Abstract

We present a methodology to measure the systematic changes of aberrations induced by small changes in amplitude of accommodation. We use a method similar the one used in electrophysiology, where a periodic stimulus is presented to the eye and many periods (epochs) of the stimulus are averaged. Using this technique we have measured changes in higher order aberrations from 0.006 μm to 0.02 μm and correlated them with amplitude changes of accommodation as small as 0.14D. These small changes would have been undetectable without epoch averaging. The correlation coefficients of Zernike terms with defocus were calculated, demonstrating higher values of correlation for epoch averaging. The accurate monitoring of defocus at the start of the accommodation response has shown some interesting trends that may be related with the mechanisms behind accommodation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Young. "On the mechanism of the eye," Phil. Trans. 91, 69 (1801).
  2. J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J.F. Bille. "Objective measurement of wave aberration of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 1949-1957 (1994).
  3. H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J.L Arag’on, and D.R. Williams. "Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 597-506 (2001).
  4. H.T. Kasprzak and J. W. Jaronski. "Measurement of fine dynamic changes of the corneal topography by use of interferometry," In W. Osten, editor, Interferometer XI: Applications, SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering 4778, 169-176 (2002).
  5. L. Diaz-Santana, C. Torti, I. Munro, P. Gasson, and C. Dainty. "Benefit of higher closed-loop bandwidths in ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express 11, 2597-2605 (2003).
  6. T. Nirmaier, G. Pudasaini, and J. Bille. "Very fast wavefront measurements at the human eye with a custom CMOS-based Hartmann-Shack sensor," Opt. Express 11, 2704—2716 (2003).
  7. D.R. Iskander, M.J. Collins, M.R. Morelande and M. Zhu. "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1969-1980 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. M. Hampson, I. Munro, C. Paterson, and C. Daint. "Weak correlation between the aberration dynamics of the human eye and the cardiopulmonary system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 22, 1241-1250 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J.J. Gicquel, J.L. Nguyen-Khoa, N. Lopez-Gil, R. Legras, P. Dighiero, D.A. Lebuisson, and J.F. Le Gargasson. "Optical aberrations variations of the human eye during accommodation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.EAbstract 1993:B762 (2005).
  10. H. Cheng, J.K. Barnett, A.S. Vilupuru, J.D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda. "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. of Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).
  11. N. Davies, L. Diaz-Santana, and D. Lara-Saucedo. "Repeatability of ocular wavefront measurement," Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 142-150 (2003).
  12. H. Ginis, S. Plainis, and A. Pallikaris. "Variability of wavefront aberration measurements in small pupil sizes using a clinical shack-hartmann aberrometer," BMC Ophthalmology 4, 1471-2415 (2004).
  13. R.B Rabbetts. Bennett & Rabbetts Clinical Visual Optics. Butterworth and Heinemann, 5th edition (1998).
  14. A. Dubinin, T. Cherezova, A. Belyakov and A. Kudryashov. Human eye anisoplanatism: eye as a lamellar structure. In F. Manns, P. G. S¨oderberg, and A. Ho, editors, Ophthalmic Technologies XVI. Edited by Manns, Fabrice; Söderberg, Per G.; Ho, Arthur. Proceedings of the SPIE, 6138, 260-266 (2006).
  15. J. Arines. Imagen de alta resoluci’on del fondo de ojo por deconvoluci’on tras compensacion parcial. PhD thesis, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (2006).
  16. ANSI. American national standard for ophtalmics. ANSI-Z80.28-2004, Methods for reporting optical aberrations of eyes. American national standards institute, Inc. (2004).
  17. L. Diaz Santana Haro and J.C. Dainty. "Effects of retinal scattering in the ocular double-pass process," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 1437-1444 (2001).
  18. L. Diaz Santana Haro and J.C. Dainty. "Single-pass measurements of the wave-front aberrations of the human eye by use of retinal lipofuscin autofluorescence," Opt. Lett. 24, 61-63 (1999).
  19. H. Li and C. Rao. "Precision analysis of hartmann-shack wave-front sensor with modal reconstruction," J. Phys. Conference Series 48, 952-956 (2006).
  20. J.S. Wolffsohn, B. Gilmartin, E.A. Mallen, and S. Tsujimura. "Continuous recording of accommodation and pupil size using the shin-nippon srw-5000 autorefractor," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21,108-113 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. David Regan. Human Brain Electrophysiology. Evoked Potentials and Evoked Magnetic Fields in Science and Medicine. Elsevier Science Publishing, (1989).

2006

H. Li and C. Rao. "Precision analysis of hartmann-shack wave-front sensor with modal reconstruction," J. Phys. Conference Series 48, 952-956 (2006).

2005

K. M. Hampson, I. Munro, C. Paterson, and C. Daint. "Weak correlation between the aberration dynamics of the human eye and the cardiopulmonary system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 22, 1241-1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.J. Gicquel, J.L. Nguyen-Khoa, N. Lopez-Gil, R. Legras, P. Dighiero, D.A. Lebuisson, and J.F. Le Gargasson. "Optical aberrations variations of the human eye during accommodation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.EAbstract 1993:B762 (2005).

2004

H. Cheng, J.K. Barnett, A.S. Vilupuru, J.D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda. "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. of Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).

H. Ginis, S. Plainis, and A. Pallikaris. "Variability of wavefront aberration measurements in small pupil sizes using a clinical shack-hartmann aberrometer," BMC Ophthalmology 4, 1471-2415 (2004).

D.R. Iskander, M.J. Collins, M.R. Morelande and M. Zhu. "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1969-1980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

J.S. Wolffsohn, B. Gilmartin, E.A. Mallen, and S. Tsujimura. "Continuous recording of accommodation and pupil size using the shin-nippon srw-5000 autorefractor," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21,108-113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J.L Arag’on, and D.R. Williams. "Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 597-506 (2001).

L. Diaz Santana Haro and J.C. Dainty. "Effects of retinal scattering in the ocular double-pass process," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 1437-1444 (2001).

1999

1994

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J.F. Bille. "Objective measurement of wave aberration of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 1949-1957 (1994).

1801

T. Young. "On the mechanism of the eye," Phil. Trans. 91, 69 (1801).

Applegate, R. A.

H. Cheng, J.K. Barnett, A.S. Vilupuru, J.D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda. "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. of Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).

Arag’on, J.L

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J.L Arag’on, and D.R. Williams. "Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 597-506 (2001).

Artal, P.

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J.L Arag’on, and D.R. Williams. "Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 597-506 (2001).

Barnett, J.K.

H. Cheng, J.K. Barnett, A.S. Vilupuru, J.D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda. "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. of Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).

Bille, J.

Bille, J.F.

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J.F. Bille. "Objective measurement of wave aberration of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 1949-1957 (1994).

Cheng, H.

H. Cheng, J.K. Barnett, A.S. Vilupuru, J.D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda. "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. of Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).

Collins, M.J.

D.R. Iskander, M.J. Collins, M.R. Morelande and M. Zhu. "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1969-1980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daint, C.

K. M. Hampson, I. Munro, C. Paterson, and C. Daint. "Weak correlation between the aberration dynamics of the human eye and the cardiopulmonary system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 22, 1241-1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, C.

Dainty, J.C.

L. Diaz Santana Haro and J.C. Dainty. "Effects of retinal scattering in the ocular double-pass process," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 1437-1444 (2001).

L. Diaz Santana Haro and J.C. Dainty. "Single-pass measurements of the wave-front aberrations of the human eye by use of retinal lipofuscin autofluorescence," Opt. Lett. 24, 61-63 (1999).

Davies, N.

N. Davies, L. Diaz-Santana, and D. Lara-Saucedo. "Repeatability of ocular wavefront measurement," Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 142-150 (2003).

Diaz Santana Haro, L.

L. Diaz Santana Haro and J.C. Dainty. "Effects of retinal scattering in the ocular double-pass process," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 1437-1444 (2001).

L. Diaz Santana Haro and J.C. Dainty. "Single-pass measurements of the wave-front aberrations of the human eye by use of retinal lipofuscin autofluorescence," Opt. Lett. 24, 61-63 (1999).

Diaz-Santana, L.

L. Diaz-Santana, C. Torti, I. Munro, P. Gasson, and C. Dainty. "Benefit of higher closed-loop bandwidths in ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express 11, 2597-2605 (2003).

N. Davies, L. Diaz-Santana, and D. Lara-Saucedo. "Repeatability of ocular wavefront measurement," Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 142-150 (2003).

Dighiero, P.

J.J. Gicquel, J.L. Nguyen-Khoa, N. Lopez-Gil, R. Legras, P. Dighiero, D.A. Lebuisson, and J.F. Le Gargasson. "Optical aberrations variations of the human eye during accommodation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.EAbstract 1993:B762 (2005).

Gasson, P.

Gicquel, J.J.

J.J. Gicquel, J.L. Nguyen-Khoa, N. Lopez-Gil, R. Legras, P. Dighiero, D.A. Lebuisson, and J.F. Le Gargasson. "Optical aberrations variations of the human eye during accommodation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.EAbstract 1993:B762 (2005).

Gilmartin, B.

J.S. Wolffsohn, B. Gilmartin, E.A. Mallen, and S. Tsujimura. "Continuous recording of accommodation and pupil size using the shin-nippon srw-5000 autorefractor," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21,108-113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ginis, H.

H. Ginis, S. Plainis, and A. Pallikaris. "Variability of wavefront aberration measurements in small pupil sizes using a clinical shack-hartmann aberrometer," BMC Ophthalmology 4, 1471-2415 (2004).

Goelz, S.

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J.F. Bille. "Objective measurement of wave aberration of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 1949-1957 (1994).

Grimm, B.

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J.F. Bille. "Objective measurement of wave aberration of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 1949-1957 (1994).

Hampson, K. M.

K. M. Hampson, I. Munro, C. Paterson, and C. Daint. "Weak correlation between the aberration dynamics of the human eye and the cardiopulmonary system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 22, 1241-1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, H.

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J.L Arag’on, and D.R. Williams. "Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 597-506 (2001).

Iskander, D.R.

D.R. Iskander, M.J. Collins, M.R. Morelande and M. Zhu. "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1969-1980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kasthurirangan, S.

H. Cheng, J.K. Barnett, A.S. Vilupuru, J.D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda. "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. of Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).

Lara-Saucedo, D.

N. Davies, L. Diaz-Santana, and D. Lara-Saucedo. "Repeatability of ocular wavefront measurement," Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 142-150 (2003).

Le Gargasson, J.F.

J.J. Gicquel, J.L. Nguyen-Khoa, N. Lopez-Gil, R. Legras, P. Dighiero, D.A. Lebuisson, and J.F. Le Gargasson. "Optical aberrations variations of the human eye during accommodation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.EAbstract 1993:B762 (2005).

Lebuisson, D.A.

J.J. Gicquel, J.L. Nguyen-Khoa, N. Lopez-Gil, R. Legras, P. Dighiero, D.A. Lebuisson, and J.F. Le Gargasson. "Optical aberrations variations of the human eye during accommodation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.EAbstract 1993:B762 (2005).

Legras, R.

J.J. Gicquel, J.L. Nguyen-Khoa, N. Lopez-Gil, R. Legras, P. Dighiero, D.A. Lebuisson, and J.F. Le Gargasson. "Optical aberrations variations of the human eye during accommodation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.EAbstract 1993:B762 (2005).

Li, H.

H. Li and C. Rao. "Precision analysis of hartmann-shack wave-front sensor with modal reconstruction," J. Phys. Conference Series 48, 952-956 (2006).

Liang, J.

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J.F. Bille. "Objective measurement of wave aberration of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 1949-1957 (1994).

Lopez-Gil, N.

J.J. Gicquel, J.L. Nguyen-Khoa, N. Lopez-Gil, R. Legras, P. Dighiero, D.A. Lebuisson, and J.F. Le Gargasson. "Optical aberrations variations of the human eye during accommodation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.EAbstract 1993:B762 (2005).

Mallen, E.A.

J.S. Wolffsohn, B. Gilmartin, E.A. Mallen, and S. Tsujimura. "Continuous recording of accommodation and pupil size using the shin-nippon srw-5000 autorefractor," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21,108-113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marsack, J.D.

H. Cheng, J.K. Barnett, A.S. Vilupuru, J.D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda. "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. of Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).

Morelande, M.R.

D.R. Iskander, M.J. Collins, M.R. Morelande and M. Zhu. "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1969-1980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Munro, I.

K. M. Hampson, I. Munro, C. Paterson, and C. Daint. "Weak correlation between the aberration dynamics of the human eye and the cardiopulmonary system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 22, 1241-1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Diaz-Santana, C. Torti, I. Munro, P. Gasson, and C. Dainty. "Benefit of higher closed-loop bandwidths in ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express 11, 2597-2605 (2003).

Nguyen-Khoa, J.L.

J.J. Gicquel, J.L. Nguyen-Khoa, N. Lopez-Gil, R. Legras, P. Dighiero, D.A. Lebuisson, and J.F. Le Gargasson. "Optical aberrations variations of the human eye during accommodation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.EAbstract 1993:B762 (2005).

Nirmaier, T.

Pallikaris, A.

H. Ginis, S. Plainis, and A. Pallikaris. "Variability of wavefront aberration measurements in small pupil sizes using a clinical shack-hartmann aberrometer," BMC Ophthalmology 4, 1471-2415 (2004).

Paterson, C.

K. M. Hampson, I. Munro, C. Paterson, and C. Daint. "Weak correlation between the aberration dynamics of the human eye and the cardiopulmonary system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 22, 1241-1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Plainis, S.

H. Ginis, S. Plainis, and A. Pallikaris. "Variability of wavefront aberration measurements in small pupil sizes using a clinical shack-hartmann aberrometer," BMC Ophthalmology 4, 1471-2415 (2004).

Pudasaini, G.

Rao, C.

H. Li and C. Rao. "Precision analysis of hartmann-shack wave-front sensor with modal reconstruction," J. Phys. Conference Series 48, 952-956 (2006).

Roorda, A.

H. Cheng, J.K. Barnett, A.S. Vilupuru, J.D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda. "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. of Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).

Singer, B.

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J.L Arag’on, and D.R. Williams. "Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 597-506 (2001).

Torti, C.

Tsujimura, S.

J.S. Wolffsohn, B. Gilmartin, E.A. Mallen, and S. Tsujimura. "Continuous recording of accommodation and pupil size using the shin-nippon srw-5000 autorefractor," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21,108-113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vilupuru, A.S.

H. Cheng, J.K. Barnett, A.S. Vilupuru, J.D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda. "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. of Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).

Williams, D.R.

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J.L Arag’on, and D.R. Williams. "Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 597-506 (2001).

Wolffsohn, J.S.

J.S. Wolffsohn, B. Gilmartin, E.A. Mallen, and S. Tsujimura. "Continuous recording of accommodation and pupil size using the shin-nippon srw-5000 autorefractor," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21,108-113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Young, T.

T. Young. "On the mechanism of the eye," Phil. Trans. 91, 69 (1801).

Zhu, M.

D.R. Iskander, M.J. Collins, M.R. Morelande and M. Zhu. "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1969-1980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

BMC Ophthalmology

H. Ginis, S. Plainis, and A. Pallikaris. "Variability of wavefront aberration measurements in small pupil sizes using a clinical shack-hartmann aberrometer," BMC Ophthalmology 4, 1471-2415 (2004).

EAbstract

J.J. Gicquel, J.L. Nguyen-Khoa, N. Lopez-Gil, R. Legras, P. Dighiero, D.A. Lebuisson, and J.F. Le Gargasson. "Optical aberrations variations of the human eye during accommodation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.EAbstract 1993:B762 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

D.R. Iskander, M.J. Collins, M.R. Morelande and M. Zhu. "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1969-1980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. of Vision

H. Cheng, J.K. Barnett, A.S. Vilupuru, J.D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda. "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. of Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

L. Diaz Santana Haro and J.C. Dainty. "Effects of retinal scattering in the ocular double-pass process," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 1437-1444 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J.F. Bille. "Objective measurement of wave aberration of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 1949-1957 (1994).

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J.L Arag’on, and D.R. Williams. "Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 597-506 (2001).

K. M. Hampson, I. Munro, C. Paterson, and C. Daint. "Weak correlation between the aberration dynamics of the human eye and the cardiopulmonary system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 22, 1241-1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Conference Series

H. Li and C. Rao. "Precision analysis of hartmann-shack wave-front sensor with modal reconstruction," J. Phys. Conference Series 48, 952-956 (2006).

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.

J.S. Wolffsohn, B. Gilmartin, E.A. Mallen, and S. Tsujimura. "Continuous recording of accommodation and pupil size using the shin-nippon srw-5000 autorefractor," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21,108-113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Optom. Vis. Sci.

N. Davies, L. Diaz-Santana, and D. Lara-Saucedo. "Repeatability of ocular wavefront measurement," Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 142-150 (2003).

Phil. Trans.

T. Young. "On the mechanism of the eye," Phil. Trans. 91, 69 (1801).

Other

H.T. Kasprzak and J. W. Jaronski. "Measurement of fine dynamic changes of the corneal topography by use of interferometry," In W. Osten, editor, Interferometer XI: Applications, SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering 4778, 169-176 (2002).

David Regan. Human Brain Electrophysiology. Evoked Potentials and Evoked Magnetic Fields in Science and Medicine. Elsevier Science Publishing, (1989).

R.B Rabbetts. Bennett & Rabbetts Clinical Visual Optics. Butterworth and Heinemann, 5th edition (1998).

A. Dubinin, T. Cherezova, A. Belyakov and A. Kudryashov. Human eye anisoplanatism: eye as a lamellar structure. In F. Manns, P. G. S¨oderberg, and A. Ho, editors, Ophthalmic Technologies XVI. Edited by Manns, Fabrice; Söderberg, Per G.; Ho, Arthur. Proceedings of the SPIE, 6138, 260-266 (2006).

J. Arines. Imagen de alta resoluci’on del fondo de ojo por deconvoluci’on tras compensacion parcial. PhD thesis, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (2006).

ANSI. American national standard for ophtalmics. ANSI-Z80.28-2004, Methods for reporting optical aberrations of eyes. American national standards institute, Inc. (2004).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics