Abstract

We explore the potential of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) mitigation using Viterbi equalization in 10 Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (NRZ-DPSK) and differential quadrature phase-shift keying (NRZ-DQPSK) systems. We show through Monte Carlo simulations that using Viterbi equalization improves the performance of NRZ-OOK, NRZ-DPSK and NRZ-DQPSK receivers. For NRZ-DQPSK receiver with a Viterbi equalizer, the chromatic dispersion tolerance is about 5000 ps/nm and the 1st order PMD tolerance is about 160 ps at 3 dB OSNR penalty.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Buchali, "Electronic dispersion compensation for enhanced optical transmission," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2006 (OFC 2006), Mar. 2006, Paper OWR5.
  2. W. Shieh, W. Chen, and R. S. Tucker, "Polarization mode dispersion mitigation in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed systems," Electron. Lett. 42, 996-997 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Buchali and H. Bülow, "Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1116-1126 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Cavallari, C. R. S. Fludger, and P. J. Anslow, "Electronic signal processing for differential phase modulation formats," Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit 2004 (OFC 2004), vol. 1, 23 - 27 Feb. 2004.
  5. R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, M. Glick, and P. Bayvel, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006 (OFC 2006), Mar. 2006, Paper OWB3.
  6. H. Bülow, F. Buchali, W. Baumert, R. Ballentin, and T. Wehren, "PMD mitigation at 10 Gbit/s using linear and nonlinear integrated electronic equaliser circuits," Electron. Lett. 36, 163 - 164 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Yi, F. Buchali, W. Chen, and W. Shieh, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring in electronic dispersion equalizers using tapped delay lines," Opt. Express 15,312-315 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Franz et al., "SiGe linear equalizer for electronic PMD and chromatic dispersion mitigation for 43 Gbit/s transmission," in the 31st European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005), Sept. 2005, We1.3.1.
  9. F. Buchali, G. Thielecke, and H. Bülow, "Viterbi equalizer for mitigation of distortions from chromatic dispersion and PMD at 10 Gb/s," Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit 2004 (OFC 2004), vol. 1, 23 - 27 Feb. 2004.
  10. A. Faerbert, "Application of digital equalization in optical transmission systems," in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 2006, OTuE5.
  11. A. Gnauck, "40-Gb/s RZ-Differential phase shift keyed transmission," Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit 2003 (OFC 2003), paper ThE1, Mar. 2003.
  12. J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, "Performance of electrical equalizers in optically amplified OOK and DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1397 - 1399 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. J. Viterbi, "Error bounds for convolutional codes and an asymptotically optimum decoding algorithm," IEEE Trans. Information Theory IT13, 260-269 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. D. Forney, "The Viterbi algorithm," Proceedings of the IEEE 61, 268 - 278 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Secondini, E. Forestieri, and G. Prati, "Adaptive minimum MSE controlled PLC optical equalizer for chromatic dispersion compensation," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2322 - 2331 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. F. Haunstein, Wolfgang Sauer-Greff, A. Dittrich, K. Sticht and R. Urbansky, "Principles for electronic equalization of polarization-mode dispersion," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1169 - 1182 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007

2006

W. Shieh, W. Chen, and R. S. Tucker, "Polarization mode dispersion mitigation in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed systems," Electron. Lett. 42, 996-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2000

H. Bülow, F. Buchali, W. Baumert, R. Ballentin, and T. Wehren, "PMD mitigation at 10 Gbit/s using linear and nonlinear integrated electronic equaliser circuits," Electron. Lett. 36, 163 - 164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1973

G. D. Forney, "The Viterbi algorithm," Proceedings of the IEEE 61, 268 - 278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1967

A. J. Viterbi, "Error bounds for convolutional codes and an asymptotically optimum decoding algorithm," IEEE Trans. Information Theory IT13, 260-269 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ballentin, R.

H. Bülow, F. Buchali, W. Baumert, R. Ballentin, and T. Wehren, "PMD mitigation at 10 Gbit/s using linear and nonlinear integrated electronic equaliser circuits," Electron. Lett. 36, 163 - 164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baumert, W.

H. Bülow, F. Buchali, W. Baumert, R. Ballentin, and T. Wehren, "PMD mitigation at 10 Gbit/s using linear and nonlinear integrated electronic equaliser circuits," Electron. Lett. 36, 163 - 164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buchali, F.

Bülow, H.

F. Buchali and H. Bülow, "Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1116-1126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Bülow, F. Buchali, W. Baumert, R. Ballentin, and T. Wehren, "PMD mitigation at 10 Gbit/s using linear and nonlinear integrated electronic equaliser circuits," Electron. Lett. 36, 163 - 164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

X. Yi, F. Buchali, W. Chen, and W. Shieh, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring in electronic dispersion equalizers using tapped delay lines," Opt. Express 15,312-315 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shieh, W. Chen, and R. S. Tucker, "Polarization mode dispersion mitigation in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed systems," Electron. Lett. 42, 996-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Forestieri, E.

Forney, G. D.

G. D. Forney, "The Viterbi algorithm," Proceedings of the IEEE 61, 268 - 278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Haunstein, H. F.

Kahn, J. M.

J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, "Performance of electrical equalizers in optically amplified OOK and DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1397 - 1399 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prati, G.

Secondini, M.

Shieh, W.

X. Yi, F. Buchali, W. Chen, and W. Shieh, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring in electronic dispersion equalizers using tapped delay lines," Opt. Express 15,312-315 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shieh, W. Chen, and R. S. Tucker, "Polarization mode dispersion mitigation in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed systems," Electron. Lett. 42, 996-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

W. Shieh, W. Chen, and R. S. Tucker, "Polarization mode dispersion mitigation in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed systems," Electron. Lett. 42, 996-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Viterbi, A. J.

A. J. Viterbi, "Error bounds for convolutional codes and an asymptotically optimum decoding algorithm," IEEE Trans. Information Theory IT13, 260-269 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, "Performance of electrical equalizers in optically amplified OOK and DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1397 - 1399 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wehren, T.

H. Bülow, F. Buchali, W. Baumert, R. Ballentin, and T. Wehren, "PMD mitigation at 10 Gbit/s using linear and nonlinear integrated electronic equaliser circuits," Electron. Lett. 36, 163 - 164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wolfgang Sauer-Greff, H. F.

Yi, X.

Electron. Lett.

W. Shieh, W. Chen, and R. S. Tucker, "Polarization mode dispersion mitigation in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed systems," Electron. Lett. 42, 996-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Bülow, F. Buchali, W. Baumert, R. Ballentin, and T. Wehren, "PMD mitigation at 10 Gbit/s using linear and nonlinear integrated electronic equaliser circuits," Electron. Lett. 36, 163 - 164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, "Performance of electrical equalizers in optically amplified OOK and DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1397 - 1399 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Information Theory

A. J. Viterbi, "Error bounds for convolutional codes and an asymptotically optimum decoding algorithm," IEEE Trans. Information Theory IT13, 260-269 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Proceedings of the IEEE

G. D. Forney, "The Viterbi algorithm," Proceedings of the IEEE 61, 268 - 278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Cavallari, C. R. S. Fludger, and P. J. Anslow, "Electronic signal processing for differential phase modulation formats," Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit 2004 (OFC 2004), vol. 1, 23 - 27 Feb. 2004.

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, M. Glick, and P. Bayvel, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006 (OFC 2006), Mar. 2006, Paper OWB3.

B. Franz et al., "SiGe linear equalizer for electronic PMD and chromatic dispersion mitigation for 43 Gbit/s transmission," in the 31st European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005), Sept. 2005, We1.3.1.

F. Buchali, G. Thielecke, and H. Bülow, "Viterbi equalizer for mitigation of distortions from chromatic dispersion and PMD at 10 Gb/s," Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit 2004 (OFC 2004), vol. 1, 23 - 27 Feb. 2004.

A. Faerbert, "Application of digital equalization in optical transmission systems," in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 2006, OTuE5.

A. Gnauck, "40-Gb/s RZ-Differential phase shift keyed transmission," Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit 2003 (OFC 2003), paper ThE1, Mar. 2003.

F. Buchali, "Electronic dispersion compensation for enhanced optical transmission," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2006 (OFC 2006), Mar. 2006, Paper OWR5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Viterbi receiver structure for (a) NRZ-DPSK and (b) NRZ-DQPSK data.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical transmission system for simulations

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

OSNR penalty for a BER of 10-3 vs. chromatic dispersion in 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK, NRZ-DPSK, and NRZ-DQPSK systems

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

OSNR penalty for a BER of 10-3 vs. the 1st order PMD in 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK, NRZ-DPSK, and NRZ-DQPSK systems

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of FFE, FFE+DFE and VE: OSNR penalty for a BER of 10-3 vs. chromatic dispersion in 10 Gb/s (a) NRZ-OOK and (b) NRZ-DPSK systems, and OSNR penalty vs. 1st order PMD in 10 Gb/s (c) NRZ-OOK and (d) NRZ-DPSK systems.

Equations (1)

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max S log p ( x S ) = max S [ k log p ( x k S ) T + k log p ( x k S ) T 2 ]

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