Abstract

We report the experimental demonstration of directly produced polarization squeezing at 1064 nm from a type I optical parametric amplifier (OPA) based on a periodically poled KTP crystal (PPKTP). The orthogonal polarization modes of the polarization squeezed state are both defined by the OPA cavity mode, and the birefringence induced by the PPKTP crystal is compensated by a second, but inactive, PPKTP crystal. Stokes parameter squeezing of 3.6 dB and anti squeezing of 9.4 dB is observed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  25. G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interactions of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley and H. Ward, Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. S. Agarwal and S. Chaturvedi, "Scheme to measure quantum Stokes parameters and their fluctuations and correlations," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 711-716 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2007

G. H’etet, O. Gl¨ockl, K. A. Pilypas, C. C. Harb, B. C. Buchler, H-A. Bachor and P. K. Lam, "Squeezed light for bandwidth-limited atom optics experiments at the rubidium D1 line," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 221-226 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Aoki, G. Takahashi and A. Furusawa "Squeezing at 946nm with periodically-poled KTiOPO4," Opt. Express 14, 6930-6935 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Liu and K. Zhang, "Investigation of fundamental and second harmonic squeezed lights from a singly resonant PPKTP frequency doubler," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 4163-4168 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J. F. Sherson and K. Mølmer, "Polarization squeezing by optical Faraday rotation", Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 143602-143606 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanimura, D. Akamatsu, Y. Yokoi, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma "Generation of a squeezed vacuum resonant on Rubidium D1 line with periodically-poled KTiOPO4," Opt. Lett. 31, 2344- 2346 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2003

R. Schnabel, W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor and P. K. Lam, "Stokes operator squeezed continuous variable polarization states," Phys. Rev. A 67, 012316-012327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. L. Andersen and P. Buchhave, "Polarization squeezing and entanglement produced by a frequency doubler," J. Opt. B. 5, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Heersink, T. Gaber, S. Lorenz, O.Gl¨ockl, N. Korolkova and G. Leuchs, "Polarization squeezing of intense pulses with a fiber-optic Sagnac interferometer,"Phys. Rev. A 68, 013815-013827 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Josse, A. Dantan, L. Vernac, A. Bramati, M. Pinard and E. Giacobino, "Polarization squeezing with cold atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103601-103604 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Agarwal and S. Chaturvedi, "Scheme to measure quantum Stokes parameters and their fluctuations and correlations," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 711-716 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

U. L. Andersen and P. Buchhave, "Green bright squeezed light from a cw periodically poled KTP second harmonic generator," Opt. Express 10, 887-896 (2002).
[PubMed]

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, H.-A. Bachor and P. K. Lam, "Polarization Squeezing of Continuous Variable Stokes Parameters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093601-093605 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Korolkova, G. Leuchs, R. Loudon, T. C. Ralph and Ch. Silberhorn, "Polarization squeezing and continuous-variable polarization entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 65, 052306-052318 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Hald, J. L. Sørensen, C. Schori and E. S. Polzik, "Spin Squeezed Atoms: A Macroscopic Entangled Ensemble Created by Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1319-1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. I. Cirac and P. Zoller, "Quantum Computations with Cold Trapped Ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4091-4094 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

A. S. Chirkin, A. A. Orlov and D. Yu. Paraschuk, "Quantum theory of two-mode interactions in optically anisotropic media with cubic nonlinearities: generation of quadrature- and polarizationsqueezed light," Quantum Electron 23, 870-874 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke and A. LaPorta, "Squeezed light-enhanced polarization interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153-2156 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley and H. Ward, Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1968

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interactions of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, G. S.

G. S. Agarwal and S. Chaturvedi, "Scheme to measure quantum Stokes parameters and their fluctuations and correlations," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 711-716 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Akamatsu, D.

Andersen, U. L.

Aoki, T.

Bachor, H.-A.

R. Schnabel, W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor and P. K. Lam, "Stokes operator squeezed continuous variable polarization states," Phys. Rev. A 67, 012316-012327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, H.-A. Bachor and P. K. Lam, "Polarization Squeezing of Continuous Variable Stokes Parameters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093601-093605 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowen, W. P.

R. Schnabel, W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor and P. K. Lam, "Stokes operator squeezed continuous variable polarization states," Phys. Rev. A 67, 012316-012327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, H.-A. Bachor and P. K. Lam, "Polarization Squeezing of Continuous Variable Stokes Parameters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093601-093605 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interactions of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bramati, A.

V. Josse, A. Dantan, L. Vernac, A. Bramati, M. Pinard and E. Giacobino, "Polarization squeezing with cold atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103601-103604 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchhave, P.

U. L. Andersen and P. Buchhave, "Polarization squeezing and entanglement produced by a frequency doubler," J. Opt. B. 5, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. L. Andersen and P. Buchhave, "Green bright squeezed light from a cw periodically poled KTP second harmonic generator," Opt. Express 10, 887-896 (2002).
[PubMed]

Chaturvedi, S.

G. S. Agarwal and S. Chaturvedi, "Scheme to measure quantum Stokes parameters and their fluctuations and correlations," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 711-716 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chirkin, A. S.

A. S. Chirkin, A. A. Orlov and D. Yu. Paraschuk, "Quantum theory of two-mode interactions in optically anisotropic media with cubic nonlinearities: generation of quadrature- and polarizationsqueezed light," Quantum Electron 23, 870-874 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cirac, J. I.

J. I. Cirac and P. Zoller, "Quantum Computations with Cold Trapped Ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4091-4094 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dantan, A.

V. Josse, A. Dantan, L. Vernac, A. Bramati, M. Pinard and E. Giacobino, "Polarization squeezing with cold atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103601-103604 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drever, R.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley and H. Ward, Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley and H. Ward, Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, A.

Gaber, T.

J. Heersink, T. Gaber, S. Lorenz, O.Gl¨ockl, N. Korolkova and G. Leuchs, "Polarization squeezing of intense pulses with a fiber-optic Sagnac interferometer,"Phys. Rev. A 68, 013815-013827 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giacobino, E.

V. Josse, A. Dantan, L. Vernac, A. Bramati, M. Pinard and E. Giacobino, "Polarization squeezing with cold atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103601-103604 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grangier, P.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke and A. LaPorta, "Squeezed light-enhanced polarization interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153-2156 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hald, J.

J. Hald, J. L. Sørensen, C. Schori and E. S. Polzik, "Spin Squeezed Atoms: A Macroscopic Entangled Ensemble Created by Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1319-1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley and H. Ward, Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Heersink, J.

J. Heersink, V. Josse, G. Leuchs, and U. L. Andersen, "Efficient polarization squeezing in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1192-1194, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Heersink, T. Gaber, S. Lorenz, O.Gl¨ockl, N. Korolkova and G. Leuchs, "Polarization squeezing of intense pulses with a fiber-optic Sagnac interferometer,"Phys. Rev. A 68, 013815-013827 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley and H. Ward, Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Josse, V.

J. Heersink, V. Josse, G. Leuchs, and U. L. Andersen, "Efficient polarization squeezing in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1192-1194, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Josse, A. Dantan, L. Vernac, A. Bramati, M. Pinard and E. Giacobino, "Polarization squeezing with cold atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103601-103604 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interactions of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Korolkova, N.

N. Korolkova, G. Leuchs, R. Loudon, T. C. Ralph and Ch. Silberhorn, "Polarization squeezing and continuous-variable polarization entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 65, 052306-052318 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley and H. Ward, Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kozuma, M.

Lam, P. K.

R. Schnabel, W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor and P. K. Lam, "Stokes operator squeezed continuous variable polarization states," Phys. Rev. A 67, 012316-012327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, H.-A. Bachor and P. K. Lam, "Polarization Squeezing of Continuous Variable Stokes Parameters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093601-093605 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LaPorta, A.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke and A. LaPorta, "Squeezed light-enhanced polarization interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153-2156 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuchs, G.

J. Heersink, V. Josse, G. Leuchs, and U. L. Andersen, "Efficient polarization squeezing in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1192-1194, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Korolkova, G. Leuchs, R. Loudon, T. C. Ralph and Ch. Silberhorn, "Polarization squeezing and continuous-variable polarization entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 65, 052306-052318 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

S. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Liu and K. Zhang, "Investigation of fundamental and second harmonic squeezed lights from a singly resonant PPKTP frequency doubler," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 4163-4168 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

S. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Liu and K. Zhang, "Investigation of fundamental and second harmonic squeezed lights from a singly resonant PPKTP frequency doubler," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 4163-4168 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, S.

J. Heersink, T. Gaber, S. Lorenz, O.Gl¨ockl, N. Korolkova and G. Leuchs, "Polarization squeezing of intense pulses with a fiber-optic Sagnac interferometer,"Phys. Rev. A 68, 013815-013827 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loudon, R.

N. Korolkova, G. Leuchs, R. Loudon, T. C. Ralph and Ch. Silberhorn, "Polarization squeezing and continuous-variable polarization entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 65, 052306-052318 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mølmer, K.

J. F. Sherson and K. Mølmer, "Polarization squeezing by optical Faraday rotation", Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 143602-143606 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munley, A.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley and H. Ward, Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Orlov, A. A.

A. S. Chirkin, A. A. Orlov and D. Yu. Paraschuk, "Quantum theory of two-mode interactions in optically anisotropic media with cubic nonlinearities: generation of quadrature- and polarizationsqueezed light," Quantum Electron 23, 870-874 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Paraschuk, D. Yu.

A. S. Chirkin, A. A. Orlov and D. Yu. Paraschuk, "Quantum theory of two-mode interactions in optically anisotropic media with cubic nonlinearities: generation of quadrature- and polarizationsqueezed light," Quantum Electron 23, 870-874 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pinard, M.

V. Josse, A. Dantan, L. Vernac, A. Bramati, M. Pinard and E. Giacobino, "Polarization squeezing with cold atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103601-103604 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polzik, E. S.

J. Hald, J. L. Sørensen, C. Schori and E. S. Polzik, "Spin Squeezed Atoms: A Macroscopic Entangled Ensemble Created by Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1319-1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, T. C.

R. Schnabel, W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor and P. K. Lam, "Stokes operator squeezed continuous variable polarization states," Phys. Rev. A 67, 012316-012327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Korolkova, G. Leuchs, R. Loudon, T. C. Ralph and Ch. Silberhorn, "Polarization squeezing and continuous-variable polarization entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 65, 052306-052318 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, R.

R. Schnabel, W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor and P. K. Lam, "Stokes operator squeezed continuous variable polarization states," Phys. Rev. A 67, 012316-012327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, H.-A. Bachor and P. K. Lam, "Polarization Squeezing of Continuous Variable Stokes Parameters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093601-093605 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schori, C.

J. Hald, J. L. Sørensen, C. Schori and E. S. Polzik, "Spin Squeezed Atoms: A Macroscopic Entangled Ensemble Created by Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1319-1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sherson, J. F.

J. F. Sherson and K. Mølmer, "Polarization squeezing by optical Faraday rotation", Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 143602-143606 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberhorn, Ch.

N. Korolkova, G. Leuchs, R. Loudon, T. C. Ralph and Ch. Silberhorn, "Polarization squeezing and continuous-variable polarization entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 65, 052306-052318 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke and A. LaPorta, "Squeezed light-enhanced polarization interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153-2156 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sørensen, J. L.

J. Hald, J. L. Sørensen, C. Schori and E. S. Polzik, "Spin Squeezed Atoms: A Macroscopic Entangled Ensemble Created by Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1319-1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, G.

Tanimura, T.

Treps, N.

R. Schnabel, W. P. Bowen, N. Treps, T. C. Ralph, H.-A. Bachor and P. K. Lam, "Stokes operator squeezed continuous variable polarization states," Phys. Rev. A 67, 012316-012327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vernac, L.

V. Josse, A. Dantan, L. Vernac, A. Bramati, M. Pinard and E. Giacobino, "Polarization squeezing with cold atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103601-103604 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, H.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley and H. Ward, Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yokoi, Y.

Yurke, B.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke and A. LaPorta, "Squeezed light-enhanced polarization interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153-2156 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, K.

S. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Liu and K. Zhang, "Investigation of fundamental and second harmonic squeezed lights from a singly resonant PPKTP frequency doubler," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 4163-4168 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Liu and K. Zhang, "Investigation of fundamental and second harmonic squeezed lights from a singly resonant PPKTP frequency doubler," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 4163-4168 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Zoller, P.

J. I. Cirac and P. Zoller, "Quantum Computations with Cold Trapped Ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4091-4094 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of the experimental setup to generate amplitude and polarization squeezing. PBS: polarizing beam splitter. DM: dichroic mirror. λ/2: half-wave plate. λ/4: quarter-wave plate. Pol. SQL: polarization squeezed light. θ: phase between pump and seed. The PPKTP1 crystal is the squeezing crystal while PPKTP2 is the birefringence compensating crystal.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

a) Bright amplitude squeezed. b) Ŝ 0 and Ŝ 1. c) Ŝ 2. d) Ŝ 3. The measurements are taken at 14 MHz in zero span mode with RBW=300 kHz and VBW=300 Hz. CB: coherent beam. SQL: amplitude squeezed light.

Equations (4)

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V S ̂ i V S ̂ j ε ijk S ̂ k 2 ,
V 0 = V 1 = α s 2 V s + + α p 2 V p +
V 2 ( θ ) = cos 2 ( θ ) ( α s 2 V p + + α p 2 V s + ) + sin 2 ( θ ) ( α s 2 V p + α p 2 V s )
V 3 ( θ ) = V 2 ( θ π 2 ) ,

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