Abstract

We report on photochemical two-photon Bragg grating preparation in hydrogenated fiber without any UV-induced stress in the core or cladding, leaving only the color-center model responsible for refractive index changes for UV femtosecond irradiation. Without hydrogen loading strong stress changes are observed in the core and in the cladding indicating glass compaction. The irradiation does not change the inelastic strains, in contrast to H2-loading.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. P. Hand and P. St. J. Russell, "Photoinduced refractive-index changes in germanosilicate fibers," Opt. Lett. 15,102-104 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. P. Bernardin and N. M. Lawandy, "Dynamics of the formation of Bragg gratings in germanosilicate optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 79, 194-199 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Fiori and R. A. B. Devine, "Ultraviolet irradiation induced compaction and photobleaching in amorphous, thermal SiO2," Material Research Society Symp. Proc. 61, 187-195 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, "UV irradiation induced structural transformation of germanosilicate glass fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 1754-1756 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and B. Leuenberger, "Tension increase correlated to refractive index change in fibers containing UV-written Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 20, 1346-1348 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, and F. Cochet, "Compaction- and photoelastic- induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069-3071 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, "Tomographic measurement of femtosecond-laser induced stress changes in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983-4985 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. A. Zagorulko, P. G. Kryukov, and E. M. Dianov, "Inscription of fiber Bragg gratings by ultraviolet femtosecond radiation," Opt. Lett. 28, 2171-2173 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, "Fiber Bragg grating inscription by high-intensity femtosecond UV laser light: comparison with other existing methods of fabrication," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 354 (2005); "Erratum: Fiber Bragg grating inscription by high-intensity femtosecond UV laser light: Comparison with other existing methods of fabrication," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1143 (2005).
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  10. K. A. Zagorulko, P. G. Kryukov, Y. V. Larionov, A. A. Rybaltovsky, E. M. Dianov, S. Chekalin, Y. A. Matveets, and V. O. Kompanets, "Fabrication of fiber Bragg gratings with 267 nm femtosecond radiation," Opt. Express 12, 5996-6001 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, "Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers," Electron. Lett. 41, 638-640 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. N. Nikogosyan, A. A. Oraevsky, and V. I. Rupasov, "Two-photon ionization and dissociation of liquid water by powerful laser UV irradiation," Chem. Phys. 77, 131-143 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Femtosecond measurements of two-photon absorption coefficients at λ = 264 nm in glasses, crystals, and liquids," Appl. Opt. 41, 4365-4376 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, "Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the sensitivity of germanium-doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529-3531 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. N. Nikogosyan, "Multi-photon high-excitation-energy approach to fibre grating inscription," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, R1-R29 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosenitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, and M. D. Gallagher, "Annealing of Bragg gratings in hydrogen loaded optical fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2940-2945 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Park, T.- J. Ahn, Y. H. Kim, W.- T. Han, U.- C. Paek, and D. Y. Kim, "Measurement method for profiling the residual stress and the strain-optic coefficient of an optical fiber," Appl. Opt. 41, 21-26 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by optical low-coherence reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Park, U.- C. Paek, S. Han, B.- H. Kim, C.- S. Kim, and D. Y. Kim, "Inelastic frozen-in stress in optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 242, 431-436 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, and A. D. Yablon, "Inelastic strain birefringence in optical fibers," Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (OSA 2006), paper OWA 2, 2006.
  22. A. D. Yablon, "Optical and mechanical effects of frozen-in stresses and strains in optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 300-311 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, "Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19-21 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. Kudriasov, D. Majus, V. Sirutkaitis, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Comparative study of UV absorption changes induced in germanosilicate glass by high-intensity femtosecond pulses at 267, 400 and 800 nm," Opt. Commun. 271, 408-412 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, "Hydrogen induced reduction of axial stress in optical fiber cores," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 516-518 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

D. N. Nikogosyan, "Multi-photon high-excitation-energy approach to fibre grating inscription," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, R1-R29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Kudriasov, D. Majus, V. Sirutkaitis, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Comparative study of UV absorption changes induced in germanosilicate glass by high-intensity femtosecond pulses at 267, 400 and 800 nm," Opt. Commun. 271, 408-412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (5)

K. A. Zagorulko, P. G. Kryukov, Y. V. Larionov, A. A. Rybaltovsky, E. M. Dianov, S. Chekalin, Y. A. Matveets, and V. O. Kompanets, "Fabrication of fiber Bragg gratings with 267 nm femtosecond radiation," Opt. Express 12, 5996-6001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, U.- C. Paek, S. Han, B.- H. Kim, C.- S. Kim, and D. Y. Kim, "Inelastic frozen-in stress in optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 242, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Yablon, "Optical and mechanical effects of frozen-in stresses and strains in optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, "Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19-21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, "Tomographic measurement of femtosecond-laser induced stress changes in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983-4985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

1999 (1)

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, "Hydrogen induced reduction of axial stress in optical fiber cores," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 516-518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, and F. Cochet, "Compaction- and photoelastic- induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069-3071 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, "Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the sensitivity of germanium-doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529-3531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, and M. D. Gallagher, "Annealing of Bragg gratings in hydrogen loaded optical fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2940-2945 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and B. Leuenberger, "Tension increase correlated to refractive index change in fibers containing UV-written Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 20, 1346-1348 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by optical low-coherence reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosenitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

J. P. Bernardin and N. M. Lawandy, "Dynamics of the formation of Bragg gratings in germanosilicate optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 79, 194-199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Hand and P. St. J. Russell, "Photoinduced refractive-index changes in germanosilicate fibers," Opt. Lett. 15,102-104 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

C. Fiori and R. A. B. Devine, "Ultraviolet irradiation induced compaction and photobleaching in amorphous, thermal SiO2," Material Research Society Symp. Proc. 61, 187-195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

D. N. Nikogosyan, A. A. Oraevsky, and V. I. Rupasov, "Two-photon ionization and dissociation of liquid water by powerful laser UV irradiation," Chem. Phys. 77, 131-143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, T.- J.

Albert, J.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, "Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the sensitivity of germanium-doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529-3531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosenitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bernardin, J. P.

J. P. Bernardin and N. M. Lawandy, "Dynamics of the formation of Bragg gratings in germanosilicate optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 79, 194-199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, "Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the sensitivity of germanium-doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529-3531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bolger, G. A.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, "Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers," Electron. Lett. 41, 638-640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

Chekalin, S.

Cochet, F.

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, "Hydrogen induced reduction of axial stress in optical fiber cores," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 516-518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, and F. Cochet, "Compaction- and photoelastic- induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069-3071 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and B. Leuenberger, "Tension increase correlated to refractive index change in fibers containing UV-written Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 20, 1346-1348 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devine, R. A. B.

C. Fiori and R. A. B. Devine, "Ultraviolet irradiation induced compaction and photobleaching in amorphous, thermal SiO2," Material Research Society Symp. Proc. 61, 187-195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, "Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19-21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DiMarcello, F. V.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, "Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19-21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, "Hydrogen induced reduction of axial stress in optical fiber cores," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 516-518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, "Tomographic measurement of femtosecond-laser induced stress changes in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983-4985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dragomir, A.

Dürr, F.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, "Tomographic measurement of femtosecond-laser induced stress changes in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983-4985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, "Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers," Electron. Lett. 41, 638-640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fertein, E.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, "Tomographic measurement of femtosecond-laser induced stress changes in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983-4985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fiori, C.

C. Fiori and R. A. B. Devine, "Ultraviolet irradiation induced compaction and photobleaching in amorphous, thermal SiO2," Material Research Society Symp. Proc. 61, 187-195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. W.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, "Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19-21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fonjallaz, P. Y.

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, and F. Cochet, "Compaction- and photoelastic- induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069-3071 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and B. Leuenberger, "Tension increase correlated to refractive index change in fibers containing UV-written Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 20, 1346-1348 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by optical low-coherence reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L. B.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, "Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers," Electron. Lett. 41, 638-640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, M. D.

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, and M. D. Gallagher, "Annealing of Bragg gratings in hydrogen loaded optical fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2940-2945 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, S. L.

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, and M. D. Gallagher, "Annealing of Bragg gratings in hydrogen loaded optical fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2940-2945 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gilgen, H. H.

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by optical low-coherence reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.

Y. Park, U.- C. Paek, S. Han, B.- H. Kim, C.- S. Kim, and D. Y. Kim, "Inelastic frozen-in stress in optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 242, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, W.- T.

Hand, D. P.

Hill, K. O.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, "Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the sensitivity of germanium-doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529-3531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hindle, F.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, "Tomographic measurement of femtosecond-laser induced stress changes in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983-4985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jasapara, J.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, "Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19-21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, "Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the sensitivity of germanium-doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529-3531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.- H.

Y. Park, U.- C. Paek, S. Han, B.- H. Kim, C.- S. Kim, and D. Y. Kim, "Inelastic frozen-in stress in optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 242, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.- S.

Y. Park, U.- C. Paek, S. Han, B.- H. Kim, C.- S. Kim, and D. Y. Kim, "Inelastic frozen-in stress in optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 242, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

Kim, Y. H.

Koltashev, V. V.

Kompanets, V. O.

Kryukov, P. G.

Kudriasov, V.

V. Kudriasov, D. Majus, V. Sirutkaitis, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Comparative study of UV absorption changes induced in germanosilicate glass by high-intensity femtosecond pulses at 267, 400 and 800 nm," Opt. Commun. 271, 408-412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ky, N. H.

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, "Hydrogen induced reduction of axial stress in optical fiber cores," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 516-518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, "UV irradiation induced structural transformation of germanosilicate glass fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 1754-1756 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lambelet, P.

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by optical low-coherence reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Larionov, Y. V.

Lawandy, N. M.

J. P. Bernardin and N. M. Lawandy, "Dynamics of the formation of Bragg gratings in germanosilicate optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 79, 194-199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosenitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leuenberger, B.

Lidgard, A.

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, and M. D. Gallagher, "Annealing of Bragg gratings in hydrogen loaded optical fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2940-2945 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, "Tomographic measurement of femtosecond-laser induced stress changes in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983-4985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, "Hydrogen induced reduction of axial stress in optical fiber cores," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 516-518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, "UV irradiation induced structural transformation of germanosilicate glass fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 1754-1756 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, and F. Cochet, "Compaction- and photoelastic- induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069-3071 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and B. Leuenberger, "Tension increase correlated to refractive index change in fibers containing UV-written Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 20, 1346-1348 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by optical low-coherence reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lines, M. E.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, "Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19-21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mägi, E. C.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, "Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers," Electron. Lett. 41, 638-640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Majus, D.

V. Kudriasov, D. Majus, V. Sirutkaitis, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Comparative study of UV absorption changes induced in germanosilicate glass by high-intensity femtosecond pulses at 267, 400 and 800 nm," Opt. Commun. 271, 408-412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, "Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the sensitivity of germanium-doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529-3531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, "Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers," Electron. Lett. 41, 638-640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matveets, Y. A.

McInerney, J. G.

Mizrahi, V.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosenitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Monberg, E. M.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, "Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19-21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

Oraevsky, A. A.

D. N. Nikogosyan, A. A. Oraevsky, and V. I. Rupasov, "Two-photon ionization and dissociation of liquid water by powerful laser UV irradiation," Chem. Phys. 77, 131-143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U.- C.

Park, Y.

Patrick, H.

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, and M. D. Gallagher, "Annealing of Bragg gratings in hydrogen loaded optical fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2940-2945 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Przygodzki, C.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, "Tomographic measurement of femtosecond-laser induced stress changes in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983-4985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pyrkov, Y. N.

Reed, W. A.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, "Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19-21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosenitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rupasov, V. I.

D. N. Nikogosyan, A. A. Oraevsky, and V. I. Rupasov, "Two-photon ionization and dissociation of liquid water by powerful laser UV irradiation," Chem. Phys. 77, 131-143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Rybaltovsky, A. A.

Salathe, R. P.

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, "Hydrogen induced reduction of axial stress in optical fiber cores," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 516-518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salathé, R. P.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, "Tomographic measurement of femtosecond-laser induced stress changes in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983-4985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Y. N. Pyrkov, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, "UV irradiation induced structural transformation of germanosilicate glass fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 1754-1756 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, and F. Cochet, "Compaction- and photoelastic- induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069-3071 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and B. Leuenberger, "Tension increase correlated to refractive index change in fibers containing UV-written Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 20, 1346-1348 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by optical low-coherence reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sirutkaitis, V.

V. Kudriasov, D. Majus, V. Sirutkaitis, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Comparative study of UV absorption changes induced in germanosilicate glass by high-intensity femtosecond pulses at 267, 400 and 800 nm," Opt. Commun. 271, 408-412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Slattery, S. A.

Steinvurzel, P.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, "Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers," Electron. Lett. 41, 638-640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thériault, S.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, "Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the sensitivity of germanium-doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529-3531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wisk, P.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, "Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19-21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, "Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers," Electron. Lett. 41, 638-640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yablon, A. D.

A. D. Yablon, "Optical and mechanical effects of frozen-in stresses and strains in optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, "Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19-21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M. F.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, "Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19-21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zagorulko, K. A.

Zimmer, C.

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by optical low-coherence reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, "Hydrogen induced reduction of axial stress in optical fiber cores," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 516-518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, and F. Cochet, "Compaction- and photoelastic- induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069-3071 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, "Tomographic measurement of femtosecond-laser induced stress changes in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983-4985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, "Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the sensitivity of germanium-doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529-3531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, "Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19-21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

D. N. Nikogosyan, A. A. Oraevsky, and V. I. Rupasov, "Two-photon ionization and dissociation of liquid water by powerful laser UV irradiation," Chem. Phys. 77, 131-143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosenitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, G. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, E. C. Mägi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, "Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers," Electron. Lett. 41, 638-640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. D. Yablon, "Optical and mechanical effects of frozen-in stresses and strains in optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 300-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by optical low-coherence reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, and M. D. Gallagher, "Annealing of Bragg gratings in hydrogen loaded optical fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2940-2945 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. N. Nikogosyan, "Multi-photon high-excitation-energy approach to fibre grating inscription," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, R1-R29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

J. P. Bernardin and N. M. Lawandy, "Dynamics of the formation of Bragg gratings in germanosilicate optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 79, 194-199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, U.- C. Paek, S. Han, B.- H. Kim, C.- S. Kim, and D. Y. Kim, "Inelastic frozen-in stress in optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 242, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Kudriasov, D. Majus, V. Sirutkaitis, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Comparative study of UV absorption changes induced in germanosilicate glass by high-intensity femtosecond pulses at 267, 400 and 800 nm," Opt. Commun. 271, 408-412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. (1)

C. Fiori and R. A. B. Devine, "Ultraviolet irradiation induced compaction and photobleaching in amorphous, thermal SiO2," Material Research Society Symp. Proc. 61, 187-195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, and A. D. Yablon, "Inelastic strain birefringence in optical fibers," Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (OSA 2006), paper OWA 2, 2006.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Refractive index modulation versus fluence dependencies for FBGs inscribed in H2-free SMF-28 fiber (blue circles) and H2-loaded SMF-28 fiber (red squares) by high-intensity 264 nm femtosecond pulses. Note that the horizontal axis is in log 10 scale.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The 2D tomography pictures of (a) non-irradiated and (b) irradiated (264 nm, 302 GW/cm2, 31.13 kJ/cm2) H2-free SMF-28 fiber; (c) the horizontal stress profiles for non-irradiated (blue) and irradiated (red) H2-free SMF-28 fiber (cut along the horizontal direction). The light enters the fiber from the left side.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). The 2D tomography picture of the H2-loaded SMF-28 fiber; (b) the horizontal stress profiles for the H2-free (blue) and hydrogenated (red) pristine SMF-28 fibers; (c) the horizontal stress profiles for the non-irradiated (blue) and irradiated (264 nm, 335 GW/cm2, 0.06 kJ/cm2) (red) H2-loaded SMF-28 fiber.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Laser irradiation parameters and characteristics of the two FBGs.

Equations (1)

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σ zz el ( r ) = σ zz tot ( r ) 1 A A σ zz tot dA

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