 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Fuji, A. Apolonski, and F. Krausz, "Self-stabilization of carrier-envelope offset phase by use of differencefrequency generation," Opt. Lett. 29, 632-634 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Zimmermann, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical clockwork with an offset free difference frequency comb: accuracy of sum- and difference frequency generation," Opt. Lett. 29, 310-312 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, "GaSe crystals for broadband terahertz wave detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863-865 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, "Second-order susceptibility measurements of visible and infrared nonlinear crystals," Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693-1706 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, G. Arisholm, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Phase-preserving chirped-pulse optical parametric amplification to 17.3 fs directly from a Ti:sapphire oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1369-1371 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Fuji, N. Ishii, C. Y. Teisset, X. Gu, Th. Metzger, A. Baltuska, N. Forget, D. Kaplan, A. Galvanauskas, and F. Krausz, "Parametric amplification of few-cycle carrier-envelope phase-stable pulses at 2.1 μm," Opt. Lett. 31, 1103-1105 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. Manzoni, C. Vozzi, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, O. Svelto, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, and G. Cerullo, "Generation of high-energy self-phase stabilized pulses by difference frequency generation followed by optical parametric amplification," Opt. Lett. 31, 963-965 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, and K. Ferencz, "Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate," Opt. Lett. 22, 1562-1564 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Pfeifer, L. Gallman, M. Abel, P. Nagel, D. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of High-Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. Sugita, K. Yokoyama, H. Yamada, N. Inoue, M. Aoyama, and K. Yamakawa, "Generation of broadband mid-infrared pulses by noncollinear difference frequency mixing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 226-228 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, Ch. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, "Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, "Femtosecond formation of phonon-plasmon coupled modes in InP: ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (6)

C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under Femtosecond intersubband excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, "GaSe crystals for broadband terahertz wave detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863-865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Zimmermann, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical clockwork with an offset free difference frequency comb: accuracy of sum- and difference frequency generation," Opt. Lett. 29, 310-312 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, A. Apolonski, and F. Krausz, "Self-stabilization of carrier-envelope offset phase by use of differencefrequency generation," Opt. Lett. 29, 632-634 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, G. Arisholm, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Phase-preserving chirped-pulse optical parametric amplification to 17.3 fs directly from a Ti:sapphire oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1369-1371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, "Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1-18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, D. C. Smith, J. F. Ryan, G. A. Farnan, M. P. McCurry, and D. G. Walmsley, "Ultrafast mid-infrared response of YBa2Cu3O7−δ," Science 287, 470-473 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, M. Wurm, K. Reimann, P. Hamm, A. M. Weiner, M. Woerner, "Generation, shaping, and characterization of intense femtosecond pulses tunable from 3 to 20μm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 2086-2094 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1060-1062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, and K. Ferencz, "Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate," Opt. Lett. 22, 1562-1564 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, and H. J. Bakker, "Femtosecond mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy of liquid water: Evidence for a two-component structure," Science 278, 658-660 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J.-L. Martin, and A. Migus, "Generation of ultrabroadband femtosecond pulses in the mid-infrared by optical rectification of 15 fs pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907-2909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, "Second-order susceptibility measurements of visible and infrared nonlinear crystals," Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693-1706 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abel, M.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallman, M. Abel, P. Nagel, D. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of High-Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abstreiter, G.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amann, M.-C.

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, "Femtosecond formation of phonon-plasmon coupled modes in InP: ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoyama, M.

A. Sugita, K. Yokoyama, H. Yamada, N. Inoue, M. Aoyama, and K. Yamakawa, "Generation of broadband mid-infrared pulses by noncollinear difference frequency mixing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 226-228 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

Arisholm, G.

Bakker, H. J.

S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, and H. J. Bakker, "Femtosecond mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy of liquid water: Evidence for a two-component structure," Science 278, 658-660 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baltuska, A.

Benedetti, E.

Bichler, M.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biegert, J.

Bonvalet, A.

M. Joffre, A. Bonvalet, A. Migus, and J.-L. Martin, "Femtosecond diffracting Fourier-transform infrared interferometer," Opt. Lett. 21, 964-966 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J.-L. Martin, and A. Migus, "Generation of ultrabroadband femtosecond pulses in the mid-infrared by optical rectification of 15 fs pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907-2909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, "Second-order susceptibility measurements of visible and infrared nonlinear crystals," Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693-1706 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Cheng, Z.

Choy, M. M.

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, "Second-order susceptibility measurements of visible and infrared nonlinear crystals," Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693-1706 (1976).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

Eickemeyer, F.

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1060-1062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under Femtosecond intersubband excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, D. C. Smith, J. F. Ryan, G. A. Farnan, M. P. McCurry, and D. G. Walmsley, "Ultrafast mid-infrared response of YBa2Cu3O7−δ," Science 287, 470-473 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1060-1062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, D. C. Smith, M. Joschko, M. P. Hasselbeck, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Femtosecond infrared pulses tunable from 9 to 18 μm at an 88-MHz repetition rate," Opt. Lett. 23, 861-863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Emmerichs, U.

S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, and H. J. Bakker, "Femtosecond mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy of liquid water: Evidence for a two-component structure," Science 278, 658-660 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Farnan, G. A.

R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, D. C. Smith, J. F. Ryan, G. A. Farnan, M. P. McCurry, and D. G. Walmsley, "Ultrafast mid-infrared response of YBa2Cu3O7−δ," Science 287, 470-473 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferencz, K.

Forget, N.

Frischkorn, Ch.

T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, Ch. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, "Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuji, T.

Gallman, L.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallman, M. Abel, P. Nagel, D. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of High-Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galvanauskas, A.

Gohle, C.

Gu, X.

Hamm, P.

Hänsch, T. W.

Hasselbeck, M. P.

Haug, H.

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, "Femtosecond formation of phonon-plasmon coupled modes in InP: ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauri, C. P.

Hey, R.

C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under Femtosecond intersubband excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

Huber, R.

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, "Femtosecond formation of phonon-plasmon coupled modes in InP: ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, N.

A. Sugita, K. Yokoyama, H. Yamada, N. Inoue, M. Aoyama, and K. Yamakawa, "Generation of broadband mid-infrared pulses by noncollinear difference frequency mixing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 226-228 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, N.

Joffre, M.

M. Joffre, A. Bonvalet, A. Migus, and J.-L. Martin, "Femtosecond diffracting Fourier-transform infrared interferometer," Opt. Lett. 21, 964-966 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J.-L. Martin, and A. Migus, "Generation of ultrabroadband femtosecond pulses in the mid-infrared by optical rectification of 15 fs pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907-2909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Joschko, M.

Kaindl, R. A.

R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, D. C. Smith, J. F. Ryan, G. A. Farnan, M. P. McCurry, and D. G. Walmsley, "Ultrafast mid-infrared response of YBa2Cu3O7−δ," Science 287, 470-473 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kaindl, M. Wurm, K. Reimann, P. Hamm, A. M. Weiner, M. Woerner, "Generation, shaping, and characterization of intense femtosecond pulses tunable from 3 to 20μm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 2086-2094 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1060-1062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, D. C. Smith, M. Joschko, M. P. Hasselbeck, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Femtosecond infrared pulses tunable from 9 to 18 μm at an 88-MHz repetition rate," Opt. Lett. 23, 861-863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kampfrath, T.

T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, Ch. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, "Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, D.

Keller, U.

Köhler, F.

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, "Femtosecond formation of phonon-plasmon coupled modes in InP: ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

Kübler, C.

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, "Femtosecond formation of phonon-plasmon coupled modes in InP: ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, "Femtosecond formation of phonon-plasmon coupled modes in InP: ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

Leone, S. R.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallman, M. Abel, P. Nagel, D. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of High-Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, K.

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, "GaSe crystals for broadband terahertz wave detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863-865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C. W.

C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under Femtosecond intersubband excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manzoni, C.

Martin, J.-L.

M. Joffre, A. Bonvalet, A. Migus, and J.-L. Martin, "Femtosecond diffracting Fourier-transform infrared interferometer," Opt. Lett. 21, 964-966 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J.-L. Martin, and A. Migus, "Generation of ultrabroadband femtosecond pulses in the mid-infrared by optical rectification of 15 fs pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907-2909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McCurry, M. P.

R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, D. C. Smith, J. F. Ryan, G. A. Farnan, M. P. McCurry, and D. G. Walmsley, "Ultrafast mid-infrared response of YBa2Cu3O7−δ," Science 287, 470-473 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metzger, Th.

Migus, A.

M. Joffre, A. Bonvalet, A. Migus, and J.-L. Martin, "Femtosecond diffracting Fourier-transform infrared interferometer," Opt. Lett. 21, 964-966 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J.-L. Martin, and A. Migus, "Generation of ultrabroadband femtosecond pulses in the mid-infrared by optical rectification of 15 fs pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907-2909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, P.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallman, M. Abel, P. Nagel, D. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of High-Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neumark, D.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallman, M. Abel, P. Nagel, D. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of High-Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

Perfetti, L.

T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, Ch. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, "Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeifer, T.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallman, M. Abel, P. Nagel, D. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of High-Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ploog, K. H.

C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under Femtosecond intersubband excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reimann, K.

C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under Femtosecond intersubband excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kaindl, M. Wurm, K. Reimann, P. Hamm, A. M. Weiner, M. Woerner, "Generation, shaping, and characterization of intense femtosecond pulses tunable from 3 to 20μm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 2086-2094 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, J. F.

R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, D. C. Smith, J. F. Ryan, G. A. Farnan, M. P. McCurry, and D. G. Walmsley, "Ultrafast mid-infrared response of YBa2Cu3O7−δ," Science 287, 470-473 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

Sartania, S.

Schapper, F.

T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, Ch. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, "Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlup, P.

Smith, D. C.

R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, D. C. Smith, J. F. Ryan, G. A. Farnan, M. P. McCurry, and D. G. Walmsley, "Ultrafast mid-infrared response of YBa2Cu3O7−δ," Science 287, 470-473 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kaindl, D. C. Smith, M. Joschko, M. P. Hasselbeck, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Femtosecond infrared pulses tunable from 9 to 18 μm at an 88-MHz repetition rate," Opt. Lett. 23, 861-863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

Stagira, S.

Sugita, A.

A. Sugita, K. Yokoyama, H. Yamada, N. Inoue, M. Aoyama, and K. Yamakawa, "Generation of broadband mid-infrared pulses by noncollinear difference frequency mixing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 226-228 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

Tauser, F.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Teisset, C. Y.

Tempea, G.

Tübel, S.

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, "Femtosecond formation of phonon-plasmon coupled modes in InP: ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

Vozzi, C.

Vu, Q. T.

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, "Femtosecond formation of phonon-plasmon coupled modes in InP: ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walmsley, D. G.

R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, D. C. Smith, J. F. Ryan, G. A. Farnan, M. P. McCurry, and D. G. Walmsley, "Ultrafast mid-infrared response of YBa2Cu3O7−δ," Science 287, 470-473 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. M.

Woerner, M.

C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under Femtosecond intersubband excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kaindl, M. Wurm, K. Reimann, P. Hamm, A. M. Weiner, M. Woerner, "Generation, shaping, and characterization of intense femtosecond pulses tunable from 3 to 20μm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 2086-2094 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, D. C. Smith, J. F. Ryan, G. A. Farnan, M. P. McCurry, and D. G. Walmsley, "Ultrafast mid-infrared response of YBa2Cu3O7−δ," Science 287, 470-473 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1060-1062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, D. C. Smith, M. Joschko, M. P. Hasselbeck, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Femtosecond infrared pulses tunable from 9 to 18 μm at an 88-MHz repetition rate," Opt. Lett. 23, 861-863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, M.

T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, Ch. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, "Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woutersen, S.

S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, and H. J. Bakker, "Femtosecond mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy of liquid water: Evidence for a two-component structure," Science 278, 658-660 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wurm, M.

Xu, J.

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, "GaSe crystals for broadband terahertz wave detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863-865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

A. Sugita, K. Yokoyama, H. Yamada, N. Inoue, M. Aoyama, and K. Yamakawa, "Generation of broadband mid-infrared pulses by noncollinear difference frequency mixing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 226-228 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamakawa, K.

A. Sugita, K. Yokoyama, H. Yamada, N. Inoue, M. Aoyama, and K. Yamakawa, "Generation of broadband mid-infrared pulses by noncollinear difference frequency mixing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 226-228 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, K.

A. Sugita, K. Yokoyama, H. Yamada, N. Inoue, M. Aoyama, and K. Yamakawa, "Generation of broadband mid-infrared pulses by noncollinear difference frequency mixing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 226-228 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, "GaSe crystals for broadband terahertz wave detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863-865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, M.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1060-1062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J.-L. Martin, and A. Migus, "Generation of ultrabroadband femtosecond pulses in the mid-infrared by optical rectification of 15 fs pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907-2909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, "GaSe crystals for broadband terahertz wave detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863-865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Sugita, K. Yokoyama, H. Yamada, N. Inoue, M. Aoyama, and K. Yamakawa, "Generation of broadband mid-infrared pulses by noncollinear difference frequency mixing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 226-228 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (8)

M. Joffre, A. Bonvalet, A. Migus, and J.-L. Martin, "Femtosecond diffracting Fourier-transform infrared interferometer," Opt. Lett. 21, 964-966 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kaindl, D. C. Smith, M. Joschko, M. P. Hasselbeck, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Femtosecond infrared pulses tunable from 9 to 18 μm at an 88-MHz repetition rate," Opt. Lett. 23, 861-863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, A. Apolonski, and F. Krausz, "Self-stabilization of carrier-envelope offset phase by use of differencefrequency generation," Opt. Lett. 29, 632-634 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zimmermann, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical clockwork with an offset free difference frequency comb: accuracy of sum- and difference frequency generation," Opt. Lett. 29, 310-312 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, G. Arisholm, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Phase-preserving chirped-pulse optical parametric amplification to 17.3 fs directly from a Ti:sapphire oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1369-1371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, N. Ishii, C. Y. Teisset, X. Gu, Th. Metzger, A. Baltuska, N. Forget, D. Kaplan, A. Galvanauskas, and F. Krausz, "Parametric amplification of few-cycle carrier-envelope phase-stable pulses at 2.1 μm," Opt. Lett. 31, 1103-1105 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Manzoni, C. Vozzi, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, O. Svelto, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, and G. Cerullo, "Generation of high-energy self-phase stabilized pulses by difference frequency generation followed by optical parametric amplification," Opt. Lett. 31, 963-965 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, and K. Ferencz, "Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate," Opt. Lett. 22, 1562-1564 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, "Second-order susceptibility measurements of visible and infrared nonlinear crystals," Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693-1706 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

R. Huber, C. Kübler, S. Tübel, A. Leitenstorfer, Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, F. Köhler, and M.-C. Amann, "Femtosecond formation of phonon-plasmon coupled modes in InP: ultrabroadband THz experiment and quantum kinetic theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under Femtosecond intersubband excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, Ch. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, "Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallman, M. Abel, P. Nagel, D. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of High-Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, "Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1-18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, and H. J. Bakker, "Femtosecond mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy of liquid water: Evidence for a two-component structure," Science 278, 658-660 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, D. C. Smith, J. F. Ryan, G. A. Farnan, M. P. McCurry, and D. G. Walmsley, "Ultrafast mid-infrared response of YBa2Cu3O7−δ," Science 287, 470-473 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Oscillator-based setup for THz pulse generation in LiIO3 and for interfero-metric field correlations. W: 1-mm thick fused-silica window, CM: chirped mirrors with ≈ -200 fs2 group delay dispersion, Ge: Germanium window. (b) interferogram generated with a 113-μm thick crystal near normal incidence.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectra of THz pulses generated in LiIO3 with a 9-fs Ti:sapphire oscillator: (a) measured spectrum from a 113-μm thick crystal (dots) and model curve (line) at θ = 19°. (b) as above, but for a 1-mm thick crystal and θ = 19.3°.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Spectra of 9-fs Ti:sapphire oscillator pulses (solid line) and of 7-fs pulses from a hollow fiber compressor, HFC (dashed). (b) normal incidence transmission of 113-mm thick LiIO3. (c)-(e) Calculations of phase-matched difference frequency mixing in this crystal. Results are for θ = 19° pumped by the oscillator (solid lines), and for θ = 21.5° pumped by the HFC (dashed): (c) THz spectra, (d) frequency space (shaded) with LC > 100 μm, (e) time-domain THz electric fields.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Octave-spanning THz spectrum (circles) generated in LiIO3 with 7-fs pulses from a hollow fiber compressor (inset). The visible pulses from the hollow-core fiber are re-compressed using chirped mirrors (CM) and thin fused silica wedges [23]. The dips in the spectrum arise from absorption in the spectrometer path. Model curves with θ = 21.5° are shown for unchirped pump pulses (dashed line) as in Fig. 3, and for 6 fs2 quadratic chirp (thick solid line). Both theory curves are scaled equally.

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