Abstract

We demonstrate an optical half-subtracter and half-adder module that performs simultaneous bit-wise subtraction and addition of two 5 Gbit/s RZ data streams. We generate Borrow (/X∙Y) and Difference/Sum (X⊕Y, or XOR) outputs using cross-gain modulation (XGM) in two parallel SOAs. Taking advantage of the gain saturation inherent to SOAs, we generate two signals, /X∙Y, and X∙/Y, and combine them using a passive optical coupler to generate the XOR Difference/Sum output. We use difference-frequency-generation-based λ-conversion in a PPLN waveguide to generate the Carry (X∙Y) output. The PPLN waveguide allows bit-synchronous wavelength shifting, is wide-bandwidth, and offers no intrinsic chirp. Our module uses three active elements to perform simultaneous half-subtraction and addition, and carries a maximum power penalty of 1.0 dB.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. C. Alferness, "The all-optical network," Int’l Conf. on Comm.Technol. 1, 14-15 (2000).
  2. C. J. K. Richardson, P. Petruzzi, L. Calhoun, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, "Optimization of 100 Gbit/s correlation in a segmented semiconductor optical amplifier for all-optical pattern recognition," Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 1, 376 (2002).
  3. O. Boyraz, Y. Han, A. Naruzzaman, and B. Jalali, "Time stretch optical header recognition," 2003 Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2, 543-544 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Hung, K. Chan, L. K. Chen, C. K. Chan, and F. Tong, "A routing loop control scheme in optical layer for optical packet networks," Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2002, 770-771 (2002).
  5. N. Elfaramawy and A. Awad, "All-optical logic circuits based on the non-linear properties of the SOA," Ninth International Symposium on Computers and Communications 2004 1, 270-275 (2004).
  6. D. Tsoikos,  et al "10 Gb/s all-optical half-adder with interferometric SOA gates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 284-286 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. H. Kim, Y. T. Byun, Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "All-optical half adder using semiconductor optical amplifier based devices," Opt. Commun. 218, 345-349 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Tian, W. van Etten, and W. Beuwer, "Ultrafast all-optical shift register and its perspective application for optical fast packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 722-728 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. E. Willner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746- 2752 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, "Demonstration of 20 Gb/s all-optical XOR gate by four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with RZ-DPSK modulated inputs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 897-899 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Parolari, L. Marazzi, M. Connen, and M. Martinelli, "SOA-based all-optical threshold," Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2000, paper CWK29, 309-310 (2000).
  12. K. R. Parameswaran, J. R. Kurz, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, "Observation of 99% pump depletion in single pass SHG in a PPLN waveguide," Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics, paper CFB3, 549 (2001).
  13. R. Inohara, K. Nishimura, M. Tsurusawa, and M. Usami, "Experimental analysis of cross-phase modulation and cross-gain modulation in SOA-injecting CW assist light," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1192-1194 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Tsoikos,  et al "10 Gb/s all-optical half-adder with interferometric SOA gates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 284-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, "Demonstration of 20 Gb/s all-optical XOR gate by four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with RZ-DPSK modulated inputs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 897-899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

R. Inohara, K. Nishimura, M. Tsurusawa, and M. Usami, "Experimental analysis of cross-phase modulation and cross-gain modulation in SOA-injecting CW assist light," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1192-1194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kim, Y. T. Byun, Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "All-optical half adder using semiconductor optical amplifier based devices," Opt. Commun. 218, 345-349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. E. Willner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746- 2752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. Tian, W. van Etten, and W. Beuwer, "Ultrafast all-optical shift register and its perspective application for optical fast packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 722-728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. C. Alferness, "The all-optical network," Int’l Conf. on Comm.Technol. 1, 14-15 (2000).

Alferness, R. C.

R. C. Alferness, "The all-optical network," Int’l Conf. on Comm.Technol. 1, 14-15 (2000).

Bannister, J.

J. E. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. E. Willner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746- 2752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beuwer, W.

B. Tian, W. van Etten, and W. Beuwer, "Ultrafast all-optical shift register and its perspective application for optical fast packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 722-728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Byun, Y. T.

J. H. Kim, Y. T. Byun, Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "All-optical half adder using semiconductor optical amplifier based devices," Opt. Commun. 218, 345-349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C.-K.

K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, "Demonstration of 20 Gb/s all-optical XOR gate by four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with RZ-DPSK modulated inputs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 897-899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K.

K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, "Demonstration of 20 Gb/s all-optical XOR gate by four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with RZ-DPSK modulated inputs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 897-899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. K.

K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, "Demonstration of 20 Gb/s all-optical XOR gate by four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with RZ-DPSK modulated inputs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 897-899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

J. E. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. E. Willner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746- 2752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gurkan, D.

J. E. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. E. Willner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746- 2752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inohara, R.

R. Inohara, K. Nishimura, M. Tsurusawa, and M. Usami, "Experimental analysis of cross-phase modulation and cross-gain modulation in SOA-injecting CW assist light," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1192-1194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jhon, Y. M.

J. H. Kim, Y. T. Byun, Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "All-optical half adder using semiconductor optical amplifier based devices," Opt. Commun. 218, 345-349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

J. H. Kim, Y. T. Byun, Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "All-optical half adder using semiconductor optical amplifier based devices," Opt. Commun. 218, 345-349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

J. H. Kim, Y. T. Byun, Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "All-optical half adder using semiconductor optical amplifier based devices," Opt. Commun. 218, 345-349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

J. E. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. E. Willner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746- 2752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J. H. Kim, Y. T. Byun, Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "All-optical half adder using semiconductor optical amplifier based devices," Opt. Commun. 218, 345-349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McGeehan, J. E.

J. E. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. E. Willner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746- 2752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Motaghian Nezam, S. M. R.

J. E. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. E. Willner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746- 2752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, K.

R. Inohara, K. Nishimura, M. Tsurusawa, and M. Usami, "Experimental analysis of cross-phase modulation and cross-gain modulation in SOA-injecting CW assist light," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1192-1194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, K. R.

J. E. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. E. Willner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746- 2752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tian, B.

B. Tian, W. van Etten, and W. Beuwer, "Ultrafast all-optical shift register and its perspective application for optical fast packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 722-728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tong, F.

K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, "Demonstration of 20 Gb/s all-optical XOR gate by four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with RZ-DPSK modulated inputs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 897-899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Touch, J. D.

J. E. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. E. Willner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746- 2752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsoikos, D.

D. Tsoikos,  et al "10 Gb/s all-optical half-adder with interferometric SOA gates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 284-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsurusawa, M.

R. Inohara, K. Nishimura, M. Tsurusawa, and M. Usami, "Experimental analysis of cross-phase modulation and cross-gain modulation in SOA-injecting CW assist light," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1192-1194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Usami, M.

R. Inohara, K. Nishimura, M. Tsurusawa, and M. Usami, "Experimental analysis of cross-phase modulation and cross-gain modulation in SOA-injecting CW assist light," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1192-1194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Etten, W.

B. Tian, W. van Etten, and W. Beuwer, "Ultrafast all-optical shift register and its perspective application for optical fast packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 722-728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

J. E. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. E. Willner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746- 2752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Woo, D. H.

J. H. Kim, Y. T. Byun, Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "All-optical half adder using semiconductor optical amplifier based devices," Opt. Commun. 218, 345-349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. E. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. E. Willner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746- 2752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Tian, W. van Etten, and W. Beuwer, "Ultrafast all-optical shift register and its perspective application for optical fast packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 722-728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

R. Inohara, K. Nishimura, M. Tsurusawa, and M. Usami, "Experimental analysis of cross-phase modulation and cross-gain modulation in SOA-injecting CW assist light," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1192-1194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Tsoikos,  et al "10 Gb/s all-optical half-adder with interferometric SOA gates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 284-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, "Demonstration of 20 Gb/s all-optical XOR gate by four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with RZ-DPSK modulated inputs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 897-899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. H. Kim, Y. T. Byun, Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "All-optical half adder using semiconductor optical amplifier based devices," Opt. Commun. 218, 345-349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Technol. (1)

R. C. Alferness, "The all-optical network," Int’l Conf. on Comm.Technol. 1, 14-15 (2000).

Other (6)

C. J. K. Richardson, P. Petruzzi, L. Calhoun, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, "Optimization of 100 Gbit/s correlation in a segmented semiconductor optical amplifier for all-optical pattern recognition," Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 1, 376 (2002).

O. Boyraz, Y. Han, A. Naruzzaman, and B. Jalali, "Time stretch optical header recognition," 2003 Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2, 543-544 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Hung, K. Chan, L. K. Chen, C. K. Chan, and F. Tong, "A routing loop control scheme in optical layer for optical packet networks," Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2002, 770-771 (2002).

N. Elfaramawy and A. Awad, "All-optical logic circuits based on the non-linear properties of the SOA," Ninth International Symposium on Computers and Communications 2004 1, 270-275 (2004).

P. Parolari, L. Marazzi, M. Connen, and M. Martinelli, "SOA-based all-optical threshold," Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2000, paper CWK29, 309-310 (2000).

K. R. Parameswaran, J. R. Kurz, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, "Observation of 99% pump depletion in single pass SHG in a PPLN waveguide," Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics, paper CFB3, 549 (2001).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a). Gate-level concept of half-subtracter. (b). Gate-level concept of half-adder.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a). Truth table for half-subtracter and half-adder. Difference (subtracter) and Sum (adder) are identical. (b). Gate-level diagram of combined half-subtracter/ adder using 6 gates (three AND, one OR, two inverters.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical implementation of the half-subtracter/adder. This module uses three optical elements - two SOAs and one PPLN. The OR function is provided via an optical coupler. The upper block is all that is required for half-subtracter functionality, the lower block is required to include half-adder functionality.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup for the half-subtracter/adder.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Output optical spectrum of the PPLN. Conversion efficiency for 6 dBm input at 1548 nm is -21 dB.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Input ‘X’ to the half-subtracter/adder module. (b) Input ‘Y’ to the half-subtracter/adder modules. (c) “Borrow” output of the half-subtracter. A pulse is present only if input ‘Y’ is logic ‘1’ while input ‘X’ is logic ‘0’. (d) “Difference/Sum” output of the half-subtracter/adder. A pulse is present if input ‘Y’ is logic ‘1’ or input ‘X’ is logic ‘1’, but not both. (e) “Carry” output of the half-adder. A pulse exists only if both inputs ‘X’ & ‘Y’ are ‘1’.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

BER for the half-subtracter/adder. The maximum penalty is ∼1 dB.

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